فهرست مطالب

Toxicology Scientific Quarterly Journal - Volume:1 Issue:3, 2009
  • Volume:1 Issue:3, 2009
  • 50 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1387/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Acate carbon monoxide poisoning in a poisoning referral center
    Ahmad Yaraghi, Nastaran Eizadi, Mood, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee, Amir Hooshang Zargarzadeh, Kamran Montazeri, Farzad Gheshiaghi, Alireza Shiri Page 108
    Bachground: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is a common problem that occurs more frequently during winter and leads to serious complications. In our Poisoning Referral Center, the incidence and complications of acute COP has not been evaluated previously. Therefore; we designed a study to evaluate its significance in our center. Methods & Materials: 111 cases of acute COP admitted during five last years period were studied retrospectively by means of data collection forms.
    Results
    COP was common in ages 21-30 years. The principal exposure sites were living rooms (36.9%) and bathrooms (31.5%). The majority of the cases were due to malfunctioning gas heaters (63.1%). Decreased level of consciousness (63.9%) was the most common clinical manifestations on admission. None of the poisonings were suicidal. Only two patients died of the poisoning.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, COP is relatively uncommon in our center despite the huge turnover of patients. Educational programs are needed to warn the public about the equipment that generate CO and the general clinical symptoms of CO poisoning.
    Keywords: Carbon Monoxide, Poisoning, Winter
  • Comparative evaluation of wide QRS interval and R changes in avR lead in precicting severe complications of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning
    Farzad Gheshlaghi, Nastaran Eizadi, Mood Page 113
    Background
    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAS) Poisoning is the most common poisoning in the Poisoning Emergency Department of Noor Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The objective of this study was to compare QRS interval duration with RaVR³3mm and R/SaVR³ 0.7 in predicting: serious complications of acute TCA toxicity. Methods and Materials: This study was descriptive – analytic and prospective cohort. TCA poisoned patients (155 cases) were evaluated in the Emergency Department of Noor Hospital, Isfahan. On admission time, ECG and ABGs were done. Data were analyzed by SPSS Software, using t – students and chi- square tests.
    Results
    The ECG results showed that frequency of RaVR³3mm, R/SaVR³ 0.7, QRS³0.1(s), QT> 0.48(s), Right axis deviation and arrhythmia were 5.2%, 12.9%, 37.4%, 8.38%, 12.4% and 4.5 % respectively. There was a significant relationship between widening of QRS with arrhythmia; RaVR³3mm with tachycardia and delirium; and R/SaVR³ 0.7 with delirium, seizure, tachycardia, hypotension and arrhythmia. QRS interval duration (61.5% -85.7%) was found to be a more sensitive indicator of toxicity than the R/SaVR ³ 0.7 (27.1% -30.7%) and RaVR>3mm (7.6% -14.2%). The positive prodective values (PPV) of ECG parameters for TCA toxicity for R/SaVR ³0.7 (20%) was more than RaVR³3mm (12.5%) and widening QRS (10.3%).
    Conclusion
    Specific ECG parameters such as R/SaVR, QRS interval duration and height of the R wave in lead aVR can be useful parameters in assessing and predicting cardiac and CNS complication of TCA toxicity.
    Keywords: Tricyclic Antidepressants, Widening QRS Toxicity, RaVR Modifications
  • Changes of epidemiological indices of Children intoxication during a 10-year period in Hamadan Province
    Firouzeh Hosseini, Iraj Sedighi, Sadegh Saba, Mozhgan Safari Page 117
    Background
    Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in young children. Method & Materials: In order to study changes of epidemiological indices of children intoxication during a 10-year period in Hamadan Province, all cases admitted to Ghaem Hospital from 1995-1999 were recruited, and compared with all cases admitted to the same hospital from 1990-1994.
    Results
    Mortality rate due to poisoning (4.8% to 0.6%), the time between intoxication and admission to the hospital (12 hours to 5.5 hours) and incidence of poisoning with Diphenoxylate (24.7% to4.4%) had decreased. The patients recieved more supportive care than the past, e.g. gastric washing (23.5% to30.8%), oxygen therapy (11.6% to18.3%), and serum therapy (6.2% to19.9%).
