فهرست مطالب

فصلنامه نقد ادبی
پیاپی 65 (بهار 1403)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/03/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • سخن سردبیر* صفحات 5-11

    از آغاز دهه هفتاد تا کنون که در آستانه قرن پانزدهم شمسی هستیم  ادبیات شناسی فارسی در دانشگاه های ایران در قیاس با نیم قرن پیش از آن، فراز و نشیبهای زیادی را از سرگذرانده است. دیدگاه ها و نگرشها به مسائل گوناگون ادبیات، به تنوع و تعدد شاخه های مطالعات ادبی انجامیده است و از سویی پژوهش ادبی با دیگر رشته های علوم انسانی پیوندهایی ولو سست و ناپایدار پیدا کرده است.
    دستاوردهای ادبیات شناسی در سه دهه اخیر بر خلاف آنچه منتقدان و آسیب شناسان طرح می کنند چندان نومیدکننده نیست. در این سالها پژوهش های زیادی در قالب رساله های دکتری، مقالات پژوهشی و دانشنامه ای، تک نگاریهای دقیق درباره آثار و مولفان منتشر شده است. یافته های پژوهشی اخیر، پاره ای از  روایتهای مشهور ادبیات شناسان پیشین را که حکم نظریه مرجع در ادبیات شناسی و مطالعات ادبیات فارسی پیدا کرده بود مشکوک ساخته یا از اعتبار انداخته است.

    کلیدواژگان: کلان روایت، ادبیات شناسی خرد، ادبیات شناسی کلان، نظریه مرجع
  • عبدالله آلبوغبیش* صفحات 13-47

    مطالعات ادبی در پرتو اندیشه پساساختارگرا از منظری متفاوت متن را واکاوی می کنند. پساساختارگرایی ضمن رها شدن از چهارچوب تصلب یافته ساختارگرایی، خوانشی واسازانه از متن به دست می دهد و معنا و گفتمان ادعایی آن را به پرسش می گیرد. در این راهبرد مطالعاتی، پژوهشگر از رهگذر بازشناسی تناقضات نهفته در متن، از دوگانه های پایگانی ساختارگرایی فاصله گرفته، از معنای آشکار آن مرکزیت زدایی می کند و معنای خاموش گشته را به سخن می آورد. کاربست چنین راهبردی در واکاوی متون فارسی می تواند ابعاد ویژه ای را در باب آن ها و ساختارهای فکری نویسندگان آشکار سازد. پژوهش حاضر بر بنیاد این اندیشه و با اتخاذ رویکردی استنادی تاریخی در گردآوری داده ها، داستان کوتاه «حضور» از مجموعه داستان دیوان سومنات نوشته ابوتراب خسروی را واسازی نموده است. بنابر پژوهش پیش رو، متن «حضور» به رغم عنوان آشکار آن، رو به غیاب دارد و امر غایب در آن به سطح حضور فرامی رود. تزلزل در رابطه متناظر دال و مدلولی و درنتیجه، ناپایداری معنامندی دال ها، ناآغازی در متن، باژگونگی کارکردها و موقعیت های دال های متن و نام زدایی از شخصیت ها بخشی از مصادیق مرکززدایی از گفتمان مرکزیت یافته متن قلمداد می شوند. در پرتو این رابطه ناپایدار، دال های کنشگر در متن دچار تعویق و گسست از معنای نهایی شده اند و بدین ترتیب، انکسار و پراکنش معنا در متن رقم خورده است؛ برونداد چنین وضعیتی آپوریا یا تنگنا در پذیرش معنای قطعی متن است، به طوری که خواننده دیگر قادر به تحدید معنای نهایی نیست. جابه جایی حضور و غیاب و ناپایداری معنا حتی بر تمهیدات متن و موقعیت های مکانی شخصیت ها نیز سایه انداخته است و متن از درون خود را نقض کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: پساساختارگرایی، واسازی، ناپایداری معنا، حضور، ابوتراب خسروی
  • توحید تیموری* صفحات 49-91

    شهریار مندنی‏پور از نسل نویسندگان معاصری است که به تجربه‏گرایی در ساختار و فرم پرداخته است. برای همین، خواننده در داستان‏های او با فضاهایی مواجه است که درواقع ترکیبی از فضاهای مختلف و در عین حال ناهمگون می‏باشد. پرداخت به این نوع فضاها را به صورت نظری و گاه عملی می‏توان در رویکرد میشل فوکو مشاهده کرد که او آن ها را فضاهای هتروتوپیایی یا دگرسان می‏نامد. در همین راستا، این مطالعه به شرح این نوع فضاها در آرای فوکو و دیگر متفکران می‏پردازد که در این زمینه اندیشه ورزیده‏اند تا خواننده آگاهی عمیقی از فضاها به دست آورد. سپس مطالعه حاضر، جستاری به بحث این فضاها در آثار مندنی‏پور مومیا و عسل، ماه نیمروز، شرق بنفشه و آبی ماورای بحار می‏زند که از معدود نویسندگان ایرانی است که چنین تجربه‏ای در داستان‏نویسی داشته است. این مطالعه به این نتیجه گیری می‏رسد که مندنی‏پور با مطرح کردن چنین فضاهایی در داستان‏های خود به حقیقت مکتوم در ورای ساختار همگن تک فضایی اشاره دارد و چنین فضاهایی به شخصیت‏ها کمک می‏کنند از محدودیت‏های فضاهای همگن فراتر رفته و طرحی نو دراندازند.

