فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:2, 2008
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1386/11/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Mondal, M.*, Trivedy, K., Nirmal Kumar, S. Page 63
    The domesticated silkworm، Bombyx mori Linn.، a lepidopteran molecular model and an important economic insect that are emerging as an ideal molecular genetic resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silkworm، B. mori produces massive amount of silk proteins during the final stage of larval development. These proteins are stored in the middle silk gland and they are discharged through the anterior duct and spinneret، at the end of the fifth instar. Two kinds of silk proteins have been distinguished as major components of silk cocoons، the first being fibroin، a fibrous protein composed of heavy (H) chain، Light (L) chain and glycoprotein linked by disulfide bonds and the second being sericin a natural macromolecular protein، serving as an adhesive to unite fibroin for making silk cocoons of silkworm، B. mori. Recently، silkworm is being used as biofactory for the production of useful protein using the silk gland، which has promoted the technological development in sericulture. With the above background silkworm can be classified as a value added biomaterial for medical application، application of silk protein fibroin and sericin as a biomaterial and other seri-byproducts. The present paper overviews some important studies carried out on sericin and fibroin of silkworm، Bombyx mori Linn.
  • Purification and characterization of antiviral protein from silkworm fecal matter
    Neelagund, S. E. *, Ingalhalli, S. S., Savanurmath, C. J., Hinchigeri3, S. B., Hiremath, M. B Page 77
    Antiviral proteins (AVP), present in silkworm fecal matter, show activity against nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) in vitro and in vivo. The extract of silkworm fecal matter prepared in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.5 was subjected to 50% solid ammonium sulfate precipitation to enrich AVP, then which was dialyzed. The dialysate was applied to the column containing silica gel-G, the column elutes were purified by gelfiltration chromatography. The gelfiltration pattern gave three protein peaks A, B and C. The protein obtained from peak fractions of peak A is found to be active against NPV in vitro. Whereas the proteins were obtained from peak fractions of peaks C and B were not shown activity against NPV in vitro. The peak A fractions were collected and further purified by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using C4 column. Purified AVP of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) resulted in two protein bands with the molecular mass of 23 KD and 16 KD. Thymol sulphuric acid method of carbohydrate staining indicated that both of these protein bands are glycoproteins. AVP activity is determined in vitro by precipitation reaction. In vivo activity of the AVP is confirmed by conducting the bioassay in silkworms.
  • Lakzian, A. *, Razavi darbar, S. Page 87
    Sterilized soils are commonly used for the study of xenobiotic sorption and as an abiotic control in biodegradation experiments. They are also used for the chemical study of nitrogen and carbon cycle processes and the elimination of the biological factors. In this research the effects of different soil sterilization methods such as autoclaving, fumigating and exposure to ultraviolet and microwave irradiation on soil chemical and biological properties (soil acidity, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, optical density, extractable carbon and nitrogen and colony forming unit) were examined under laboratory conditions. All the sterilization methods significantly (at P<0.05) decreased pH and increased electrical conductivity (EC), optical density (OD), extractable carbon and nitrogen as compared to non-sterilized soil samples. The results showed that autoclaving method was the most effective method in eliminating soil microorganisms and ultra violet irradiation was the less effective one. These induced changes were likely due to release of soluble organic acids from humic materials and dead microorganisms.
  • Gupta, B. *, Dass, B. Page 93
    In the present study basal area and Importance Value Index (IVI) attributes of herbage were investigated in chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sargent) stands of three different ages and also in open grassland in the sub-tropical region of Himachal Pradesh (India) during growing season (June to September). A higher basal area of the herbage was recorded in open grassland as compared to chir pine stands of different ages. Basal area of the vegetation increased gradually from July onwards and its highest values were recorded in September in all the systems. Amongst the chir pine stands basal area of herbage was recorded highest in tree stand followed by pole and sapling stands. IVI and basal area values of different species revealed that only few species were major contributors to the total basal area values of the vegetation at different times. The differences in the basal area of vegetation in the four systems at a particular time and changes as recorded in the basal area with the sampling time were found to be statistically significant.
