فهرست مطالب

طلوع بهداشت - سال پنجم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1385)
  • سال پنجم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1385)
  • 92 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1386/08/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • مشرفه جالشگر، دکتر مصطفی حسینی، دکتر داوود شجاعی زاده، حمیده پیشوا صفحه 1
    فقر آهن از مشکلات تغذیه ای شایع در جهان است که در کودکان و زنان بیشتر دیده می شود، هدف اصلی این مطالعه بررسی آگاهی، نگرش و عملکرد دانش آموزان دختر قائم شهر در مورد کم خونی ناشی از فقر آهن می باشد. این مطالعه یک بررسی مقطعی است که به بررسی آگاهی،نگرش و عملکرد 600 نفر از دانش آموزان دختر مقطع راهنمایی شهرستان قائم شهر در سال 84 می پردازد. دانش آموزان...
    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی، نگرش، عملکرد، کم خونی ناشی از فقر آهن
  • دکتر محمدحسن افتخاری، دکتر حسن مظفری خسروی صفحه 11
    سو تغذیه در اطفال زیر پنج سال یکی از مشکلات اساسی کشور ماست و بررسی های انجام گرفته درمناطق مختلف کشور نشان از وفور گسترده آن دارد. این مطالعه به منظور بررسی میزان شیوع سو تغذیه در شهرستان لار و حومه که تاکنون اطلاعات جامعی از آن در دسترس نبوده، انجام شده است. این بررسی به عنوان یک مطالعه توصیفی مقطعی با مشارکت 2258 کودک زیر 5 سال تحت پوشش...
    کلیدواژگان: سو تغذیه، کم وزنی، از رشد بازماندگی، لاغری
  • دکتر غلامرضا جاهد خانیکی، دکتر مسعود یونسیان، دکتر فروغ واعظی، دکتر رامین نبی زاده، مهندس قربانعلی پاسبان صفحه 21
    جوش شیرین از موادی است که ممکن است در طول تهیه نان پهن ایرانی بطور غیر قانونی به خمیر اضافه شود. استفاده از این ماده سبب عوارض بهداشتی در مصرف کننده و کاهش کیفیت نان می گردد و علیرغم ممنوعیت مصرف جوش شیرین در نانواییها و توصیه به استفاده از خمیر مایه، برخی از نانوایی ها هنوز هم از جوش شیرین استفاده می نمایند. در این ارتباط مطالعه ای مقطعی با هدف تعیین...
    کلیدواژگان: حذف جوش شیرین، نان های پهن ایرانی، نانوایی، شهرستان اسلامشهر
  • دکتر سیدمحمدمهدی هزاوه ای، مریم سعیدی صفحه 31
    پوکی استخوان اختلال متابولیکی استخوان است که معمولا بدون علامت می باشد. پیشگیری از این بیماری در سراسر زندگی امکان پذیر است ولی مسئله مهم این است که پیشگیری اولیه این بیماری باید از دوران کودکی و نوجوانی آغاز شود، چون مقدار استخوانی که طی این دوران بدست می آید تشکیل دهنده اصلی توده استخوانی می باشد. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی میزان آگاهی، نگرش و چگونگی...
    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی، نگرش، عملکرد، دانش آموزان، پوکی استخوان
  • دکتر حکیمه احدیان، دکتر محمدحسن اخوان کرباسی صفحه 39
    عملکرد مربیان بهداشت مدارس به عنوان مسئولین حفظ سلامت دانش آموزان نیاز به ارزیابی و ارتقا مداوم دارد هدف از این تحقیق ارزیابی میزان خطای مربیان بهداشت در تشخیص مشکلات دندانی دانش آموزان مقطع ابتدایی شهرستان یزد بوده است. در این مطالعه توصیفی مقطعی، 10 مربی بهداشت و 250 دانش آموز مقطع دبستان شرکت داشتند. مربیان بهداشت به روش چند مرحله ای خوشه ای...
    کلیدواژگان: بهداشت دهان، مربی بهداشت، میزان خطا
  • دکتر محمدحسین باقیانی مقدم، دکتر محمدحسن احرام پوش صفحه 47
    افسردگی نوعی غم و اندوه و کاهش بیش از اندازه سطح شادمانی است که می تواند یک واکنش احساس طبیعی باشد و کمتر کسی است که در لحظاتی از زندگی اش این حالت را تجربه نکرده ولی اگر طولانی و شدید باشد بیماری تلقی می شود. در کشورهای در حال توسعه که 4/5 جمعیت جهان را شامل می شوند. بیماریهای غیر واگیر مثل افسردگی به سرعت جانشین دشمنان سنتی بشر...