    کلیدواژگان: جغرافیا، فضا، مکان، فضاهای هتروتوپیایی (دگرسان)، گوراب، بیابانه، گورستان، سینما، کافه، فضای ادبیات
  • رقیه بهادری، فاطمه صادقی نقدعلی علیا* صفحات 93-133

    ادبیات کودک به دلیل شکاف زمانی ای که بین کودکی نویسنده و مخاطب کودک وجود دارد، ماهیتا ادبیاتی دوسویه است. یکی از رویکردهای نقد ادبی که قادر است این دوگانگی را نشان دهد، نقد پساساختارگرایی و رویکرد ساخت زدایی دریدایی است. در این پژوهش با به کارگیری این رویکرد، برخی آثار تالیفی و خلاقانه محمدرضا شمس، یکی از نویسندگان مطرح و تاثیرگذار ادبیات کودک و نوجوان بررسی شده است. شیوه پژوهش توصیفی تفسیری است و انتخاب آثار به صورت نمونه گیری هدفمند انجام شده است. مولفه های ساخت زدایی، از جمله تقابل های دوگانه، تصمیم ناپذیری، سرگشتگی، بینامتنیت، مولف زدایی و تکرارپذیری را به خوبی در آثار شمس می توان بازشناخت که در این میان، بینامتنیت جایگاهی ویژه دارد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که آثار محمدرضا شمس با بهره بردن از این ویژگی ها، خوانش را به سوی تکثر معنا و زایش مدام دلالت، هدایت می کند. سیالیت بینامتنی و لایه های چندگانه معنایی در این آثار حاکی از آن هستند که مخاطب پنهان متن، نه تنها مصرف کننده ای ایستا نیست، بلکه در برساختن معنای متن نقشی موثر و پویا ایفا می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: پساساختارگرایی، دریدا، ساخت زدایی، ادبیات کودک و نوجوان، محمدرضا شمس
  • امیرحسین زنجانبر* صفحات 135-161

    روایت شناسی شناختی به مطالعه عوامل تداعی کننده و تفسیرساز متن می پردازد. یکی از شناختارهای تفسیرگر متن، تفکر خلاف واقع است. هنگامی که کنش یکی از شخصیت های داستان به پیامدی ناگوار یا خوشایند می انجامد؛ پیام اخلاقی داستان از مقایسه واقعیت موجود با سناریوی خلاف واقع، استخراج می شود. یعنی خواننده به طور خودکار سناریوی خلاف واقعی را تصور می کند که می توانست به جای واقعیت حاضر اتفاق بیفتد و مانع وقوع حادثه مطلوب یا نامطلوب موجود شود. این پژوهش با روش تحلیلی توصیفی و با مطالعه موردی چهار کتاب قصه در گروه سنی «الف» و «ب» انجام شده است: «عموگرگه» از مجموعه افسانه های ایتالیایی دست اسکلت (کالوینو، 1401)، تربچه خانم (سرمشقی، 1394)، یخی که عاشق خورشید شد (موزونی، 1398) و بز زنگوله پا (شاملو، 1398). این قصه ها به صورت هدفمند و به خاطر انطباقشان با انواع تفکر خلاف واقع انتخاب شده اند. مقاله پیش رو بر آن است که با رهیافت روایت شناسی شناختی به چگونگی کارکرد تعلیمی طرحواره تفکر خلاف واقع در قصه ها پاسخ دهد. این طرحواره از منظر جهت به دو جهت «به سوی بالا» و «به سوی پایین» و از منظر ساختار به دو ساختار «افزایشی» و «کاهشی» و از منظر معیار ارجاع به سه معیار «خودارجاع»، «دیگرارجاع» و «بدون ارجاع» دسته بندی می شود. پژوهش حاضر ضمن دسته بندی قصه ها براساس انواع تفکر خلاف واقع نشان می دهد جهت روبه بالا با رویکرد سلبی و ادبیات تعلیمی تحذیری همبستگی دارد و جهت روبه پایین با رویکرد ایجابی و ادبیات تعلیمی ترغیبی.

    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات تعلیمی، داستان کودک، روایت شناسی شناختی، تفکر خلاف واقع
  • سعید مهری* صفحات 163-190

