فهرست مطالب

Addiction & Health - Volume:1 Issue: 1, Summer 2009
  • Volume:1 Issue: 1, Summer 2009
  • 62 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1388/05/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
|
  • Ali Golshiri, Mohammad Reza Mokhtaree, Ziba Shabani, Sayed Taghi Tabatabaee, Amir Rahnama, Mohammad Moradi, Ahamad Reza Sayadi, Hadi Faezi Page 1
    Background
    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified.
    Findings
    Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2nd culture were not seen.The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol.
    Conclusion
    In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora.
    Keywords: Opium, Nasaopharynx, Microbial flora
  • Akbar Hamzei Moqaddam, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Ahmadi Musavi, Khatereh Khademizadeh Page 6
    Background
    Stroke is the third cause of mortality and not only leads to dependency, which is a great social, individual and cultural problem, but also can affect the physiology, immune system and coagulation system such as plasma fibrinogen, and it may potentially increase the risk of stroke. This study investigated the relationship of opium dependency and stroke.
    Methods
    This case- control study was carried out in 2003-2004 in Shefa Hospital in Kerman, Iran. The case group included 105 stroke patients and control group included the same number of patients from urology ward. There were 55 females and 50 males in each group. Patient's data were collected through their medical history, physical examinations, and diagnosis procedures recorded in specific questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Chi square test.
    Findings
    31 patients (29.5%) in the case and 11 (10.5%) in the control group were opium dependent and the difference was significant (P = 0.001). The relationship of cigarette smoking and stroke was also significant (P = 0.0001). To find the independent effect of each of these two factors, a logistic regression analysis was done, which showed that the independent relationship of each of these two was significant (Odds ratio = 2.207, P = 0.012 and Odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.040 for cigarette and opium dependency respectively). Conlusion: Opium dependency can be regarded as an independent risk factor for stroke. As this corresponds to previous findings as to opium dependency can increase plasma fibrinogen and development of atherosclerosis, it is important for prophylactic manages.
    Keywords: Drug dependency, Opium, Stroke
  • Nabi Banazadeh, Ali Kheradmand, Heidarali Abedi Page 12
    Background
    Methadone maintenance therapy is a treatment of choice for opiate addiction. Understanding opiate dependents’ experiences of patient's treatment is a key to continue the treatment and can provide help to revise the standards of methadone centers and improve the quality of treatment. This study aimed to describe the essence and structure of opiate dependents’ experiences with methadone maintenance therapy.
    Methods
    It was a qualitative phenomenological study, in which participants were selected from opiate dependents referred to methadone centers in Kerman city in 2007. Sampling was purposive and continued until data saturation, which was achieved at 32 participants. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Colaizzi's method was applied for data analysis. The rigor of the present study was assessed based on the criteria of confirmability and credibility.
    Findings
    A total of 26 themes were extracted and categorized into three main themes including positive therapeutic alliance, negative therapeutic alliance and therapeutic alliance requests.
    Conclusion
    Client–centered therapy in methadone clinics creates a positive therapeutic alliance, and persuades patients to continue their treatment. Establishing a good relationship with patients during their treatment procedure is an effective way to meet the goals. Individual and group counseling sessions and advices on family and career related issues during the treatment should be considered as well.
    Keywords: Methadone, Experiences, Professional Patient Relationships, Qualitative research, Opiate dependence
  • Alireza Ghaffari Nejad, Hasan Ziaadini, Nabi Banazadeh Page 20
    Background
    Opium dependency is an important health problem in Iran. Several studies show that most opium dependent patients have concomitant psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was evaluation of psychiatric disorders in opium dependency in comparison with heroin dependency.
    Methods
    This is a descriptive study on 192 male opium dependent patients who were admitted in dual- diagnosis ward of Beheshti Hospital in Kerman for detoxification. After evaluation of their demographic data, they were assessed by means of SCL-90-R test.
    Findings
    The mean age of subjects was 33.92 ± 7.67 years. All scales of SCL-90-R were evaluated as borderline or sick. The scores of obsession-compulsion, anxiety, phobia, psychosis, PST, and GSI were significantly higher in heroin dependents compared to opium dependent patients (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    It is recommended that all patients with opium dependency should be evaluated for co-morbid psychiatric disorders. This may improve the outcome and management of their dependency.
    Keywords: Opium, Heroin, Psychopathology, SCL, 90, R
  • Gholamreza Sepehri, Majid Mousavi Fard, Ehsan Sepehri Page 25
    Background
    Athletes, especially bodybuilders, abuse anabolic steroid drugs to improve their strength and enhance their muscle growth and appearance. This study was conducted to determine the type and frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in bodybuilder athletes in Kerman City.
    Methods
    A confidential questionnaire which included demographic data (age, education), name of abused anabolic drug and duration of drug abuse was completed by 202 bodybuilder athletes, and the collected data were analyzed using Chi Square test. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.
    Findings
    The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse was 18.8%. The mean period of bodybuilding activity was significantly higher in those used the anabolic drugs (38.8 months), comparing to those did not use any drugs (14.3 months). Oxymetholone was the most common drug used by athletes (42% merely used Oxymetholone). The frequency of anabolic steroids abuse was not related to education and age of the bodybuilder athletes.
    Conclusion
    Bodybuilder athletes in Kerman city abuse anabolic steroids, and the health care system should plan to inform them about anabolic steroid adverse effects.
    Keywords: Anabolic steroid, Bodybuilder athletes, Drug abuse
  • Nouzar Nakhaee, Hasan Ziaaddini, Ali Karimzadeh Page 31
    Background

    This study investigated the epidemiology of drug abuse among high school students in Kerman.