    کلیدواژگان: افسردگی، تست بک، دانشجویان
  • نرجس بحری، نسرین بحری، براتعلی عرب نژاد، هما لطفی صفحه 54
    امروزه بارداری های ناخواسته بعنوان یک معضل بهداشتی فراگیر در اکثر کشورهای در حال توسعه به حساب می آید که عوارض ناگوار اجتماعی و اقتصادی فراوانی را نیز با خود بهمراه دارد. اکثر تحقیقات انجام شده در این رابطه شکست روش های پیشگیری از بارداری را عامل اصلی وقوع بارداری های ناخواسته عنوان کرده اند، لذا این پژوهش با هدف بررسی ارتباط بارداری های ناخواسته با نگرش و عملکرد...
    کلیدواژگان: نگرش، عملکرد، بارداری ناخواسته، تنظیم خانواده
  • رضا امامی میبدی، دکتر سیدسعید مظلومی، دکتر محمدحسین باقیانی مقدم، محمدرضا مزین صفحه 61
    امروزه قشر عظیمی از افراد جامعه را کارگران پرکار و تلاشگر تشکیل می دهند که برحسب شغل آنها، بیماریهای شغلی با توجه به گسترش صنایع و ازدیاد مصرف مواد شیمیایی گوناگون پیوسته در حال افزایش می باشد. بیماریهای دستگاه تنفسی ناشی از کار از جمله سیلیکوزیس که براثر استنشاق ذرات سیلیس ایجاد می شود، درمان اساسی برای آن وجود ندارد لذا اصل پیشگیری از بیماری...
    کلیدواژگان: نگرش، کارگران، رفتار، بیماری تنفسی، اعتقاد بهداشتی
  • دکتر حسین فلاح زاده، نرجس حسینی صفحه 67
    اعتیاد اختلالی با ماهیت مزمن و عود کننده می باشد که تهدید کننده سلامت و حیات بشری است. با شناخت عواملی نظیر صفات شخصیتی، مهارتهای مقابله ای، عوامل خطر محیطی، اختلال روانی زمینه ای،می توان احتمال عود را پیش بینی نمود. هدف از انجام این مطالعه تعیین علل عود اعتیاد از دیدگاه خود معتادین بوده است. این مطالعه به صورت توصیفی و به روش...
    کلیدواژگان: عود اعتیاد، معتادین، یزد
  • دکتر جواد رفیع نژاد، سعیده یوسفی، خدیجه شمشاد صفحه 74
    عنکبوت ها یکی از راسته های مهم رده عنکبوتیان بوده که در همه نقاطی که انسان در آنجا زندگی می کند، حضور دارند. تاکنون بیش از 35000 گونه عنکبوت از نقاط مختلف دنیا شناسایی شده که در این بین سهم کشور ما بسیار ناچیز است. عنکبوتها به ندرت مهاجم هستند و تنها زمانیکه بوسیله انسان تحریک می شوند، گزش را انجام می دهند. تقریبا همه عنکبوتها دارای غده سمی هستند ولی سمیت...
    کلیدواژگان: مطالعه فونستیک، عنکبوت، کهنوج، ایران
|
  • Chaleshgar.M(Ms.C), Hosseini.M. (Phd), Shojaeizade D(Ph.D), Pishva. H Page 1
    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world affecting alarge number of children and women. The main purpose of this research was todetermine the knowledge, attitude and, practice (K.A.P) of girl students inGhaemshahr.This is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the K.A.P of 600 girlstudents selected by two-stage cluster sampling (10 schools,each school 60students in 3 different classes). Data were gathered by using questionnairesincluding demographic information and some questions related to K.A.P. Datawere analyzed by using SPSS (11.5), STATA (8.0).The results indicated that 13.7% of the subjects had good knowledge, 16.2%had positive attitude and 11.2% had good practice. Stepwise multiple orderedpolytomous regression showed that after adjusting the findings for the effect ofpotential confounders, father’s job and the number of children were the mostsignificant factors affecting students’ knowledge. Also, similar analysis at thelevel of their practice showed that parent's education and father’s job were themost effective factors.The findings indicated that educational program is necessary for empoweringand increasing knowledge of girl students to prevent iron deficiency and irondeficiency anemia.