    شخصیت ابومسلم خراسانی، به صورت‏های گوناگونی در متون بازتاب یافته است. در منابع حدیثی، غالبا ابومسلم به عنوان کسی که مخالف امامان شیعه بوده و امامان وی را طرد کرده‏ بودند، معرفی شده است. در متون جدلی کلامی، ابومسلم منتقم آل علی و براندازنده سب امامان و نابودکننده امویان معرفی شده است، اما در داستان‏های عامیانه و به خصوص روایت‏هایی که امروزه با نام ابومسلم‏نامه می‏شناسیم، ابومسلم نه تنها شخصی شیعی، بلکه از شیعیان خاص است که تعالیم معنوی ائمه را هم دریافت کرده و خود اهل طریقت است و صاحب کرامات. همین تصویر از ابومسلم، از طریق سنت قصه‏خوانی در محافل صوفیانه نیز وارد شد و بعدها جزو ارکان مهم دعوت خانقاه صفوی قرار گرفت. پس از به قدرت رسیدن صفویان، صوفیان صفوی با ترویج قصه‏های ابومسلم در میان مردم، هم اهداف قیام صفویان را زنده نگه می‏داشتند و هم بر مریدان خود می‏افزودند. فقیهان دربار صفوی، در تلاش برای کاستن از قدرت صوفیان، نخست متوجه این امر شدند و به تحریم قصه‏خوانی و تخریب شخصیت ابومسلم خراسانی پرداختند. در این مقاله نشان داده‏ شده که تحریم قصه و قصه‏خوانی و مخدوش کردن چهره ابومسلم، یکی از گام‏های اساسی فقیهان برای مقابله با گسترش تصوف در دوره صفوی بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ابومسلم نامه، قصه خوانی، فقیهان، نقد تصوف
  • سیده فاطمه حسینی، محمود فتوحی رودمعجنی* صفحات 191-243

    این پژوهش با استناد به اشعار دو دستنویس 1059 ق و 1083 ق دیوان صائب تبریزی، بیان می دارد که سبک شعری صائب پس از بازگشت از هند، تحولاتی را از سر گذرانده است، به گونه ای که دو طرز متفاوت در اشعار او قابل شناسایی است. این پژوهش با سبک شناسی بلاغی اشعار دو دستنویس، سیر تحول سبک صائب را ترسیم می کند و نشان می دهد که شاخصه های بلاغی شعر صائب در این دو طرز، تغییر یافته و از بیان استعاری به سوی نازک خیالی و بیان تمثیلی گراییده است. سپس به شاخصه هایی می پردازد که فردیت سبک صائب را نمایان می کند و درنهایت، عوامل موثر در تغییر طرز شعر صائب را بررسی می کند و بر این نکته تاکید دارد که تحول سبکی شعر صائب همسو با تغییر نگرش هستی شناختی او پدید آمده است.

    کلیدواژگان: صائب تبریزی، سبک شناسی، طرز تازه، طرز نازک خیال، سبک هندی
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  • Speech Chief Editor* Pages 5-11

    The achievements of literary studies over the past three decades have been substantial, contrary to the assertions of critics and detractors. During this period, a significant body of research has been published in the form of doctoral dissertations, scholarly articles, and comprehensive monographs on literary works and authors.
    The divergent attitudes towards literature and literary studies have given rise to two distinct approaches: micro and macro literary studies. This article examines the predominance of micro-literary studies and the absence of macro-literary studies in the recent three decades. Furthermore, it acknowledges that recent research findings have called into question or discredited some of the renowned narratives and theories of reference in Persian literature. The article elucidates why, despite the wealth of research, a comprehensive theory of reference has yet to emerge in the field of literature.

    Keywords: Micro Literary Studies, Macro Literary Studies, Great Narrative, Dominant Theory
  • Abdullah Albughobaish* Pages 13-47

    As a different strategy for analyzing the texts, deconstruction violates and decentralizes their explicit meaning, bringing out the hidden meanings by finding the hidden contradictions in the texts. The application of such a strategy in the analysis of Persian texts can reveal special aspects of them and approach the intellectual structure of the authors. This paper revolves around deconstructing the short story “Hozour” (Presence) written by the contemporary Iranian writer Abuturab Khosrawi. Based on the study, there is a deconstructive relationship between presence and absence in the whole text. Despite the obvious title of the story, which is "Presence", the central idea is absence and marginalized matter in it reaches the level of presence. The instability in the corresponding relationship between the signifier and the signified and then the lack of meaning of the signifiers, the lack of initiation in the text, the reversal of the functions and positions of the signifiers in the text, and the lack of the names of the characters are considered as examples of decentralization from the centralized discourse of the text. In the light of this unstable relationship, the signifiers in the text have been disconnected from the final meaning, and thus, the meaning has been dispersed; one of the results of such situation is an aporia in accepting the definitive meaning of the text, so that the reader is no longer able to determine the final meaning. Displacement of presence and absence and the instability of meaning have cast a shadow even on the descriptions of the text and the locations of the characters and have violated the text from within.

    Introduction

    As a different strategy for analyzing the texts, deconstruction violates and decentralizes their explicit meaning, bringing out the hidden meanings by finding the hidden contradictions in the texts. The application of such a strategy in the analysis of Persian texts can reveal special aspects of them and approach the intellectual structure of the authors. This paper revolves around deconstructing the short story “Hozour” (Presence) written by the contemporary Iranian writer Abuturab Khosrawi. Based on the study, there is a deconstructive relationship between presence and absence in the whole text. Despite the obvious title of the story, which is "Presence", the central idea is absence and marginalized matter in it reaches the level of presence. The instability in the corresponding relationship between the signifier and the signified and then the lack of meaning of the signifiers, the lack of initiation in the text, the reversal of the functions and positions of the signifiers in the text, and the lack of the names of the characters are considered as examples of decentralization from the centralized discourse of the text. In the light of this unstable relationship, the signifiers in the text have been disconnected from the final meaning, and thus, the meaning has been dispersed; one of the results of such situation is an aporia in accepting the definitive meaning of the text, so that the reader is no longer able to determine the final meaning. Displacement of presence and absence and the instability of meaning have cast a shadow even on the descriptions of the text and the locations of the characters and have violated the text from within.