  • Solati, N. H*, Falahatkar, B. Page 99
    Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara,1144, Iran ABSTRACT This study was conducted the effect of stress on blood glucose and cortisol levels in cultured great sturgeon. Blood sampling was done and then water level decreased to the half in experimental tanks. The fish were exposed in that situation and second blood sampling was taken after 6 hours. Glucose and cortisol concentrations were measured by glucose oxidase method and Radioimmunoassay (RIA), respectively. The results showed that average of cortisol concentration reached from 10.8 ? 3.3 to 14.6 ? 9.0 ng ml-1 (P<0.05). Indeed, average of glucose concentration was 56.4 ? 12.0 pre-stress exposures and reached to 111.6 ? 17.5 mg dl-1 post-stress (P<0.05). Stress is most often associated with a negative perspective. We recommend for increasing efficiency in rearing, should avoid of stressors possibly that it needs to right management on rearing practice and this action causes to increase in production, fish welfare, restoration and economic efficiency.
  • Bhat, SH. A. *, Nataraju, B. Page 105
    Lamerin microspridia (Lbms) isolated from Lamerin breed of the silkworm، Bombyx mori، L. and the standard strain Nosema bombycis، were induced to germinate artificially by two-step procedure. Fresh percoll purified spores were activated by incubating them in potassium hydroxide solution (KOH) (pH 11. 00) and germinated artificially by using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) ، (pH 7. 00). Germinated spores appeared black under phase contrast microscope. Germination percentage amoung the microsporidia spores varied in different concentrations of KOH. The Lbms was found poor germinator as compared to Nosema bombycis in all the concentrations of the chemicals. The length of the extruded polar filament was also varied between the two microsporidia.
  • Ram Rao, D. M*, Kodandaramaiah, J., Reddy, M. P., Katiyar, R. S., Rahmathulla, V. K. Page 111
    The influence of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizer (BBF) with 50% reduction in the recommended dose of (N and P) chemical fertilizers on leaf quality traits of mulberry variety (S-13) and its impact on silkworm (PM ? NB4D2) growth and cocoon characters were studied under semi-arid conditions. Four different treatments were imposed i.e., T1: Control (only 100% NPK); T2: VAM (50% cut in P); T3: BBF (50% cut in N) and T4: BBF and VAM (50% cut in N and P). The results revealed that reduction (50%) in the dose of chemical fertilizers in T2, T3 and T4 did not affected the leaf quality traits or cocoon parameters, this may be due to the effect of microbial inoculants in these treatments, which had efficiently regulated the normal growth, metabolism and physiological activity in plants. Among the three-biofertilizer treatments, leaf quality, silkworm growth and cocoon parameters were found improved in T4 and was on par with T1 control. The dual inoculation (T4) proved economical and beneficial with regard to saving of 50 % cost of chemical fertilizers and improvement in soil fertility, leaf quality and cocoon parameters, thus this technology can be recommended to sericulture
  • Ziaee, M. *, Shayesteh, N. * Page 119
    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of SilicoSec? against 7 - 14 day old adults, old and young larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) with the mean ? SE (n = 30) weight of 3.4 ? 0.1 and 0.6 ? 0.1 mg, respectively at 27?C and 55 ? 5% RH. Wheat treated with four dose rates of SilicoSec? and untreated wheat served as a control with three replications. Adult?s mortality was measured after 2, 7 and 14 days of exposure. After 14 day mortality counts, all adults were removed and samples retained under the same conditions for a further 60 days to assess progeny production. In the case of larvae, mortality was counted after 1, 2 and 7 day. After 2 day no concentration achieved 11% mortality for adults, however; adult''s mortality exceeds 89.65% when exposed for 7 day to SilicoSec?. Mortality of old and young larvae at 600 ppm after 2 day were 28.88 and 22.22%, respectively and exceed to 60.71 and 69.04% at longer exposure of 7 day. Due to results mortality of T. castaneum was influenced by interval exposed to wheat treated with SilicoSec? and over this exposure, the increases in application rate of SilicoSec? had significant effect on the mortality. Young larvae of red flour beetle were more sensitive to SilicoSec? than old larvae and adults were more tolerant. The mean number ? SE of progeny in the control was 1.66 ? 0.101 individuals per vial and there was a significant difference between treated and untreated wheat, so reproductive potential of adults in treated wheat was suppressed when compared with untreated wheat.
