فهرست مطالب

Enteric Pathogens - Volume:11 Issue: 4, Nov 2023

International Journal of Enteric Pathogens
Volume:11 Issue: 4, Nov 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/01/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mona Vafaiezadeh, Batool Sadeghi-Nejad*, Sedigheh Yusef Naanaie Pages 122-127
    Background

    The resistance of microorganisms, which is quickly expanding is the most serious problem of commercial antibiotics. Thus, it seems necessary to study and know about new antimicrobial agents. Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidiasis after Candida albicans. Resistance to azole antifungal drugs, especially fluconazole, has been repeatedly reported in fungal infections caused by C. glabrata. As a result, the treatment of this type of fungal infection has faced many problems, and high mortality in high-risk patients admitted to the hospital, especially immunocompromised patients, has been reported many times.

    Objectives

    This survey aimed at investigating the antimicrobial properties of lemon peel pineapple peels, and fruit extracts on some oral pathogens such as Streptococcus salivarius, Lactobacillus casei, C. albicans, and C. glabrata in vitro.

    Materials and Methods

     In this study the soaking method was used to obtain the extracts of the selected plants, and the well method in agar was utilized to check their antimicrobial properties.

    Results

    The results indicated that the lemon peel extract with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.56 mg/mL and pineapple fruit extract with a MIC of 50 mg/mL had the strongest and weakest antimicrobial properties on C. glabrata, respectively. In addition, the lemon peel extract had high antimicrobial properties on S. salivarius, with a MIC of 6.25 mg/mL. Pineapple peel and fruit extracts demonstrated moderate antimicrobial properties on L. casei with a MIC of 25 mg/mL.

    Conclusion

    Taking into account the antimicrobial properties of lemon and pineapple and their in vivo antimicrobial properties it may be possible to apply them as natural antimicrobial factors in the treatment of oral and dental infections and other infectious diseases.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity, Streptococcus Salivarius, Lactobacillus Casei, C. Albicans, Candida Glabrata, Citrus Limon, Pineapple
  • Ali Dadvar, Gholamreza Hashemi Tabar*, Mahdi Askari Badouei, Ali Nemati, Hadi Farsiani Pages 128-133
    Background

    Several prominent bacterial species known to induce diarrhea in human hosts encompass Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii, Escherichia fergusonii, and various Shigella spp. Given that these organisms contribute to the burden of food-borne illness, it is essential to rapidly and correctly identify them in a clinical laboratory or food microbiology unit to prevent their transmission and spread. These pathogens are often mistakenly identified because of their genetic and phenotypic similarities. Phenotypic tests are not highly discriminatory and are time-consuming. Whole-genome sequencing is expensive and unavailable in most clinical laboratories.

    Materials and Methods

    To simplify their rapid detection, we improved an available multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting three species-specific primers, including Eco (the main target for E. coli identification), Ealb (specific for E. albertii), and Efer (specific for E. fergusonii), by adding ipaH and lacY to additionally discriminate between the highly similar Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) organisms. Primers were tested on 65 defined isolates, including E. coli (n=29), Shigella spp. (n=26), E. fergusonii (n=1), E. albertii (n=1), and other Enterobacterales (n=8).

    Results

    All examined E. coli yielded two amplicons of the expected size (Eco and lacY), except for EIEC, which had three bands (Eco, lacY, and ipaH). All Shigella spp. yielded two amplicons (Eco and ipaH). E. fergusonii had only one band (Efer), and E. albertii also yielded one band (Ealb). Other Enterobacterales that were tested for validation did not demonstrate a product, except for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca (both lacY).

    Conclusion

    The assay was shown to be a way forward for rapid, specific, and cost-effective primary discrimination of these important or emerging enteropathogens that can be used in clinical and research laboratories.

    Keywords: Escherichia Coli, Escherichia Albertii, Escherichia Fergusonii, Shigella Spp., PCR, Diagnosis
  • Nafiseh Pakravan *, Hamid Chegini Pages 134-139
    Background

    As an inflammatory process, the emergence of autoimmunity in COVID-19 is likely through molecular mimicry. In autoimmune hypersensitivity-III, immune complex (IC) formation leads to complement activation, inflammation amplification, and tissue damage. Having accumulated IC, lesions in organs such as the lung with tiny vessels are formed, and the complement is depleted. As a systemic disease, COVID-19 has similar therapies and laboratory findings with hypersensitivity-III.

    Objectives

    This study was designed to evaluate complement level, serum electrophoretic pattern, and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in COVID-19 patients.

    Materials and Methods

    Blood was collected, and complement component 3 (C3), C4, 50% hemolytic complement (CH50), anti-GBM level, as well as serum electrophoresis were evaluated.