    Findings and Conclusion

    The short story "Hozour" (Presence) was analyzed constructively. The researcher questioned the supposed message of the text by noting the contradictions. As a result, it was concluded that the main theme of the story is not "presence" but "absence". This conclusion may change with further readings and interpretations by other researchers. The text clearly presents a duality, highlighting the ownership of the house by the husband and wife, and the absence of ownership by the old woman. Furthermore, it emphasizes the superiority of the husband and wife over the old woman regarding the house. However, the reader finds out through the deconstruction of the story that it is possible to destabilize such a duality due to the suppressed elements in the text. This issue is manifested both in the reversal of the indicative function of the title and in other examples that were discussed. The aforementioned analysis suggests that the title of the text does not convey a straightforward interpretation of "presence"; instead, it conceals an underlying connotation that the text attempted to conceal. In addition to the semantic instability and due to dissemination in the text, the difference and distance of the apparent meaning from the hidden meanings and due to aporia, instability has been formed in the functions, situations, techniques, devices and literary possibilities of the text. Despite asserting ownership of the house, the characters could not establish a relationship with their neighbors and friends, and at the same time, having the key as a tool to resolve the conflicts could not prove the truth of their claim. The constable also found an opposite function and deviated from the function that the husband and wife expected from him and decentered them. As a result, what was presented as the alleged conversation between husband and wife was neutralized and questioned by the same devices used. Other examples of this semantic displacement include the lack of character names, the contradictory meaning of lighting, and the marginalized but central position in the text. Through the constructive study of Persian literary texts, we can get other meanings that will be effective in understanding the remaining aspects of the texts. Moreover, such a strategy can also bring us closer to the deep intellectual structures of the authors.

    Keywords: Poststructuralism, Deconstruction, Instability Of Meaning, Presence, Abuturab Khosrawi
  • Tohid Teymouri* Pages 49-91

    Shahriar Mandanipour is one of the contemporary writers who was experimental in structure and form. For this reason, the reader is challenged with spaces in his stories that are essentially an arrangement of mixed and various spaces. Dealing with this type of space in a theoretical and sometimes practical way can be observed in Michel Foucault's approach, which he calls it heterotopian or other spaces. In this regard, this study first describes these types of spaces through writings of Foucault and other thinkers who have explored in this field. Then, it analyzes these spaces in the fiction of Mandanipour including Mummy and Honey, Midday Moon, Violet Orient, and Ultramarine Blue. This study concludes that Mandanipour, by bringing up such spaces in his stories, points to the hidden truth behind the homogenous structure of one space. Moreover, introducing a new way and knowledge beyond the limitations in homogeneous spaces, heterotopian spaces help the characters from the limitations not only in understanding themselves but also the world.

    Keywords: Geography, Space, Place, Heterotopian Spaces (Other Spaces), Literary Space
  • Roghaye Bahadori, Fatemeh Sadeghi Naghdali Olya* Pages 93-133

    Due to the temporal gap between the author's childhood and that of the child reader, children's literature defies age limits and thus exemplifies crossover literature. Post-structural criticism and deconstruction are amongst critical approaches that can spotlight such contradictory gaps in a text. Mohammad-Reza Shams is a distinguished and influential icon in contemporary Iranian children's literature. In this research, a selection of his works has been examined by using Derrida's deconstructive approach. This research has applied a descriptive and interpretive method with purposeful sampling. Deconstructive features such as binary oppositions, indecidability, aporia, intertextuality, deauthorization, and iterability have been traced in Shams' works. Intertextuality seems to be the dominant deconstructive feature in his fictional world. The findings of this research indicate that Shams' works expose readers to multiple meaning and confront them with the unending chain of signifiers. Intertextual fluidity and multiple layers of meaning in Shams' fiction reveal that the implied reader of his works far from being a passive consumer of the text, is actively involved in the process of meaning construction.

    Introduction

    What makes "children literature" different from "adult literature" is the role and position of the audience in children's literature. The creators of literature that is characterized by the childishness of the audience are adults who maintain their authoritative relationship in the work unintentionally. This point will inevitably lead to two-sidedness of children's literature. One of the methods that can provide a proper analysis of children's literature texts and respond to the dual confrontations of children's literature and at the same time show its depth is Derrida's deconstruction.
    Using the method of deconstruction in the analysis of literary texts does not mean the destruction of meaning, but the concept of describing the instability and pluralism on which the foundations of the texts are formed. In this research, we intended to examine the selected works of Mohammad Reza Shams, with a poststructuralist reading and Derrida's deconstruction approach. He is one of the prominent authors in the field of children's and adolescent literature. Mohammad-Reza Shams has tried to write differently in his creative works by avoiding stereotypes.