  • Eftekhari M.H. (Phd), Mozaffari H(Ph.D) Page 11
    Malnutrition in children under 5 years is a basic problem in our country.Previous studies in various areas have also shown the problem. The purpose ofthis study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in under-5- year oldchildren in Lar and its outskirts.A cross-sectional study was designed in which 2258 children referring to thehealth centers of Lar and its outskirt were selected in 2003-2004.Anthropometric data and other demographic variables were recorded by trainedhealth workers. By using NCHS standards and Gomez classification, nutritionalstatus was defined. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.The results showed that 29.2% (95% confidence interval= 27-31) of childrenwere underweight (weight for age <75% st.) and 26.8% (95% [CI] = 25-29)were stunted (height for age <-2 SD) and 29.4% (95% [CI] = 27-31) werewasted (weight for height <-2 SD). Significant relation existed between the ageof children and the prevalence of getting underweight, stunting and wastingP<0.05. Malnutrition was seen mostly in the first two years of life and decreasedafterward. The results revealed that the prevalence of underweight and stuntingin girls was higher than those of boys (P<0.05), P<0.02 respectively). Theresults also indicated that the prevalence of malnutrition was significantlyrelated to level of mother's education and family spacing.Compared with NCHS, the prevalence of malnutrition in Lar and its outskirtwas high.
  • Jahed Khaniki Gh.R., (Ph.D)- Yunesian M(Ph.D)- Vaezi F., (Ph.D)- Nabizadeh R(Ph.D)- Paseban Gh. A Page 21
    Baking soda or sodium bicarbonate may by used as a leavening agent inchemical procedures. The use of baking soda for bread preparation may lead toadverse effects such as reduction in intake of iron and calcium. Also it can causefermentation prevention. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determinethe utilization rate of baking soda in the bakeries of Islamshahr City and acomparison of utilization of this agent in various types of flat bread. In thisstudy, 102 bakeries of Islamshahr city were selected in 2005. For collecting therequired data, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among bakerieswhich were selected randomly from the City. Besides these questionnaires, wehad interviews with those in charge of these bakeries. Bread sampling wasaccomplished from each bakery. Sampling had been performed at hygienicconditions. Samples were examined by a direct pH measuring method inlaboratory. Then data were recorded and the results were analyzed by SPSS-11.5. The results indicated that the 60% of bakeries use baking soda in producedbread. The utilization rate of baking soda was different in kinds of bread(p<0.001). Results also indicated that Lavash bread and Sangak bread had thehighest (82.6%) and the lowest (0 %) frequencies in using baking sodarespectively.This study showed no significant relation between leavenobservation in bakeries and the utilization rate of baking soda (p=0.53). It isrecommended to care more about the disadvantages of baking soda for makingbread. Also, it would be advisable to introduce a suitable substitute for bakingsoda along with additional training.
  • Hazavahi S.M.M. (P.H.D)- Saeedi M Page 31
    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease. The important point in this case is thatbecause bone mass increases during childhood and adolescence, this diseasescan be prevented at the first stages of life especially in childhood. The purposeof this survey is to identify the rate of students’knowledge, attitude and practiceon osteoporosis (based on health belief model).This is a descriptive survey in which data were collected from 213 femalestudents in Garmsar by a questionnaire and checklist. The results indicated that the subjects’ mean of knowledge was 47.86% but themean of their attitude wasn’t favourable. Also 69 % of the students got less thanhalf of the calcium they needed per day and only 49.7% of thestudents did appropriate physical activity.The findings indicated that students had a poor knowledge, Attitude and practiceabout osteoporosis. So it is necessary for them to receive new and updatededucation to promote their health situation.
  • Ahadian H. (Dds Mdsc)-Akhavan Karbassi M.H. (Dds. Mdsc) Page 39
    As dental health educators’ job is taking responsibility for student's health care, it must be regularly assessed. This study was designed to evaluate dental health educator's errors in the diagnosis of dental problems in primary school students of Yazd.In this descriptive cross-sectional study,10 educators were chosen through stratified random sampling to examine 250 elementary students. The educator's errors were analyzed by T2 test and pearson correlation coefficient with regard to the followings: diagnosis of dental caries, restored teeth, erupting teeth and first molar caries.Maximum errors were around caries with first molar (67.5%).Percentage of errors around diagnosis of dental caries, the teeth being erupted and restored teeth, were 39.5%, 54% and 17.1% respectively. No relation was indicated between the age of dental health educators and period of their service with the level of error they made. Also there was a ngative relationship between the dental health educator's degrees and the amount of their mistakes.These results highlight the fact that dental health educators do not have adequate ability for the dignosis of permanent teeth problems especially first molars.
  • Baghianimoghadam M.H(P.H.D)-Ehrampoosh M.H(P.H.D)–Khabiri F Page 47
    Depression is a kind of sadness and sorrow taken as a reaction to a naturalfeeling experienced by most people at least at some periods of life. This may beconsidered as disease if it is supposed to be long and severe.This is going to be replaced for infections diseases and malnutrition in thedeveloping countries constituting 4/5 of the population of the world. Theprevalence rate of depression in Iran is about 15-25% but in yazd is about11.7%.This is a descriptive, analytical study. In 1385,185 students were selected fromShahid Sadoughi university randomly. Then the depression in them was checkedthrough Beck Test and the results were analyzed through chi-square Test inSPSS.The results indicated that about 30% of students were suffering from mild andserere forms of depression. Depression was lower in athletes than non-athleteswhereas 12.9% of non-athletes suffered severely from the disease.Also among those who were content with their field of study only 3.6% weredepressed whereas this raised to 26.7% among non – contents. Only 2.2% of thesubjects with grade point arerage (GPA) of 17 and higher were severlydepressed while this increased to 14.3% for those with GPA of 15 and lower.On the whole, the prevalence of depression among these subjects was high andhigher than that of our society and because it was proved that there isrelalionship between depression and student's studies, taking proper actions tocontrol and prevent depression among students seems to be urgent.
