فهرست مطالب

Epidemiology and Health System Journal - Volume:11 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

Epidemiology and Health System Journal
Volume:11 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/03/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Maryam Khani, Hamid Salehiniya, Mohammadreza Miri, Ensiyeh Norozi* Pages 1-6
    Background and aims

     Reducing the burden of mental health disorders can be achieved by increasing mental health literacy. The purpose of the current study was to investigate mental health literacy regarding postpartum depression among pregnant women in eastern Iran.

    Methods

     This cross-sectional study was conducted on 277 pregnant women referred to health centers of Sarayan City (eastern Iran) in 2022. A standard health literacy questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19.0 using independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and regression analysis. The significance level was set at 0.05.

    Results

     The mean age of participants was 20.28±1.5 years. In total, 96% had a diploma or a lower education level, and 59.6% had an average monthly income of less than 5 million Tomans. The mean total mental health literacy score regarding postpartum depression was 110.96±20.28 (score range: 31-155). The highest score was related to the attitude towards postpartum depression (3.73±0.91), and the lowest was related to the field of awareness of health services (3.09±1.36). The regression analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between mental health literacy (P<0.0001) and income (B=0.4) and education (B=0.3).

    Conclusion

     The findings showed that the pregnant women participating in the research had an average level of mental health literacy. Since low health literacy prevents the correct understanding of health messages, it is recommended that mental health literacy should be increased and pregnant women should be empowered through education, especially mothers with lower income and educational levels.

    Keywords: Mental Health Literacy, Depression, Postpartum Period, Pregnant Women
  • Maryam Jalali, Navid Reza Ghasemi, Samane Nematolahi*, Najaf Zare Pages 7-12
    Background and aims

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of mortality among women. Early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment. This study applied suitable data mining methods that provide rules and present influential prognostic factors on the survival time of BC patients.

    Methods

    The dataset consisted of 1574 women diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2012 at the Cancer Registry Center of Nemazi hospital in Fars Province, Iran. Patients were classified based on prognostic factors using three popular data mining methods, including decision tree (J48), Naïve Bayes (NB), and nominal logistic regression (NLR). The Weka software was considered to compare these methods using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy metrics. The outcome of the study was the median survival time, which was categorized into three classes.

    Results

    In total, 212 women (13.5%) died of BC, whose mean age was 49.74 years old. Overall survival rates at 2, 3, 5, and 10 years were 0.98, 0.94, 0.87, and 0.76, respectively. The mean and median survival times were 4.81 and 4.27 years. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for J48 and NB were 0.480, 0.570, and 0.572, as well as 0.483, 0.610, and 0.584, respectively. In addition, the corresponding values were 0.488, 0.584, and 0.579 for NLR, respectively. Further, J48 showed that the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was the most influential prognostic factor.

    Conclusion

    This paper sought to improve the accuracy of BC classification using data mining methods. Comparing multiple prediction models gave us an insight into the relative prediction abilities of different data mining methods. The results suggested NB as the best classifier due to its higher accuracy and specificity. Finally, J48 identified the NPI as the most effective prognostic factor.

    Keywords: Breast Neoplasm, Data Mining Techniques, Prognostic Factors
  • Azeez Adeboye* Pages 13-21
    Background and aims

     Breastfeeding is the most desirable nutritional source for 0‒6 month-old infants. The initiation of early and exclusive breastfeeding is essential as a robust primary health prevention strategy for many children. This study aimed to examine the prediction of factors associated with early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding in South Africa.

    Methods

     The required data were extracted from the South African Demographic and Health Survey 2016. A total of 3548 respondents were included in the analysis. A multivariable logistic model was applied in the analysis to examine factors associated with breastfeeding practices.

    Results

     About 63.3% of the respondents imitated breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth, and 31.2% were exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months. The results demonstrated that maternal age (Odds ratio [OR]=2.49, 95% CI=1.61‒3.86, P<0 .001), antenatal care (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.67‒0.95, P=0.009), postnatal care (AOR=0.82, 95% CI=0.68‒0.99, P=0.036), and a child’s health check before leaving the hospital (AOR=0.69, 95% CI=0.56‒0.86, P<0.001) were significantly associated with low initiation of breastfeeding. Maternal age (AOR=0.44, 0.28‒0.69, P=0.001), birth order (AOR=1.71, 95% CI=1.37‒2.14, P=0.001), and child’s health check (AOR=0.63, 0.41‒0.96, P=0.033) were significantly associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding.

    Conclusion

     A low proportion of women practice delayed breastfeeding initiation. Hence, the findings revealed that exclusive health education and counselling should be provided for mothers before, during, and after pregnancy for greater changes in the direction of the relationship between mothers’ breastfeeding initiation and performance.