    Data and Method

    In this research, we examine Derrida's poststructuralist and deconstructionist concepts, including binary oppositions, indecidability, aporia, intertextuality, deauthorization, and iterability and recognize these features and concepts in the selected works of Mohammadreza Shams' works. Mohammadreza Shams has implemented some of Derrida's theories in his creative works.
    For this purpose, after the explanation of post-structuralism and Derrida's deconstruction, we have studied the poststructuralist reading of four works written by Mohammad Reza Shams for the teenage age group, from the two perspectives of indication and narrative, in order to show how they deconstruct themselves. These works, which are well attuned to the criticism of Derrida's deconstruction, include: Divāneh and Chāh; Sobhāne-ye Khiāl; Man, Man-e Kale Gonde; Man Zan-Bābā o Damāq-e Bābā.

    Results and Discussion

    The post-structuralist reading of texts can be done from the two perspectives of indication and narration. In the deconstruction of signification, the endless reference of signifier brings about the plurality of meaning and the birth of meaning; therefore, it includes the components of binary oppositions, indecidability, aporia, all of which indicate the absence of ultimate meaning. The deconstruction of binary oppositions questions the concepts derived from metaphysical thinking and creates a new interpretation. In the studied works of Shams, the author has tried to present a different and new interpretation by collapsing the opposites of sane/insane, man/his shadow, death/life, text/margin and man/woman.
    indecidability opens the way for any decision and gives it the possibility to be different. In the works of Shams, there are many characters who are stuck in their affairs and do not have the ability to make decisions, and this inability sometimes involves the narrator as well. Aporia are the blind spots that prevent definitive meaning, and the text remains uninterpretable, like secrets that remain unsealed and questions that are never answered. In the works of Shams, there are many behaviors that have no reason and relationships whose nature is ambiguous. There are many questions that remain unanswered.
    In the deconstruction of the narrative, the narrative is just one of the infinity of narratives that are being built and destroyed one after another. Shams usually does not use linear narration and cause and effect logic in his works, and the circular structure is usual in his works. In his works, we are usually faced with several narratives, and sometimes a part of the narrative can be removed without adversely affected the entire narrative; the seeming insignificance of the story itself and the importance of its plot and how to narrate it by choosing a non-linear, complex and irregular method are some of the features that perceived in some of Shams' narratives. The components that are investigated in this context are intertextuality, de-authorization and iterability.
    In general, intertextuality means that no speech or writing creates meaning by itself, but its meaning is created by referring to other speeches and writings. The intertextuality in Shams' works are generally references to proverbs, folk tales, stories of prophets, characters from the Shāhnāmeh and other literary works, sometimes they refer to other works of the author himself.
    In de-authorization, attention is directed from the author to the text. Therefore, it is no longer possible to claim that the text has a center or a point that can be considered the origin; the text is a combination of pre-existing fragments of text. The existence of this point of view in post-structuralism degrades the position of the author. Sometimes, by leaving the work of art incomplete or expressing the inability to create, the artist himself attested the invalidity of the author's role; In this situation, the text ends in a way that gives the reader the opportunity of different readings, or in the text, different endings are put in front of the reader to choose from. We see both modes in the works of Shams. In all these stories, we are facing an open ending. Sometimes this open ending is clearly stated in the text.
    Iterability is the repetitions that are both similar to the repeated sign and different from it and make the reader continue reading; each repetition produces a difference. It can be said that Shams intends to establish a link between the scattered pieces of the narrative by bringing the repeated scenes, dialogues or events in his long stories. In addition to recurring factors in a story, some scenes or themes are repeated in several works of Shams, which is a sign of infinity. The existence of this feature keeps the narratives from being straightforward and definiteness.

    Conclusion

    The temporal gap between the author and the audience leads to two-sidedness of children's literature and adds to its complexity; however, this duality itself can cause binary oppositions and multiple meanings. One of the approaches of literary criticism that can show this duality is post-structuralism and Derrida's deconstructive approach. In this way of reading, new meanings and interpretations of the text show themselves and it leads to pluralization and generation of meaning. Mohammad-Reza Shams, one of the prominent writers in the field of children and adolescence literature, has tried to write differently in his authored and creative works by avoiding stereotypes.
    In addition to the fact that the presence of components of deconstruction in the works causes multiplicity, discontinuity, and birth of meaning, the structure of the stories is also generally in a form that allows the reader the possibility of different readings. Sometimes the author gives several endings for the stories and gives the reader the right to choose. In the most cases, by leaving the narrative unfinished, he gives the reader the chance to determine the end of the narrative at his own will.
    The plurality of meanings in Shams' works provides the possibility of several different interpretations for the reader. In fact, the works of Mohammad-Reza Shams directs the reader towards the plurality of meanings and the continuous generation of meanings by taking advantage of these indicative and narrative features. The intertextual fluidity and multiple layers of meaning in these works indicate that the hidden audience of the text is not a static consumer, but plays an effective and dynamic role in constructing the meaning of the text.

