فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue:3, 2006
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1385/08/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Masoud Mardani Page 109
  • Seyed Latif Mousavi, Jafar Salimiyan, Ahmad Karimi Rahgerdi, Jafar Amani, Shahram Nazarian, Hassan Ardestani Page 113
    Background
    Salmonella continues to be a major food borne pathogen for animals and humans. A sensitive and specific PCR–ELISA technique was developed to detect Salmonella typhi.
    Materials And Methods
    The assay was based on the incorporation of digoxigenin-labeled dUTP and a biotin-labeled primers specific for rfbE gene during PCR amplification. The labeled PCR products were bound to streptoavidin-coated wells of a microtiter plate and detected by ELISA. The specificity of the PCR was determined using 4 strains of Entrobacteriaceae family including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Enterobacter and 2 strains of salmonella genus including paratyphi A and entritidis.
    Results
    Among all the strains, only Salmonella typhi was positive. The PCR-ELISA detecting system was able to increase the sensitivity of assay up to 100 fold, compared with a conventional PCR. The detection limit in PCR-ELISA was 2.5ρg in genomic DNA and 20 cells in direct manner per reaction. The entire procedure took about 100 minutes. For further confirmation of the test, internal biotin labeled probe was designed for rfbE gene and detected with streptavidin.
    Conclusion
    We have developed a rapid and simple PCR-ELISA protocol suitable for routine analysis of viable Salmonella typhi.
  • Mojtaba Varshochi, Mohammad Hossein Rastgar, Abdolnaser Raffi, Behrooz Nagili Page 121
    Background
    The evidence of rapid spread of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR–TB) strains especially in high risk communities, persuade clinicians to find new drugs for this problem. b– lactams with few or no side effects has been reviewed as an alternative drugs for this issue. This study carried out to determine the effectiveness of amoxicillin–clavulanate in a group of Iranian patients.
    Materials And Methods
    Amoxicillin–clavulanate was studied in five different minimal inhibitory concentrations (32- 512mg/ml) on 90 clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (50 strains were sensitive and 40 were resistant to first- line anti-TB drugs).
    Results
    All strains were found resistant to amoxicillin–clavulanate in concentration of 32mg/ml. Only in concentration of 64mg/ml, sensitive strains (to first-line anti-TB drugs) were significantly more susceptible to amoxicillin–clavulanate than resistant strains. Five different MICs showed a non-significant difference in susceptibility to amoxicillin–clavulanate between strains with various resistance patterns to first-line anti-TB drugs. However, in 29 strains MIC were above 512mg/ml.
    Conclusion
    Although amoxicillin–clavulante might be a suitable candidate as a second-line anti-TB drug, further clinical trials are required to draw a firm conclusion.
  • Hossein Goudarzi, Soodabeh Rostami, Gita Eslami, Aliakbar Soleimani Rahbar, Farah Miraghasi, Mehdi Besharat, Fatemeh Fallah Page 127
    Background
    Ocular adenoviral infections occur throughout the world in both sporadic and epidemic forms. In the present study we determined the frequency of adenoviral conjunctivitis in two referral university hospitals in Tehran by cell culture and PCR method.
    Materials And Methods
    Specimens were scraped from the lower palpebral conjunctiva of 115 patients with conjunctivitis who had referred to Labafinejad and Imam Hossein hospitals during a 6-month period and transferred to two different media, one for cell culture and the other for PCR. Then specimens of cell culture were inoculated to Hep-2 cells and sub cultured in micro plates. Cultures were evaluated for CPE. Viral DNA was extracted from specimens and PCR technique was applied by special primers.
    Results
    Of 115 samples, 18(15.7%) were adenovirus positive during PCR analysis, of which 14 revealed to be cell culture positive as well. Most of the sufferers from adenoviral conjunctivitis were female (61%) and aged 41-50 years (50%). In patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis, conjunctival hyperemia, pain and eyelids edema were the most common findings.
    Conclusion
    Results have demonstrated that adenoviruses are common causative agents for viral conjunctivitis. PCR revealed to be more sensitive and accurate than cell culture for detecting adenoviral conjunctivitis.
  • Bahman Khalili, Gorbanali Shahabi, Mehdi Khalili, Masoud Mardani, Luis E. Cuevas Page 131
    Background
    Diarrheal infections are responsible for over a quarter of all childhood mortality worldwide. The present study was performed to establish risk factors for hospitalization of children with diarrhea in Shahrekord, Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    For this case-control study, cases were selected through children hospitalized due to acute diarrhea lasting less than 14 days and controls were compromised of children with a clinical diagnosis of acute diarrhea lasting for less than 14 days who did not require hospitalization. Controls were selected from out-patient department or 3 primary health care centers.