  • Bahri N. (M.S)-Bahri N. (M.S)-Arabnejad B(M.D)- Lotfi H. (Md) Page 54
    Unwanted pregnancy is one of the most widespread problems for the developingcountries inflicting unfavourable social and economic side-effects. Severalresearches show failure in family planning programs as the main cause ofunwanted pregnancies. So the purpose of this study was to determine women’sattitude and practice regarding unwanted pregnancy and planed pregnancy.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 pregnant women in healthcenters of Torbat-Jam, who were selected randomly. Four questionnaires wereused for data collection including demography, conception, family planningattitude and practice.The results showed that the use of contraception methods was less in womenwith unwanted pregnancy (%27.2 vs%33.6). Fear of side effect in unwantedpregnancy and tendency to be pregnant in planned pregnancy were the reasonsof using no contraception method.The survey of the attitude toward family planning showed that the two groupswere significantly different in some aspects such as: using contraceptive toolsas if committing sin (p=0/024), enjoyability of having numerous children(p=0/005),number of children as a personal matter (p=0/055) and the protective role ofchildren in parent old age (p=0/014). The Findings showed that propagandationfor health education and family planning are fully inefficient and attitudetoward family planning is very poor. So researchers suggest designing a planfor changing attitude and improving health education.
  • Emamy Meybody R(M.S)- Mazloomi Ss (P.H.D)- Baghianmoghadam Mh (P.H.D)- Mozayan Mr Page 61
    Nowadays hard-working labourors make a large part of every society.Occupational diseases are increasing among them due to industrialization andthe increase of chemical substances consumption. There is no substantialtreatment for silicosis-a disease which is the result of aspirating silicose- sogiving rise to the importance of controlling this disease. Having a healthybehavior or a prophylaxis to the disease can be the result of a person's attitudethat healthy behaviors lead to his/her health.Regarding the importance of the role of attitude and healthy behaviors inprophylaxis, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relation betweenMeybod labovrors of tile factories with their attitude toward respiratoryprophylaxis on the basis of Health belief model.Most labourors (98.9%)had a positive health belief about health and disease.The components of this Health belief model indicated a positive understandingof the disease severity (70.8%), Suseptibility to the disease (94.43%), thebenefits of healthy behavior (95.42%),barriers to healthy behavior(67.39%)and“health and disease “concept (87.8%).Most of the labourors (69.8%) had inappropriate healthy behaviors. Detailedstudy of the subject's healthy behavior indicated that most of the labourors hadinappropriate behavior in regard to: Periodic check-up (87.3%), acquiring healthinformation (81.4%) and observing safety regulations(9.8%), Meanwhile 58.5% of the subjects had appropriate healthy behaviors for exercise but 27.8% had inappropriate healthy behaviour in relation to smoking.The findings indicate that there is not a significant correlation between attitudeand healthy behaviors in labourors regarding preventive measures for respiratorydiseases.Regarding the results it is suggested that more attention is to be paid to the effectof training labourors in tile factories to induce an appropriate healty behavior.
  • Fallahzadeh H. (Phd), Hosseini N Page 67
    Addiction is a disorder with chronic nature which threatens health. With thisregard,we were determined to check the relapse factors from the view of addictsthemselves. This study was performed on 230 addicts referring to Behzisticenter of yazd by census. From the view of addicts the follwing were the causesfor their addiction: friends (37.4%), dropping at their previous haunts (8.7%),mental strain (62.8%), treating their diseases (7.3%), unfavorable encounters(4.4%), family and society rejection (9.7%), and observing just the related toolsand instruments (3.9%). It was found that the highest inclination to drugs hadbeen to opium (69.8%). The age average of the addicts with relapse was 32.5±10and the average period for using drugs was 8.86±6.2 years. Of all the addicts,24.4% kept drugs at home; 34.5% had destoryed their drugs. The first offerers ofdrug to these subjects had been peers out of school (48.8%), a relative (23.4%),a family member (9.7%) and school friends (6.6%). The addicts believed thatimparting knowledge regarding side effects, support of the peoplearound,keeping away the quitting patient from other addicts and replacingappropriate activities can be helpful respectively.