  • Rezayati Charani, P. *, Mohammadi Rovshandeh?, J., Mohebby, B., Ramezani, O. Page 125
    Hydrothermal treatment of wood material products with many interesting properties such as enhanced dimensional stability, lower equilibrium moisture content and increased biological durability. The effects of hydrothermal treatment on dimensional stability, oven dry density and water absorption of beech wood (Fagus Orientalis) naturally grown, has been studied in present research that extremely used in Iran. Hydrothermal applied to the wood samples (2.5Cm?2.5Cm?2.5Cm) in three different temperatures (150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC) and four different durations (1h, 3h, 5h and 7h) in reactor. Then, the samples and their controls were immersed in water at 25 oC, 65% relative humidity for various periods. Volumetric swelling percentage and rate of the water absorption values of the samples and their controls were measured at a period of 24 hour in 8 steps on basis of oven dried dimension. The obtained data were analyzed using Microsoft Office (EXCEL 2003). The data analysis indicated that best anti-swelling efficiency value was achieved at 170 oC (treating temperature) within 1 hour (treating time) and 8 steps of soaking - dried measurement by hydrothermal treatment. Consequences for anti-swelling efficiency, decreasing of samples specific gravity, water absorption and water repellency effectiveness values obtained 27.95%, 8.49%, 56.41% and 20.20% respectively. Therefore, hydrothermal treatment showed a little decreasing at 150 oC to 170oC in specific gravity of treatment samples because maximum lessening of specific gravity obtained 8.02% in the highest condition of treatment after final soaking.
  • Ayodele, J. T. *, Emmanuel, B. Page 133
    ABSTRACT Methane concentrations in Kano municipality have been attributed to the burning of solid and fossil fuels and industrial processes. Using an automatic gas sampling system, methane in the Kano atmosphere was determined. Its distribution in the municipality was skewed towards high frequency of low concentration with a mean and standard deviation of 0.61? 0.39 ?g/m3. Similarly the distribution in Sabon gari, Bata, Nassarawa and Hotoro were 0.41? 0.28; 0.58 ? 0.29; 0.46 ? 0.31 and 0.71 ? 0.49 ?g/m3 respectively while BUK, City Brigade, Kurna-Asabe and other residential areas were (0.54 ? 0.45, 0.74 ? 0.46; 0.61 ? 0.34; 0.78 ? 0.40?g/m3) respectively. The industrial areas did not show significant variations from each other as in the residential areas.
  • Soomro, A. N. *, Baloch, W. A., Jafri, S. I. H., Suzuki, H. Page 143
    Present study describes the length-weight (LWR) and length-length (LLR) relationships of a freshwater catfish Eutropiichthyes vacha Hamilton from Indus River, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 281 specimen of E. vacha were collected from fisherman?s catch from February 2005 to January 2006, are used for this study. The parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship were calculated as W= aLb are presented. The values for allometric coefficient b of the LWR were close to isometric value for male (b = 3.159) and combined values for both sexes (b = 3.053). However, it suggested negative allometric growth for females (b = 2.973). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (r2 > 0.9) P< 0.0001.
  • Mahdavi, A. *, Naghdi, R. Page 147
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of information on forest and data transfer and to identify the gaps in information and data flow in forestry sector in Iran. The study evaluated the data and information flow in three levels (control offices level, provincial offices level and organizational offices level) using the document analysis and questioning (interviews and questionnaire). It has a major outputs; identification of the gaps in information and data flow to sustainable forest management and also can be used as a prerequisite to designing a forest information system.