    Keywords: Children's Literature, Deconstruction, Derrida, Mohammad-Reza Shams, Poststructuralist
  • Amir Hosein Zanjanbar* Pages 135-161

    Cognitive narratology examines the factors that elicit and interpret a text. One such interpretive structure is counterfactual thinking. When a story character’s action leads to either a pleasant or unpleasant consequence, the story’s moral message is extracted by comparing the existing reality with a counterfactual scenario. In other words, the reader automatically envisions a counterfactual scenario that could have occurred instead of the current reality, thereby preventing the occurrence of the existing desirable or undesirable event. This research was conducted using a descriptive-analytical method and a case study of four storybooks in age groups “A” and “B”. These books are “Uncle Wolf” from the collection of Italian Fables Hand of the Skeleton (Calvino, 2022), “Mrs. Pumpkin” (Sarmashghi, 2015), “The Ice that Fell in Love with the Sun” (Movzouni, 2019), and “The Bell-Footed Goat” (Shamlou, 2019). These stories were purposefully selected due to their alignment with different types of counterfactual thinking. The aim of this paper is to determine how the educational function of the counterfactual thinking template operates in stories, using a cognitive narratology approach. This template is categorized into two directions: “upward” and “downward”, two structures: “additive” and “subtractive”, and three criteria: “self-reference”, “other-reference”, and “non-reference”. By categorizing the stories based on the types of counterfactual thinking, this study demonstrates that the upward direction correlates with a negative approach and didactic-deterrent literature, while the downward direction correlates with a positive approach and didactic-incentive literature.

    Introduction

    Cognitive narratology examines the factors that elicit and interpret a text. One such interpretive structure is counterfactual thinking. Humans evaluate events and occurrences not only based on what transpired, but also contemplate how those events could have unfolded differently. In cognitive psychology, "the tendency to construct a non-real aspect for realities is called counterfactual thinking" (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982). Counterfactual thinking activates automatically, comparing the existing scenario with a possible alternative and making judgments between them. This type of thinking is divided into two directions based on orientation: “upward” and “downward”. Upward counterfactual thinking is a process where the individual compares the real situation with a more desirable counterfactual situation that could have occurred but did not, leading to dissatisfaction with the current situation and regret over the lost opportunity (Baron et al., 2009: 92). Conversely, downward counterfactual thinking imagines a scenario that, if it had transpired, would have led to worse consequences than the current situation. Based on this thinking, the individual feels satisfied with the current situation or grateful that a worse outcome did not occur.
    Counterfactual thinking also manifests structurally in two ways: additive and subtractive. The additive structure recreates realities by introducing a new element to the situation. For instance, a person might imagine that if their father had undergone heart surgery, they wouldn’t have passed away. In other words, the condition for the non-occurrence of the current event was the execution of an action in the past. The subtractive structure attempts to create a different reality by eliminating elements from the situation. For example, a person might imagine that if they had not transferred the house to their son’s name, they would not now be spending the rest of their life in a nursing home.
    Counterfactual thinking has three criteria of reference. An individual who constructs a counterfactual scenario can build the constructed scenario from the existing one by adding or removing an element in themselves (self-reference), in others (other-reference), or in the event itself (non-referential). For example, “If I hadn’t been speeding, I wouldn’t have hit this pedestrian” (self-referential); “If this pedestrian had used the footbridge, he wouldn’t have collided with my car” (other-referential); “If the road hadn’t been slippery, I could have controlled my car” (non-referential).

    Background

    The term "cognitive narratology" was first introduced by John in the article "Windows of Focalization: Deconstructing and Reconstructing a Narrative Concept" (1996); however, before him, researchers in the 1980s such as Jaus (1982), Tompkins (1980), Perry (1979), and Sternberg (1978) had paved the way for the emergence of this approach.
    In the realm of Iranian children's and young adult literature, cognitive narrative research is limited to the articles "Representation of Cognitive Processes in the Story of Auntie Cockroach: Based on Discourse Analysis" (Zanjanbar and Zare, 2020) and "Cognitive Narratology of Humor in Children's Stories: A Schema-Based Approach" (Zanjanbar et al., 2021).

    Objectives and Questions

    This paper aims to investigate the role of the counterfactual thinking pattern in how the moral message of children's stories is represented. In this regard, by examining and comparing the mentioned stories, it seeks to answer three questions: 1. In these stories, how is the counterfactual thinking schema represented in terms of direction and structure? 2. What is the relationship between the structure of employing counterfactual thinking in the stories and their educational function? 3. In terms of employing the counterfactual thinking schema, what are the commonalities and distinctions among these stories?

    Research Method

    This research was conducted through a descriptive-analytical method. The case studies of this paper cover four storybooks in age groups "A" and "B": the story "Uncle Wolf" from the first volume of the Italian fables collection titled Hand of the Skeleton (Calvino, 2022), Mrs. Pumpkin (Sarmashghi, 2015), The Ice that Fell in Love with the Sun (Movzouni, 2019), and the folk tale The Bell-Footed Goat (Shamlou, 2019). These stories were purposefully selected due to their alignment with different types of counterfactual thinking.

