فهرست مطالب

Toxicology Scientific Quarterly Journal - Volume:1 Issue:2, 2008
  • Volume:1 Issue:2, 2008
  • 60 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1387/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Evaluating the factors accompanying coma in patients admitted to the poisoning ICU of Loghman - Hakim Poison Hospital
    Hossein Hassanian, Moghaddam, Neda Boghbanian, Ali, Asghar Kolahi Page 56
    Iran is a young-populated country. Loss of consciousness (LOC) due to poisoning is a major cause of patient's referrals to emergency departments. It has good prognosis if it is appropriately diagnosed and treated. This study was done to determine the causes of LOC in patients hospitalized in poisoning ICU of Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital (LHPH) from September 23, 2004 to March 20, 2005.
    Materials And Methods
    This descriptive study was performed on 263 poisoned patients in the poisoning ICU of LHPH who had LOC with advanced grades (2,3 or 4) and were 10 years and older. Questionnaires including these data were filled: age, sex, grade of LOC, cause of LOC, cause of using the drug or poison (accidental or suicidal) and the outcome. These questionnaires were filled for patients whose data met our inclusion criteria. All the information was then analyzed by SPSS using Chi-square test.
    Two hundred sixty three patients were studied of which 59.7% were men and 40.3% women. The mean age was 30.2±11.9 with the range of 11 to 76 years. The median age was 26. The most common age group was 21 to 30 (45.3%). The most common causes of LOC were tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (26%), opium and opioids (18.6%), benzodiazepines (15.43%), unknown etiology (9.7%) and organophosphates (7.7%). 23.6% were poisoned accidentally and 76.4% were poisoned due to suicide attempts. Finally, 81.4% were discharged and 18.6% died.
    Most poisonings were due to suicides and the most common age was that of young people. Therefore, it is recommended that the young be mentally supported so that the suicidal motives decrease. Most comatose cases due to poisoning eventually recovered fully.
    Keywords: oisoning, Intoxication, Toxin, Coma, LOC, ICU (Intensive Care Unit)
  • Biomass and behvioral responses of carthworm, Lumbricus terrestris to copper chloride
    Iram Khan, Ayesha S. Ali, Sharique A.Ali Page 64
    Among soil species earthworms are ubiquitous, abundant and important for soil processes, constituting the largest terrestrial faunal biomass and are also impacted by soil pollutants. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in earthworm biomass and behavior could serve as a good indicator for copper toxicity in soil systems. Another aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of copper that cause maximum toxicity to the soil organisms and also affect their abundance. Method and Materials: The culture medium consisted of a 4-inch layer of uncontaminated red soil at the bottom, a thin layer of leaves, a 16 inches layer of cow dung mixed with soft soil and a thin layer of dried grass on the top. Wet gunny bags were placed to cover the boxes.
    Reduction in biomass was observed at all concentrations above 100 mg copper chloride /kg dry weight of soil which became more significant above 450 mg copper chloride /kg dry weight of soil (p<0.05) while responses to prick reflex weakened at these concentrations. Coiling and impaired movement was observed in earthworms exposed to maximum concentration of 750 mg of copper chloride /kg dry weight of soil for a period of 30 days while a lower concentration of 450 mg copper chloride /kg dry weight of soil also induced coiling and impaired movement after 60 days of exposure.
    On the basis of the results of the present study, it can be concluded that copper is toxic to earthworms as it is accumulated in its principle organs of locomotion, the muscles and nerves causing severe damage to structure and function of these tissues. Copper caused a reduction in biomass at all concentrations above 100mg/kg of dry weight of soil.
    Keywords: Biomass, Behavioral Responses, lumbricus terrestris, Copper
  • Determining rest concentration of Diazinon in agriculture Products (Melon and Cucumber) with GC-NPD and GC-MS methods
    Mitra Moalem, Ahmad Ghorbani, Seied Adel Moalem, Mehdi Balali, Hassan Solhi Page 72
    Diazinon is a moderately toxic broad-spectrum organophosphate, with a LD50 of 350 to 400 mg/kg for humans. Diazinon is absorbed through the skin and gastrointestinal tract and is rapidly metabolized within a few hours. Diazinon residues in melons and cucumbers have recently became a major health concern in Iran. Thus we decided to investigate Diazinon levels in melon and cucumbers. Method and Materials: Twenty cucumbers and 30 melons were randomly purchased from the market in Mashhad. The extraction procedure was in HR-P columns precondition with methanol and water. The subsequent elution of diazinon was accomplished by a mixture of hexane-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) prior to determination by GC-NPD and GC-MS/MS. Standards were prepared spiking blank juice samples to contract the observed matrix effect.