    Methods

    This was a cross-sectional study on a randomly selected sample of 652 first and second grade high school students (256 boys, 396 girls) in Kerman. They were informed that their answers would be classified and nameless before they filled questionnaires. Schools and classes were selected using stratified sampling method.

    Findings

    From total 652 students participated in this study, 39.2% (256) were boys and 60.7% (396) were girls. Most of the students had information about opium (70.7% of boys and 79.8% of girls), and then alcohol (55.9% of boys and 53.9% of girls). Most offered substance to the students was alcohol (25% in boys and 12.4% in girls). The most effective encouragement for using drugs was through their friends (39% in boys, 16.9% in girls). The most used drug was alcohol among boys (11.4%) and sedative tablets among girls (12.2%). Boys preferred to use drugs in wedding ceremonies (11.3%) but girls proffered their houses (4.8%). The first reason for using drugs was socializing with unsavory friends (29.4%) and the second one was domestic problems (21.4%).

    Conclusion

    The results of this study indicated dangerously increase of drug abuse among teenagers, who are the future of the society. If these results could be generalized, authorities must think of serious solutions for this rising problem.

    Keywords: Substance abuse, Students, Narcotics
  • Hasan Ziaaddini, Ali Kheradmand, Mostafa Vahabi Page 38
    Background
    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and some of the related factors among schizophrenic and other hospitalized psychiatric patients.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study on 120 patients hospitalized in Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kerman in 2005. Patients were equally devided in two groups of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Sampling was based on statistical census and data were collected using a questionnaire including 27 questions on demographic data, psychiatric disorder, smoking cigarettes and other substances, and Fagerstrom test. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and ANOVA tests using SPSS software.
    Findings
    Prevalence and severity of cigarette smoking was 71.6% and 6.47% among schizophrenic and 51.6% and 6.40% among other psychiatric patients, respectively and the difference was not significant. History of withdrawal was 25.6% and 58.1% in the schizophrenia and other disorders respectively and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). Addiction to other substances was 51.6% in schizophrenic and 45% in the other patients and the most prevalent substances in both groups were opium and alcohol. The severity of smoking cigarettes was 6.9 along with other drug abuses and 5.1 in cases with just smoking based on Fagerstrom test and the difference was significant (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of cigarette smoking in both schizophrenia and other psychiatric patients is higher than normal population, but there is no significant difference between these two groups. Schizophrenic patients need persistent supportive and supervising programs for cigarette smoking abuse treatment because of their cognitive, motivate and social problems.
    Keywords: Cigarettes, Schizophrenia, Psychiatric disorders
  • Ali Kheradmand, Eshrat Zamani, Nassim Hedayati Page 44
    Backgrounds

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various educations in primary schools to prevent drug addiction.

    Methods

    In this qualitative study, data included the experiences of those who been students in the developed countries for some years as well as their parents. The data were collected by semi-structured and unstructured interviews as well as documents.

    Findings

    The results showed that education for prevention of drug addiction begins in primary schools in the developed countries using various methods. These educations are not occasional but constant and infused in all curriculum subjects and grades. Students become familiar with various drugs and learn about their effects.

    Conclusion

    Our findings showed that social problems are discussed openly in schools of the developed countries and students try to find solutions which are considered by authorities.

    Keywords: Drug addiction, Education, Teaching strategies, Primary school, Developed countries
  • Mansoureh Nasirian, Nabi Banazadeh, Ali Kheradmand Page 53
    Background
    Lycanthropy is an unusual belief or delusion in which the patient thinks that he/she has been transformed into an animal. In rare cases, the patient believes that another person has been transformed into an animal. Case Report: We report a patient with an uncommon variant of lycanthropy is introduced. The symptoms appeared after consumption of ecstasy. This shows the occurrences of uncommon and rare psychosis after ecstasy drug use especially in patients susceptible to schizophrenia. Ecstasy drug can induce paranoid psychosis similar to schizophrenia. In the presented case, ecstasy seemed to have a role in patient's underlying susceptibility to schizophrenia.
    Keywords: Lycanthropy, Ecstasy
  • Ghodratolah Rajabizadeh, Ali Kheradmand, Mansoureh Nasirian Page 58
    Background
    Tramadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to sever pain. It has more advantage and less opioid adverse effects than conventional opioid analgesia. Case Report: This article reports a patient with tramadol dependency that had psychosis after tramadol withdrawal.
    Conclusion
    By the increase of tramadol usage for relief of chronic pain, tramadol abuse and dependency is increased. Some of tramadol withdrawal symptoms are not related to opioid, for example when the effectiveness is not only on opioid receptors, but on catecholamine and serotonin receptors. So, together with typical symptoms of withdrawal, atypical symptomes had been reported. Psychosis is one of tramadol atypical withdrawal symptoms which subsided a few days after suppression of withdrawal symptoms. In such cases, the diagnosis is substance withdrawal instead of psychotic disorder due to substance withdrawal and treatment is based on this diagnosis.
    Keywords: Tramadol, Psychosis, Atypical withdrawal