    Conclusion

    Counterfactual thinking manages the reader's judgment by substituting a possible scenario. In children's stories, episodes based on counterfactual thinking are categorized into two "upward" and "downward" directions, two "additive" and "subtractive" structures, and three reference criteria of "self-reference", "other-reference", and "non-reference". Upward thinking is accompanied by a negative feeling and dissatisfaction with the occurred event. Therefore, episodes based on upward counterfactual thinking employ a deterrent teaching method and instill fear of adverse consequences. With a negative and alarmist view of outcomes, they dissuade the child from performing certain actions or behaviors. In contrast, since downward counterfactual thinking is accompanied by the reader's positive feeling and satisfaction with reality, episodes based on downward counterfactual thinking employ an encouraging and incentivizing method, guiding the child towards certain behaviors with a positive approach. While the case studies in this paper demonstrate a correlation between the direction of counterfactual thinking and the teaching method, they do not find a correlation between the additive or subtractive structure of counterfactual thinking and the presentation of educational outcomes. Furthermore, this research reveals that in terms of complexity in using the counterfactual thinking schema, stories fall into two categories: simple and composite. Simple stories are based on one type of counterfactual thinking and usually engage the reader only once at the end of the story. On the other hand, composite stories form different types of counterfactual thinking depending on various episodes. In this context, composite stories alternate between the “carrot and stick” approach in different episodes. In one episode, they use a deterrent teaching method (stick) to discourage negative actions, and in another episode, they encourage positive actions through an incentivizing method (carrot). In contrast, simple stories employ only one of the two deterrent or incentivizing teaching methods.
    Regarding the reference criterion, the child constructs the self-referential counterfactual scenario based on identifying with the beloved story character, the other-referential counterfactual scenario based on other characters, and the non-referential counterfactual scenario based on chance events.

    Keywords: Didactic Literature, Children's Story, Cognitive Narratology, Counterfactual Thinking
  • Saeed Mehri* Pages 163-190

    The personality of Abu Muslim Khorasani has been reflected in various forms in the texts. In the hadith sources, Abu Muslim is often introduced as someone who was against the Shia Imams. In polemical-theological texts, Abu Muslim is introduced as the avenger of Ali's family, the overthrower of the generation of the Imams, and the destroyer of the Umayyads. But in the folk stories and especially in the narrations that we know today as Abu Muslim name, Abu Muslim is not only a Shia person, but also one of the special Shiites who received the spiritual teachings of the Imams and is himself a follower of the Tariqat and he has transcendental benefits. The same image of Abu Muslim entered the Sufi circles through the tradition of story-telling, and later became one of the important pillars of the Safavid Khanqah Invitation. After the Safavids came to power, the Safavid Sufis, by promoting the stories of Abu Muslim, kept alive the goals of the Safavid uprising and increased their followers. The religious jurists of the Safavid court, in an effort to curtail the influence of the Sufis, were the first to recognize this and subsequently prohibited the reading of stories about Abu Muslim. This article demonstrates that the banning of stories, the reading of stories, and the distortion of Abu Muslim’s image were fundamental measures taken by religious jurists to combat the proliferation of Sufism during the Safavid era.

    Keywords: Abu Muslim Name, Reading Stories, Religious Jurists, Criticism Of Sufism
  • Seyede Fateme Hoseini, Mahmoud Fotouhi* Pages 191-243

    This research is based on the poems of two manuscripts of 1059 A.H. and 1083 A.H. Diwan Saeb Tabrizi states that Saeb's poetic style has gone through changes after returning from India, so that two different styles can be identified in his poems. This research, with the rhetorical stylistics of two manuscript poems, outlines the evolution of Saeb's style and shows that the rhetorical characteristics of Saeb's poetry have changed in these two styles and have shifted from metaphorical expression to subtle imagination and allegorical expression. Then, it deals with the characteristics that reveal the individuality of Saeb's style and finally, it examines the effective factors in changing the style of Saeb's poetry and emphasizes on the stylistic evolution of Saeb's poetry has emerged in line with the change of his ontological attitude..

    Introduction

    Saeb Tabrizi gradually changed his poetry style after returning from India (1042 AH) and moved from metaphor to subtlety and simile expression. The proof of this claim is the difference in the style of his poems in two manuscripts of 1059 AH. and 1083 A.H. which are related to two periods of Saeb Tabrizi's youth and old age. Manuscript 1059 AH. It covers the poems of Saeb's youth and his days in India (10341042 AH); But the manuscript of 1083 A.H. It mostly includes his late poems of his middle age and old age. This manuscript also has the signature of Saeb himself, whose signature confirms the authenticity of the manuscript. From the comparison of the ghazals of these two manuscripts, which contain poems from two periods of Saeb's life, it can be seen that the style of Saeb's poetry has evolved in such a way that two different styles can be seen in his poems.
    The research is to prove this claim that "Saeb style from the manuscript of 1059 A.H. until 1083 A.H. has turned from metaphor to subtlety" so that it tries to answer these questions with the method of rhetorical adaptation: from the manuscript of 1059 AH. until the manuscript of 1083 A.H. What difference has the use of rhetorical arts made? What is the dominant rhetorical device in each manuscript? What have been the possible effective factors in changing Saeb's style? Which manuscript of Saeb represent his individuality and creativity?

    Data and Method

    In this research, Saeb's poem has been analyzed rhetorically from two perspectives; First, with a formalistic approach, we have measured the frequency of the highfrequency devices of Saeb's poetry in each manuscript and shown the change in the frequency of rhetorical devices in the form of a diagram. In this statistical analysis, the number of verses in the manuscript of 1059 AH. (three thousand verses) considered as the basis and the same number from the manuscript of 1083 AH. have been chosen with the "systematic random sampling" method.
    Therefore, we have chosen, with 2500 verses intervals, 6 samples of 500 verses from the 1083 AH manuscript. In the second approach, we have examined Saeb's frequent and especially innovative images from a cognitive perspective in order to find out the rhetorical and aesthetic foundations of his poetry. In this approach, we have considered all the verses of two manuscripts. In the qualitative and statistical analysis of this research, we have used MAXQDA Analytics data analysis software.