    Mean recovery rate for diazinon was 95.4% with relative standard deviation lower than %9 in a concentration range of 5-200ng/ml. Mean and SD of diazinon in melons was 107.64±38.5 ng/kg. Diazinon was not detected in cucumber samples. It was later confirmed that diazinon was not used for the crops of these cucumbers. Conclutions: GC-NPD and MS/MS was developed to determine residues of diazinon in melons and cucumbers. The GC-MS/MS analytical method showed a high efficacy for determination of dizinon residues in the fruits.
    Keywords: Diazinon, Pesticides, Melon, Gaschromatograpy, Massspectrometry, SPE
  • Identification of aflatoxin contamination in the milk of cows fed on moldy dry bread as a part of their ration
    Gholam Reza Moazeni Jula, Nasrin Nowzari, Ali Kavari Page 78
    Contamination of foodstuffs with fungi and the toxins produced by them is a very important problem in human and animal feeding. In most villages around Shiraz, in small-scale dairy farms, dry leftover bread which is mostly contaminated with fungi is used as a part of food ration for animals. The thin-layer chromatographic method which was used for determination of aflatoxin. Ingestion of this aflatoxin contaminated milk by calves and man results in different diseases and mortality in calves and different types of cancers and teratogenicity in human. Method and Materials: A total of 20 samples from dry breads, 60 milk samples from small scale milk producers which feed their animals on these breads and 10 milk samples from large-scale milk producers which use relatively modern methods of storing animal feeds, were collected. The thin-layer chromatographic and ELISA methods used for detection of aflatoxin M1 and M2 in cowsُ milk.
    The results of both methods were approximately the same and all 20 dried bread samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 much higher than the standard level of aflatoxin B1 in animal foodstuffs, the aflatoxin B1 in animal foodstuffs should not exceed 0. 02 mg/kg. All 60 milk samples collected from milk producers using dry bread were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin M1 which exceeded the legal level of aflatoxin M1 in milk. Samples have high level of aflatoxin M1 and M2 (100-400 μg/ml), while their levels in milk from industrial
    dairy farms which did not use dry bread were much lower. These results identify potentially hazardous public health problems from dairies produced in substandard small-scale dairy farms.
    Keywords: Aflatoxin, Milk, Dairy, Food, Shiraz
  • Heavy metal induced cell necrosis: involves apoptosis death signals initiated by mitochondrial injury
    Jalal Pourahmad, Farzaneh Jokar, Mariam Rabiei, Peter J. Obrien Page 85
    Severe industrial diseases result from the hepatic accumulation of mercury, cadmium or chromium in humans and on the other hand cadmium and dichromate and mercuric salts may induce lung or kidney cancer. Acute or chronic CdCl2, HgCl2 or dichromate administration induces hepatic and nephrotoxicity in rodents. Oxidative stress is often cited as a possible cause of metal induced cell death but the death signaling pathways involved have not yet been well investigated. Method and Materials: To search for death signaling mechanisms we used accelerated cytotoxicity mechanism screening techniques (ACMS) on isolated rat hepatocytes as our cellular model.
    Adding the CdC12, HgC12 or K2Cr2O7 to isolated hepatocytes caused a rapid increase in reactive oxygen species ("ROS") formation and a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Then lipid per-oxidation and cell-lysis ensued. Cytotoxicity was prevented by "ROS" scavengers and various inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) e.g. cyclosporin A, carnitine or trifluoperazine. Antioxidants prevented hepatocyte lysis induced by CdC12, K2Cr207 but not HgC12.
