فهرست مطالب

Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Volume:2 Issue: 2, Spring 2003

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1382/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Mh Hoshdar Tehrani, A. Zarghi, S. Fathali Page 67
    Nitrofurazone is one of the antibacterial nitrofuran agents used topically for skin infections. The drug is effective on the majority of infectious microorganisms. Because of the importance of this drug in clinic, in this study various methods of synthesis of nitrofurazone were examined and the most appropriate method, applicable to pharmaceutical industry was chosen and optimized from the points of quality and yield.
  • Ar Shafaati, Bj Clark Page 71
    Two Capillary Zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods were developed in this study, one using an acidic buffer (sodium citrate pH = 2.5) and the other using a basic buffer (sodium tetraborate pH = 9.8). The two methods were compared on the basis of repeatability and reproducibility of results and the CZE method developed with the basic buffer was then selected for further studies. The method was fully validated in terms of repeatability [RSD for migration time and peak area of aciclovir at 0.05 mg (nominal concentration) were 0.3-1.0% (x=10), and 1.5-2.6% (n=3), respectively], reproducibility (RSD of peak area = 2.54%, n = 6), linearity over two ranges of aciclovir concentration (0.01-0.07 and 0.05-0.3 mg/ml which resulted in y=2.007x +1.300 and y=0.234x + 0.82, respectively), limits of detection and quantitation (1´ 10-4 mg/ml and 3´ 10-4 mg/ml, respectively), ruggedness and robustness. The method was applied for the determination of the drug in a commercial tablet preparation (mean recovery value 100.2% w/w) and a commercial injection solution. The method proved to be fast and reliable for quantitative analysis of aciclovir and its related substance in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
  • F. Mojab, M. Kamalinejad, N. Ghaderi, Hr Vahidipour Page 77
    A phytochemical screening of fifty five Iranian plants belonging to 21 families was carried out. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids. The medicinal uses of these plants are also reportd.
  • Sa Mortazavi, G. Hajebi Page 83
    Correct prescription writing habits could have a great influence on the fate of drug therapy as well as the health of patients. One of the major types of errors in prescriptions is the "errors of commission". In this study attempts were made to examine 519 prescriptions of the internal ward of Ayatollah Taleghani teaching hospital over a period of 3 months in terms of the nature and extent of the errors of commission. In addition these prescriptions were also compared and contrasted with the actual clinical charts of relevant inpatients.Results showed that the most predominant error of commission is that due to ignoring drug interactions, noted in 18% of all prescriptions examined. The other major errors of commission noted in these prescriptions included mistakes in writing drug names or prescribing the correct dosage form, ignoring drug interactions occurring because of the condition of patients, and ignoring the side effects of drugs following administration. Furthermore, when comparing the clinical chart of inpatients with their prescriptions, discrepancies were noted. Here, the major problem was not mentioning the name of some of the drugs present within the prescription, in patients'' clinical chart.In conclusion, it seems that educational programs are needed to be held for physicians and nursing staff in order to eliminate errors of commission. Careful examination of prescriptions by pharmacists and decisive interventions by them could also be critical in avoiding this type of prescription error.
  • N. Khorshidi_S. N Ostad_M. Mosaddegh_M. Soodi Page 89
    Dysmenorrhea is among the most common gynecological complaints. There are several mechanisms which initiate dysmenorrhea. Therefore, different compounds can be employed to control its symptoms. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen are highly used in modern medicine to relieve the pain in short-term therapy. This method is not acceptable for long-term therapy due to side effects. Our previous data showed that Fennel essential oil (FEO) could reduce the frequency and intensity of contraction of rat uterus in isolated organ models. Furthermore, the use of FEO is strongly recommended in traditional medicine for the relief of dysmenorrhea symptoms. Clinical study of FEO in primary dysmenorrhea showed that the essence reduces pain and some of following sequelae side effects noticeably.
  • R. Aboofazeli, Sa Mortazavi, P. Khoshnevis Page 95
    Sodium salicylate containing microemulsions have been formulated, based on the previous phase diagram studies, using a pharmaceutically acceptable surfactant and oil. The effects of formulation variables on the release profile of the drug from microemulsion through intact rat skin were also determined experimentally. In this investigation, two commercially available lecithins (namely Epikuron 200 and Epikuron 170), three short chain alcohols (n-butanol, isopropanol and n-propanol) and isopropyl myristate (IPM) were used as surfactant, cosurfactant and oil, respectively. The water phase was composed of sodium salicylate solution (2% w/v). To investigate the release profile, samples with 25% wt% total surfactant content were prepared with different surfactant/cosurfactant weight ratios (Km of 1:1 and 1.5:1) and various amounts of drug solution (from 7 to 35 wt%), depending on the nature of alcohol. Two compartment Franz diffusion cells, equipped with rat skin as the absorption membrane, were employed for release studies. All experiments were performed at room temperature and sampling was taken over 12 hours with one-hour intervals. The amount of drug released was determined spectrophotometrically and the permeation parameters were then calculated. Results showed that systems formulated with 7 and 9% drug solution, were not capable of releasing the drug with a lower rate, compared to the corresponding drug solutions, while in other systems, a lower release rate was observed in comparison to the control samples. In general, among the systems investigated, those prepared with n-propanol at Km of 1.5:1 and 11-20 wt% and 29% dispersed phase showed a relatively lower absorption rate, comparing to the corresponding control samples, regardless of the nature of surfactant and cosurfactant. Under passive conditions, the flux from microemulsions followed the zero order behavior with respect to the donor concentration.