    Results and Discussion

    The main device in the poems of 1059 A.H. is a metaphor. The frequency of metaphor in youth poems is almost four times that of manuscript poems of 1083 AH. Metaphorical expression prevails in the poetry of Saeb's youth, but his later poems move away from metaphorical language to simile expression. Another feature that in the poems of 1059 A.H. stands out is the compact and concise language; Three factors can be considered for it: metaphorical expression, brief form of devices, image density.
    Saeb's movement towards subtlety)Nazokkhiyali(: Saeb in his poems of India says that he has precise imagination. It seems that this is the result of his trip to India. Saeb's attention has been drawn to his subtlety. After this, the concern of finding meanings and thin words and thinking about detail matters of existence became the "focus" of Saeb's attention.
    From the comparison of Hind's poems with his later poems in the 1083 AH version, it can be clearly seen that subtlety and detail view are more important in Saeb's opinion. The course of this change can be seen in four basic differences: the increase in the frequency of subtle imaginations; exaggeration of expression; Creating and using new images; Expanding the scope of subtlety.
    A comparative study of Saeb's youth poems with his later works leads us to other new features in Saeb's poetry. The characteristics that are found in the manuscript poems of 1059 A.H. They do not show much, but in the poems of 1083 A.H. They are among the stylistic components of his poetry and show the individuality of Saeb's style. These indicators include: exaggerated expression, comprehension subtle, predominance of sensory mentality over abstract mentality, simile.
    The similarity of the poetry of Saeb's youth in a new style (Tarzetaze): In the days of Saeb's youth, a new style of narration is widely found throughout the territory of the Persian language, which was popular in some literary centers, especially in India, since the late 10th century. Literary sources and literary history of the 11th century generally called this style "new style"(Tarzetaze) and referred to the poets who follow it as "Tazehgoyan" and considered poets like `Orafi Shirazi and Taleb Amoli to be the leaders of this new style.
    Saeb also wrote in the manuscript verses of 1059 AH. he uses the words "style" (Tarz) and "new style" specifically about a poetic style that was spread in the realm of Persian literature in the 11th century and its leaders were `Orafi and Taleb. Saeb's attention to `Orafi and Taleb and their new style is only due to his explicit references in his poems of 1059 AH. It is not limited just in his speeches, but it is well expressed in his poetic style. As we have seen, in the manuscript poems of 1059 A.H. Metaphorical expression prevailed and abstract images were also more frequent. In his youth, Saeb, influenced by the new style, which is the style of metaphor, pays more attention to metaphors and the use of dense and concise poetic images, therefore, the language of his poetry is compact and metaphorical.

    Conclusion

    Saeb's youth and his stay in India are parallel to the spread of the new style in the Persian language. The style which `Orafi and Taleb were famous, and its most obvious feature is metaphorism. Therefore, in the poems of his youth, Saeb talked about a new way and wrote poetry in that way.
    To avoid using the title "Indian style", some researchers have called the poetry of the 10th to 12th century A.H with the name of “new style”. Another group has divided the poetry of the Safavid era into Iranian and Indian branches and the Iranian branch was called the new style (Tarzetaze) and the Indian one was called the imaginative style (Doorkhiyali). But the writers and poets of the Safavid era, including Saeb, called the special and common style in the second half of the 10th century and the first half of the 11th century with this title. In this period, of the Voqu style was declining. Then, various styles and substyles began.
    Although manuscript 1059 AH. Demonstrates that Saeb following the new style of `Orafi and Taleb and includes the poems of Saeb's new style, it also mentions the appearing of another style called Nazokkhiyal style. In the poems of India, Saeb mentioned the change of his style and talks about his familiarity with new principles such as detail and subtlemindedness. Also, Saeb's youth poems, in manuscripts, 1059 AH. indicates a change in the flow of poetry in the literature of the Safavid era and a style, is known as the subtle one, appeared.
     The style of the poet and his expression represent his attitude; Therefore, the change of Saeb's way of expression from a new way to a subtle way should be considered along with the evolution of the poet's attitude and worldview. The expansion of the world of Saeb's poetry and his attention to new concepts in the poems of 1083 AH. shows that Saeb's worldview has changed after his youth, and his view has turned to deeper issues and topics and various areas of human existence. The ideological transformations and new aesthetic foundations of the poet also require a different way of expression; Some of the characteristics of Saeb's personality, which were more or less visible in his new style of poetry, such as simile expression and objective mentality, were a suitable situation for changing the poetic style and expressing new thoughts; Therefore, these preparations and the way of expression come from the margin to the center of Saeb's style and form the basis of his style, and on the other hand, some new features such as comprehension subtle, which did not appear much in his new style of poetry and the transformation of Saeb's aesthetic foundations and ontological attitude are appeared in Nazokkhiyal's poetry as the same time.

    Keywords: Saeb Tabrizi, Stylistics, Indian Style, Indo-Persian Poetry