    Keywords: Baby Nutrition, Breastfeeding Initiation, Breastfeeding Practices, Exclusive Breastfeeding, Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding
  • Elahe Elyasi, Manoochehr Karami, Zahra Cheraghi, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Mohammad Mirzaei, Salman Khazaei* Pages 22-28
    Background and aims

    COVID-19 has emerged as a novel pandemic, emphasizing the crucial role of prevention and quarantine measures. Compliance with these measures becomes particularly important for individuals in close contact with COVID-19-infected individuals. This study aimed to investigate the level of quarantine compliance among individuals who had close contact with COVID-19 patients in Hamadan province, as well as identify predictors associated with compliance.

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted between March and July 2022, involving 350 individuals who had close contact with COVID-19 patients in Hamadan province, Iran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was employed to gather participants’ demographic and clinical information, as well as their adherence to quarantine principles, through a 7-question assessment. The collected data were statistically analyzed using Stata software, version 16.

    Results

    The study participants had a mean age of 40.23±12.91 years. The rate of good compliance with quarantine measures among individuals in close contact with COVID-19 patients was found was 58.66%. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that men in close contact with COVID-19 patients had a 1.66 times higher chance of complying with quarantine compared to women (odds ratio [OR]=1.66, 95% CI=1.06, 2.56), P=0.025). Additionally, individuals over the age of 60 who had close contact with COVID-19 patients exhibited a 2.28 times higher chance of non-compliance with quarantine (OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.17, 4.45, P=0.015).

    Conclusion

    Demographic characteristics could significantly influence compliance with quarantine principles among individuals in close contact with COVID-19 patients. Addressing these factors is crucial for effective health planning and patient education in the country.

    Keywords: Close Contact, Quarantine, COVID-19
  • Fatemeh Mehravar, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Mohammadali Vakili, Saharnaz Nedjat* Pages 29-35
    Background and aims

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is frequently seen as a significant indicator of mental health outcomes. This study aimed to determine the mediating role of subjective social status (SSS) in the association of SES and mental health among the employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).

    Methods

    This cross-sectional research involved the analysis of data collected from 4461 TUMS employees using a two-step structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The study examined the impact of SES on mental health issues, specifically symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. SES was assessed as a composite index, and then each indicator was evaluated separately. SSS was considered as a potential mediator using the MacArthur scale, which was converted to a five-point Likert scale. The analysis utilized a two-step SEM approach in STATA version 14.0 with maximum likelihood estimation.

    Results

    The majority of participants in the study were female (60.65%), and the mean (±SD) age of the participants was 42.21±8.72 years. The analysis revealed that the composite SES index had a standardized indirect effect of -0.05 on mental health through SSS. SSS accounted for 27.78% of the association between the composite SES index and mental health among TUMS employees (27.27% in males and 22.23% in females).

    Conclusion

    The results of the study indicated that a lower SES may impact the development of mental health issues, indicating a relationship between SES and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.

    Keywords: Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, Subjective Social Status, TUMS Employee’Scohort Study
  • Atefeh Ghafari, Rezvan Arash, Tina Jafari*, Ali Ahmadi, Elahe Tavassoli, Ali Delgarm Shams Abadi Pages 36-42
    Background and aims

    Diabetes is a common non-communicable and metabolic disease, and its prevalence is predicted to double by 2045. It is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular complications and mortality. The study investigated the association between egg consumption and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a cohort of Iranian adults.

    Methods

    This study compared 261 cases of T2D with 261 controls matched for age and features and assessed their dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. The inclusion criterion involved the absence of concurrent chronic diseases apart from T2D.

    Results

    Based on the results, the participants’ average age was 53.32 years, with a slightly higher proportion of females in both groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that increased consumption of eggs is associated with a diminished risk of developing T2D (P=0.01).

    Conclusion

    The study suggests that egg consumption may have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and regional and genetic differences may influence the relationship between egg consumption and T2D. It calls for further longitudinal and interventional studies to confirm the findings.

    Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, Egg Consumption, Cholesterol, Glycemic Control, Food Frequencyquestionnaire, Cohort Study
  • Ahmadreza Amiri, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Ali Ahmadi, Masoume Sadat Mousavi* Pages 43-46

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with arthritis rheumatoid using a screening program among Shahrekord cohort study population. The present analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 1043 participants of the PERSIAN cohort study in Shahrekord, Iran. The prevalence of rheumatic disorder (RD) was 57.5% (95% CI: 53-62 %). Females were more likely to develop RD than males (odds ratio [OR]=2.83, P<0.001). Additionally, with increasing age (OR=1.03, P<0.001) and body mass index (OR=1.03, P<0.001), the chance of developing RD increased. Moreover, the chance of developing RD in males with industrial jobs was higher than in males with non-industrial jobs (OR=1.53, P=0.07). The prevalence of RD in this study was high. The female gender, old age, and obesity were among the factors related to RD in this study. As a result, public education is necessary to modify the behavioral pattern and lifestyle.

    Keywords: Rheumatological Disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, COPCORD Questionnaire, Screening, Cohort
  • Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani* Page 47