    Results
    The study population included 259 hospitalized children (cases), 245 OPD and 245 primary health centres controls. In total, bloody diarrhea, dehydration, breastfeeding for £6 months, history of hospitalization in the previous year, lack of access to safe water, keeping animals at home and the presence of watery stool were associated with an increased risk of hospitalization during univariate analysis. However, multivariate analysis revealed that bloody diarrhea, watery stool, vomiting, use of unsafe water, prior hospitalization, and the presence of rotavirus or salmonella in the stool were independent factors increasing the risk of hospitalization.
    Conclusion
    Our results indicate that improving environmental sanitation, socio-economic status and establishing training programs for parents can reduce risk of hospitalization due to diarrhea in children.
  • Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Davood Mehrabani, Ahmad Oryan, Qasem Asgari, Mehdi Karamian, Mohsen Kalantari Page 137
    Background
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran, while its incidence has been doubled over the last decade. This study was performed for the first time in Larestan, Fars province, located in southern part of Iran to determine infectious patterns in the reservoir hosts and sand fly vectors using parasitological and molecular methods.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty two rodents and 156 sand flies were evaluated for the patterns of Leishmania infection. PCR was performed to characterize the parasites using the culture of parasite in Evans medium.
    Results
    Tatera indica, Gerbillus spp. and Meriones crassus were the trapped animals and Phlebotomus papatasi was the trapped fly. L. major was isolated and identified as the causative agent of CL from T. indica, Gerbillus spp and two female Ph. papatasi (Alamarvdasht). Among the trapped rodents, four T. incida were positive for L. major in Larestan region including Alamarvdasht town (2 males), and Lamerd town (2 females). L. major was also isolated from two female Gerbillus spp in Lamerd and Lar towns in Larestan region. No infection was detected in M. crassus in the area.
    Conclusion
    This is the first report detecting L. major in naturally infected T. indica, Gerbillus spp and Phlebotomus papatasi in Larestan region.
  • Mehrangiz Rajaii, Behrouz Naghili, Abolfazl Pourhassan Page 145
    Background
    Brucellosis is still a major health concern worldwide. The aim of the present study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of the STA (Standard Tube Agglutination) test and IgG ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) in diagnosis and follow up of the brucellosis.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 80 patients were studied. STA test materials were prepared by Razi Institute (Tehran, Iran), while IgG ELISA kit were manufactured by GmbH (IBL, Germany). Meanwhile, blood culture and liver function tests were requested for all patients.
    Results
    Totally, 26 cases were positive in both STA and ELISA evaluation, of whom 8 cases showed high titers in both tests. ELISA was demonstrated to be more sensitive when compared with STA.
    Conclusion
    Although STA is a widely applied test, it cannot differentiate acute and chronic states of brucellosis. Our data suggest that IgG ELISA may be a suitable test for diagnosis and follow up of brucellosis.
  • Rasoul Yousefi Mashouf, Ali Akbar Moshtaghi, Seyyed Hamid Hashemi Page 149
    Background
    Shigellosis accounts for majority of cases of bacterial diarrhea in infants in developing countries. The present study was conducted to determine the distribution and pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species among children 0-14 years of age with acute diarrhea in Hamadan.
    Materials And Methods
    The study included all acute diarrhea patients who admitted in the pediatric department from January 2001 to December 2004. Antibiogram test was performed by gel-diffusion method and ten commonly used antibiotics were applied.
    Results
    Of 1686 stool samples, 166 (9.8%) were positive for Shigella species. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (40.3%) followed by S. dysentriae (33.7%), S. boydii (15.1%) and S. sonnei (10.8%). Of Shigella isolates, 91% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent(s), and 88% were multi-drug resistant. Most strains were resistant to chloramphenicol (90%), ampicillin (89%), co-trimoxazole (84%), tetracycline (83%) and nalidixic acid (51%). Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav), ceftriaxone, amikacin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 34.9%, 23.4%, 6.6%, 3.6% and 1.8% of the isolates, respectively. Emerging resistance against nalidixic acid (42.3%) was observed.
    Conclusion
    Our experiences suggest that Shigella species could be an important etiological agent of diarrhea in this area, while the drugs of choice for the treatment of Shigella infection should be ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Amikacin was the third drug of choice
  • Mohammad Abdigoudarzi, Hamid Belgheiszadeh, Nabiolah Shariati Page 159
    Background
    Tick paralysis is a disease of human and animals characterized by an acute ascending flaccid motor paralysis. The condition may terminate fatally unless the tick(s) are removed before respiratory paralysis occurs. Patient: A 48 years old female was referred to a clinic in Tehran with edema at the head and neck regions. She had fever and disequilibrium. She reported a travel to mountainous parts of Tehran in early spring. During physical examination a small tick was found attached firmly to the head. It has been detached and sent to Razi Research Institute and a female Dermacentor marginatus (Acari: Ixodidae) was verified. Following the tick removal the patient''s condition was improved.
    Conclusion
    With respect to a rich fauna of Ixodid ticks in Iran, it is important to keep in mind the tick associated complications in this area.
  • Parviz Vahdani, Hossein Ali Sharifian, Zohreh Aminzadeh, Maryam Keshtkar Jahromi, Seyed Amin Zamiri Page 169