    Hepatocyte lysis was also prevented by various apoptosis inhibitors e.g. cycloheximide, dactinomycin and a tetrapeptide caspase 3 inhibitor which suggested that metal induced hepatocyte lysis involves apoptotic death signals initiated by MPT and "ROS".
    Keywords: Chromium, Cadmium, Mercury, MPT, Lipid per oxidation, ROS, Apoptosis, Necrosis
  • Teratological effects of Chlorpyrifos in mice
    Khawaja Raees Ahmad, Asmatullah Page 91
    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, was evaluated for potential teratogenic effects in mice. A single oral dose of insecticide (i.e. 72, 36 18 or 9 mg/kg) was given to the pregnant females on gestation day6 (GD6). These doses correspond 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% to the calculated LD50 value (144 mg/kg) for the pregnant mice. No signs of overt toxicity were observed at any of these doses. Method and Materials: Fetuses recovered from 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg groups showed a variety of morphological defects i.e. microcephaly, hydrocephaly, agnathia, anophthalmia, enlarged meningio-encepahlocoele, Spina-bifida, meromelia, micromelia, drooping wrists, rudimentary or kinky tails, round back, twisted spine, tortuous-limbs, flipper feet and sacral hygromas. Fetuses recovered from vehicle treated and 9mg/kg groups were apparently normal.
    Statistical analysis of the data based on single factor ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test have shown a dose dependent decrease in litter size (P < 0.001) along with averaged per litter: fetal weight (P < 0.01) and crown rump length (P < 0.05). The extent of ossification in embryonic skeleton decreased progressively with increased maternal CPF exposure.
    Based on these findings we conclude that, if treated on GD6, a single oral dose of 18 mg/kg CPF (12.5% of LD50) may lead to several craniofacial and skeletal anomalies in developing mice embryos, whereas its fetotoxic role is fairly dose dependent embryos.
    Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Teratogenesis, Feto, Toxicology
  • Evaluation of rodenticide poisoning distribution based on demographic characteristics, poisons, causes of intoxication, duration of hospitalization and mortality rate
    Ahmad Yaraghi, Nastaran Izadi Mood, Farzad Gheshlaghi, Mehran Rezvan, Shirin Pazooki Page 100
    Due to dissimilarities in the availability of poisons in different areas and lack of enough control over the purchase and sale of some dangerous rodenticides, it is prudent to establish the distribution of rodenticide poisoning in each region. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the demographic factors, types of poisons, duration of hospitalization and mortality of patients in Isfahan, Iran.
    Material and Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, the sex, age, type of poison, duration of hospital stay, and fatal outcomes of rodenticide poisoning patients who were admitted in the two poisoning referral centers of Isfahan (Noor and Ali Asghar hospitals) were evaluated through a 6-month-period. For statistical analysis, Chi square test using SPSS software was employed.
    Totally, 128 cases of rodenticide poisoning were hospitalized. The most common types of poisons were arsenic (43) and Warfarin (31) respectively. Poisoning was more common in males, especially between the ages 15 to 40. Suicide was the prevailing cause of poisoning. Two deaths occurred which were owing to phosphide consumption. There was no correlation between sex and the cause of poisoning, yet age had a significant influence (P Value = 0.025).
    Differences in the incidents of rodenticide poisoning could be due to differences in availability. Strict measures for control over these substances, particularly the ones with high toxicity, and informing the public of the hazards and the proper method of their storage would reduce poisonings
    Keywords: Poisoning, Rodenticide, Warfarin, Arsenic, Strychnine, Phosphides
  • A case report of Guillain - Barre-like Syndrome associated with Olanzapine hypersensitivity reaction
    Gholamreza Shamsaee, Reza Bavarsad Page 105
    Olanzapine (Zyprexa) has become one of the most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic drug in Iran, at least in part due to its low potential to cause extra-pyramidal side effects. Case: A 54-year-old man, who was a known case of schizophrenia from 10 years ago and within the recent years, was under periodic medical treatment by antipsychotic drugs.
    Neurologists and psychiatrists should be aware that olanzapine may cause severe adverse reactions such as Guillain-Barré-like syndrome.
    Keywords: Guillain, Barre, Like Syndrome, Olanzapine, Reaction