    Conclusion
    Unfortunately, opioid intoxication (9.4%to13.8%), benzodiazepines intoxication (8.2% to13.8%), improper conditions at home (parental addiction, separation, psychological illnesses, and death and having two or more sibling under 5 years of age) increased. Male gender, seasonal predominance (summer and spring), accidental poisoning and oral route of intoxication were similar in both studies. It is concluded that because opioid and benzodiazepines intoxication in urban children have increased, immediate preventive programs are highly recommended.
    Keywords: Epidemiological Indices, Children, Intoxication
  • The study of poisoning with mushroom and toxic plants (Tattore and Ricinus Communis) incidence in patients who admitted in Shohdaie Ashaier and Madani hospitals in the spring and summer of 2007
    Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi, Hassan Solhi, Mohammad Javad Tarrahi Page 121
    Bachground: Toxic plants are an important reason for poisoning. The responsible plants are variable in different geographic spots. Some areas such as Lorestan province have more variety in herbal plants because of geographic condition. Because of high poisoning incidence with toxic plants and mushroom, we assessed the incidence of poisoning with mushroom and toxic plants (Tattore and Ricinus Communis) in admitted patients to Shohadaie Ashaier and Madani hospitals during spring and summer of 2007. Method and materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted to reveal the incidence of intoxication by mushroom and toxin plants. All patients have been questioned about items such as age, gender, level of education, marital status, occupation, address and etc (demographic categories), also about intoxication such as way of poisoning.
    Results
    1529 patients was admitted in hospital due to poisoning, among them 146 cases were poisoned with mushroom and toxic plants, comprising 9.6% of all poisoned patients. 138 cases were poisoned with mushroom (9%) and 5 cases were poisoned with Tattore (0.4%) and 3 cases with Ricinus (0.2%). Toxic complications were 2 cases of hepatic failure, 4encephalopathy's 4 renal failures and death in 2 cases.
    Conclusion
    According to our results, the most common cause of poisoning in Lorestan Province is muscarin toxic in mushrooms. Considering the Lorestan province population, the 138 cases of mushroom poisoning indicates very incidence rate. Hence in Lorestan people should be warned about mushrooms containing amatoxin.
    Keywords: Poisoning, Mushroom, Toxic plant, Iran
  • Assessment of mercuric chloride intoxication in albino rats on the basis of hepatobiochemistry, Serum biochemistry, histochemistry & histopathology
    Kanhiya Mahour, Probhu N.Saxend Page 126
    Background
    Exposure to any xenobiotic can disturb the metabolic activities of particular organs. Hence present study is designed to find changes in hepatic biochemistry, histochemistry and histopathology besides serum enzyme levels after acute and sub-acute treatment with mercuric chloride, a heavy metallic compound, in albino rat (Rattus norvegicus).
    Materials and Methods
    Thirty albino rats were divided into two groups, one for acute and other for sub-acute study. Each group were divided into 3 sub-sets (6, 12 and 24 hrs) for acute and (7, 14 and 28 days) sub-acute treatments, with 5 rats in each. The controls were also taken with similar references. Mercuric chloride was given orally 0.926 mg/kg body wt. for acute and 0.330 mg/kg body wt. for sub-acute sets (LD50 = 9.26 mg/kg body wt) determined by probit analysis. The control groups received distilled water only.
    Results
    The result revealed that mercuric chloride caused fall in glycogen content, while elevations in cholesterol, total lipid, free fatty acids and protein levels after acute and sub acute treatment with mercuric chloride, while serum biochemistry showed significant increases in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand histochemical results also revealed reduction in the presence of glycogen and protein in hepatic lobules after acute and sub-acute mercuric chloride intoxication. Histopathological study showed pyknotic, degenerative and bi-nucleated nuclei, vacuolization and hepatocellular fluid accumulation inside centrilobular region at 100X fields.
    Conclusion
    On the basis of hepatobiochemical, histochemistry, histopathological and serum biochemistry alterations it becomes clear that mercuric chloride exhibit liver toxicity to a considerable extent. So there is an urgent need to develop a novel hepatoprotective formulation against mercuric chloride toxicity.