  • A. Ghannadi, F. Aghazari, M. Mehrabani, A. Mohagheghzadeh, I. Mehregan Page 103
    The essential oil from flowering aerial parts of Nepeta macrosiphon Boiss. growing wild in Kermanshah Province, Iran, was analyzed by GC/MS. This essential oil was prepared by a modified Likens-Nickerson’s simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) method. Forty-five compounds consisting 95.1% of the total components were identified from the oil obtained with a yield of 0.1%w/w. Among them, spathulenol (14.1%), germacrene D (9.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) were the major components of the oil.
  • H. Sadeghi, Aliabadi, Sa Emami, M. Saeidi, A. Jafarian Page 107
    It has been reported that several conifers possess cytotoxic activities on some human tumor cell lines. Taxol as a natural cytotoxic compound has been extracted from this family. In a program to screen the cytotoxic effects of natural resources, male and female branchlets, fruit or bark of two different species of Iranian conifers were collected, identified and the cytotoxic effects of their hydroalcoholic extracts on three human tumor cell lines were determined. Different concentrations of extracts were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell survival was evaluated using MTT assay. Extracts from bark of female Taxus baccata showed inhibitory activities against Hela cells. The extracts of the branchlets of male and female T. baccata and branchlets of Cupressus horizentalis showed inhibitory activities against MDA-MB-468 cells, whereas the extracts of branchlets of female T. baccata showed inhibitory activities against KB cells. In conclusion, extract obtained from the bark of Iranian T. baccata showed a comparable cytotoxic effect to doxorubicin against Hela cells
  • K. Javidnia, R. Miri, L. Movahed, S. Golrangi Page 111
    Nifedipine (NIF) a 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, undergoes photodegradation to nitroso analogues of dehydronifedipine (NDNIF) when exposed to sunlight. Photodegradation products of NIF have no clinical activity, so different formulations of NIF must remain unchanged. If NIF preparations become unstable in exposure to light, they could cause therapeutic failure. The present study was carried out in order to investigate the photostability of commercially available NIF products, in Iran. Three oral NIF formulations available in Iran were studied using indirect sunlight (daylight) and continuous artificial light exposure extending over a period of 12 weeks. The extent of photodecomposition of NIF was determined using a specific reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. NIF photodegradation was measured using both pure NIF powder as well as a methanolic NIF solution to determine differences in the effectiveness of artificial light and natural indirect sunlight sources used in this study. All the tested NIF formulations were likely to be photostable up to at least 12 weeks of continuous artificial and natural day light exposure, compared with pure NIF powder and methanolic solution. Photodegradation of NIF powder and methanolic solution exposed to indirect sunlight was faster than the artificial light.
  • A. Attar Nasseri, R. Aboofazeli, H. Zia, T. Needham Page 117
    Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) containing microemulsion-based gels (MBGs) have been formulated, based on the previous phase diagram studies, using a pharmaceutically acceptable surfactant (soybean lecithin; Epikuron 200) and oil (isopropyl myristate; IPM) and the effect of formulation variables on the release profile of the drug from MBGs through intact guinea pig skin and various artificial membranes was then determined experimentally. It was observed that as the lecithin concentration increased from 40 to 50 and then 60% w/w in formulations, a significant decrease in KT release was obtained. A remarkable increase in the drug release was also observed in formulations containing 6.5% w/w of KT compared to those containing 1% w/w of the drug. Increasing the water content of the organogels also resulted in an increase in KT release. The optimized formulation of the organogel composed of 40% lecithin and 60% IPM (containing 0.6% w/w of water and 6.5% w/w of KT) showed the highest drug release rate. Moreover, the viscosity of different formulations and their rheological behavior were also determined. All formulations showed a slightly rheopexic behavior. It was found that an increase in lecithin concentration resulted in an increase in the viscosity of the organogel. Results have shown that KT could be incorporated at high concentrations into lecithin organogels and these systems could be considered as desirable drug delivery vehicles for water soluble drugs and are capable of providing an appropriate drug release rate and pattern.
  • S. Honary, M. Golkar Page 125
    Film coating solutions containing different grades of HPMC (E5, E15 and E50) with and without polyethylene glycol (with various molecular weights) were examined by an oscillatory method, using Haake CV 100 rheometer. Fundamental rheological parameters (η, Gَ and G²) were measured over the frequency range from 0. 04 to 2 Hz. The variation with frequency of the loss tangent (a ratio of viscous to elastic contribution) provides a useful parameter for the characterization of pharmaceutical products. Magnitudes of the loss tangent are discussed with relation to coating solutions made by different grades of polymers and plasticizers.