    Results

    C3/C4 levels were normal in 70% and increased in 30% of the subjects. Albumin was normal in 76.67% and decreased in 23.33% of the patients. Furthermore, alpha-1 and alpha-2 were normal in 33.33% and 53.33% of the patients, but their levels increased in 66.67% and 46.67% of patients, respectively. Moreover, gamma-band was normal in 70% and increased in 30% of the participants. Additionally, all of the subjects had normal beta-band, CH50, and anti-GBM.

    Conclusion

    The possibility of autoimmune hypersensitivity-III in the lung and kidneys is not understood. Furthermore, alpha band may be a candidate red flag showing changes from moderate to severe forms of the disease.

    Keywords: Complement, Anti-GBM, CH50, COVID-19, Serum-Protein-Electrophoresis
  • Mehdi Yolmeh, Reza Ahmadi, Asyeh Yolmeh, Ahmad Negahban, Javad Sadeghinasab, Abolghasem Siyadatpanah, Roghayeh Norouzi, Fatima Amponsah Fordjour, Eunice Kyaakyile Kuutiero, Zahra Taghipour, Ardalan Maleki Chegeni, Bahman Aghcheli, Saied Ghorbani * Pages 140-150

    Cytokines produced by T helper cells (Th cells) have essential roles in the body’s defense against viruses. Inadequate and high levels of specific cytokines can have side effects. This literature review article discusses the mechanisms of Th1 responses in SARS-CoV-2 and sheds light on the pivotal role of various inflammatory markers in COVID-19-related complications. The latest literary works relevant to this study were carefully chosen and evaluated. Extensive searches were conducted across multiple databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. After evaluating the existing literature, it has been observed that unregulated immune responses result in heightened inflammation. Recent studies have provided proof that the occurrence of cytokine storms can significantly contribute to the severity of COVID-19, ultimately resulting in multi-organ failure and loss of life. Factors that influence the Th1 cell response and its impact on COVID-19 severity include the timing of the immune response, pre-existing immune conditions, viral load, and genetic susceptibility. Ultimately, by effectively managing the cytokine storm, we have the potential to greatly reduce the number of deaths caused by this virus.

    Keywords: SARS-Cov-2, COVID-19, Immunopathogenesis, Th1, Cytokine Storm
  • Reza Arjmand *, Hedieh Soltani, Nafiseh Yousefi Manesh, Mohammad Ali Shahbabaie Pages 151-161
    Background

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systematic vasculitis that mainly affects children under five years old. Diagnosis is made based on clinical criteria.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to determine various atypical presentations of KD to prevent misdiagnosis.

    Methods

    A comprehensive systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines from 2012 to January 2023. Case reports and case series studies reporting the atypical presentations of KD, only in the English language, were included, and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist was utilized for case report studies as a quality assessment tool.

    Results

    Our findings revealed that patients with KD can present with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary, cardiovascular, mucocutaneous, neurological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, retropharyngeal, and renal complications. Macrophage activation syndrome and normal inflammatory biomarkers were rare manifestations. The most common cause of the patient’s death was cardiovascular manifestations, especially myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal involvement were the most prevalent.

    Conclusion

    Focusing on atypical and rare manifestations facilitates the correct diagnosis, leading to timely and appropriate management, improving outcomes, and reducing complications.

    Keywords: Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome, Kawasaki Disease, Atypical Presentation, Systematic Review
  • Bahareh Hajikhani, Parastoo Sharifian, Mahshid Safavi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Fatemeh Sameni, Reza Arjmand, Saba Sayyari, _ Shahrooz Yazdani, Masoud Dadashi, * Pages 162-177
    Background

     Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adolescents. Identifying the incidence and severity of this infection in individuals under the age of 18 can assist in improving the treatment and prevention process.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of M. pneumoniae infection in young patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Methods

    Three major databases (Medline (via PubMed), Embase, and Web of Science) were searched for research about M. pneumoniae infection in children. STATA (version 14) software was used to interpret the data.

    Results

    Seventy-seven studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria to evaluate the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection among children. The prevalence of this infection in young patients was 22.5%. The results revealed that children and adolescents in the age range of 10‒18 years old had the highest prevalence of M. pneumoniae (23.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=6.7‒39.4), followed by the 5‒10-year-old age group (21.6%, 95% CI=17.9‒25.3] and the under 5-year group (20.9%, 95% CI=16.7‒25.1).

    Conclusion

    The global rate of M. pneumoniae infection has been gradually increasing since 2001. Finally, more extensive studies on the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infections in children throughout the world are needed to assess its exact prevalence and antibiotic resistance trend.

    Keywords: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, Child, Infections, Meta-Analysis
  • Amir Bairami * Pages 178-179