    Keywords: Mercuric chloride intoxication, Cholesterol, Total lipids, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Glycogen, Hepatic
  • Free radical scavenging activity of silymarin with reference to depleted uranium induced mitochondrial dysfunction
    Jalal Pourahmad, Farahnaz Tanbakosazan, Manireh Ghashang Page 133
    Introduction
    Recently depleted uranium is being widely used as anti-armour ammunition and at very high temperature, results in information of an aerosol of very small uranium oxide particles, which may be inhaled. It is alleged that these particles represent a new battlefield hazard because of the chemical toxicology and/or radioactivity. Method & materials: Male Wistar strain albino rats were divided at random into 3 groups. In the first group normal saline was administrated intraperitioneally (i.p), this group served as controls. The second group were i.p injected with uranyl acetate 40 mg/kg. In the third group the rats received 100 mg/kg/day silymarin by i.p injection for 5 days and 1hr after the last injection; animals were injected with a single i.p dose of uranyl acetate (40 mg/kg). Silymarin was tested for its free radical scavenging activity and protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction in uranyl acetate stressed rats.
    Results
    Lipid peroxidation activity was increased and activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome-coxidases, NADH-dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase) and glutathione was decreased in the liver and kidney of rats intoxicated with uranyl acetate when compared to control rats. In traperitoneal administration of silymarin significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation, increased the activity of mitochondrial enzymes and increased glutathione to near control level.
    Conclusion
    These results suggest that the major components in silymarin (including silybin A and B, isosilybin A and B, cis-silybin A and B) play a protective role through their free redical scavenging properties.
    Keywords: Silymarin, Depleted Uranium, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Enzymes
  • Exposure to Formaldehyde during sterilization in some manufacturers and assessing its absorption by zeolites
    Rezvan Zendehdel, Mojghan Zendehdel, Mahmoud Ghazi, Khansari, Homa Khiri, A.Abdoli Page 140
    Background
    Formaldehyde is one of the most serious air contaminant that can be found everywhere. Some of the source of formaldehyde include product of building materials, decorated materials, cigarette smoke, etc. Aldehydes compounds especially formaldehyde are used as disinfectants for sterilization in different industries. In this study we measured formaldehyde workplace exposure with NIOSH method in some factories. The NaY zeolite absorption capacity of formaldehyde in different concentration was also assessed. Method & materials: Samples of workplace airborne formaldehyde vapor were taken from 24 workplaces with 159 exposed workers. Of these samples, 11 workplaces were chosen from pharmaceutical companies, 5 workplaces from detergent manufacturing plants and 4 workplaces from poultry Farm Companies.
    Result
    The results show the mean concentration of formaldehyde in pharmaceutical companies was 0.769ppm, in detergent manufacturing was 0.558 ppm, and in poultry farm was 0.432ppm. Considering the short-term exposure limit (TLV-Ceiling) the results of the survey indicate that the number of subjects in exposed group (91.7%) was greater than unexposed group (8.3%). In evaluation NaY zeolite for its purification power it maximally absorbed 56.5% from highest concentration (1.5ppm) of formaldehyde after 8 –hours.
    Conclusion
    Since the inhalation of formaldehyde causes pneumonitis, pulmonary edema and allergic asthma, therefore using suitable personal protective equipment for the people working in these industries is needed. NaY zeolite seems to be a suitable absorption of formaldehyde and further research for its use in protective devices is warranted.
    Keywords: Exposure assessment, Formaldehyde, Zeolite
  • Acute liver dysfunction associated with interferon-beta-la (Avonex Use in a young female patient with relapsing - remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)
    Ali Reza Rezaei Ashtiani, Babak Zamani, Mohammad Rohani Page 146
    Background
    It has been reported that liver function alterations occur in 8–38% of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with interferon-beta in controlled clinical trials or in prospective but non-controlled studies. We report herein a case of symptomatic liver dysfunction associated with two-year-period of regular interferon-beta-1a (Avonex®) intramuscular injections in a young female patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Case: The patient was 19 year-old female with clinically proved RRMS, treated with interferon-beta-1a (Avonex®) 30 µg weekly by intramuscular injections for two years. She was referred with clinical symptoms of liver dysfunction including abdominal peri-umbilical and right upper quadrant pain, anorexia and malaise, that constipation, dark urine and icterus. Laboratory studies corroborated acute hepatitis state without any viral, autoimmune or drug-related causes. Patient's status improved after two weeks of conservative therapy and withholding interferon. Billirubin, liver function tests and liver enzyme values returned to normal.
    Conclusion
    Interferon-beta compounds could have serious hepatic complications, and patients using interferon-beta-1a should regularly monitor their liver function.
    Keywords: Interferon, Beta, 1a, Avonex®, Relapsing, Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), Acute Liver Dysfunction