فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue: 3, 2009
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1388/05/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Kandakai, Olukemi Yt*, Mawak Jd*, Onojo Mm** Page 1
    Background
    Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in most developing countries, with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) being one of the most important aetiologic agents of infantile diarrhoea in many of these countries.
    Objective
    To determine the prevalence of EPEC in children (0-24 months) with diarrhoea.
    Methods
    One hundred stool samples from children with diarrhoea attending the National Hospital in Abuja, Nigeria were analysed for the presence of EPEC using standard bacteriological methods. Isolates were also subjected to antimicrobial testing using the disc diffusion method.
    Results
    Fifteen (15.00%) samples were positive for EPEC. The highest number of isolates was recovered from the 6-12 months age group with 10 (20.41%) in total. No isolates were recovered from the 0-5 months age group or from exclusively breast fed children, however, nine (19.15%) children receiving mixed feeding and six (33.33%) children who were not being breast-fed tested positive for EPEC, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). The highest number of isolates, eight (53.33%), belonged to those in the poly 1 sero-group with serotypes O1, O26, O86a, O111, O119, O127 and O128. Fourteen (93.33%) of the isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin, 13 (86.67%) each to ofloxacin and colistin, 11 (73.33%) to nalidixic acid, 10 (66.67%) to cefuroxime, two (13.33%) to cotrimoxazole, and one (6.67%) to tetracycline. None of the isolates were found to be sensitive to ampicillin or chloramphenicol.
    Conclusion
    This study has shown that multidrug resistant EPEC is associated with infantile diarrhoea in Abuja, Nigeria. To address this issue, antibiotic therapy should take into consideration the susceptibility pattern of the pathogen. In addition, the incidence of EPEC in children can be traced primarily to faulty weaning practices and/or poor personal hygiene.
  • Al, Amri Am*, Bamosa, Ao** Page 2
    Purpose
    This phase I study was conducted to determine the general toxicities of thymoquinone in humans، as well as any anti-cancer effects that the drug may have in patients with advanced cancer for which there were no standard curative or palliative measures. Patients and
    Methods
    Adult patients with solid tumors or hematological malignancies who had failed or relapsed from standard therapy were included in this study. Patients who were at least 18 years of age with an Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status (ECOG) of ≤ 2 received thymoquinone orally at a starting dose level of 3، 7، or 10mg/kg/day. Dose escalation proceeded according to a modified Fibonacci design.
    Results
    All 21 patients received at least one week of treatment، with a median of 3. 71 weeks (range 1 week to 20 weeks). No side effects were reported and the maximum tolerated dose (MDT) was not identified. No anti-cancer effects were observed.
    Conclusion
    On the basis of this study، thymoquinone was well tolerated at a dose ranging from 75mg/day to 2600mg/day. Neither toxicities nor therapeutic responses were reported.
  • Karvandian K.*, Beigmohammadi Mt*, Mahmoodpoor A.*, Jafarzadeh A.*, Abtahi Hr§ Page 3
    Background And Objective
    Because of fixed airway obstruction in patients with laryngeal tumors، measurement of FEV1 can help in predicting the degree of airway obstruction and deciding the safe plan for anesthesia.
    Materials And Methods
    154 patients، 40-80 years old، with ASA class II-III who were scheduled for elective surgery enrolled in this study. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) was done before surgery for all patients. They were divided into three groups based on the result of PFT: Group 1: FEV1> 2. 5 L which received standard anesthesia induction. Group 2: FEV1=1. 5-2. 5 L، induction was performed by keeping spontaneous breathing and Group 3: FEV1 < 1. 5 L: which awake intubation was performed with topical anesthesia.
    Results
    there was significant difference in intubation time and attempts among 3 groups (8. 91. 8، 10. 7±1. 7، 15. 6±6. 3 sec. p=. 000; 1. 2±0. 5، 1. 4± 0. 6، 1. 7±0. 8، p=. 002 respectively). Failed intubations were 3، 4، 9 in three groups respectively، which was not statistically different (P=0. 1).
    Conclusion
    Due to fixed airway obstruction in patients with laryngeal tumors، FEV1 can be used as a predictor for classification and choosing a safe method for induction of anesthesia.
  • Mashhadi Ma, Khazaei Ha, Narouie B., Niazi Aa, Moazzami K., Khademi R., Hejazinia F. Rezaei N., Ghasemi, Rad M Page 4
    Introduction
    Hematologic malignancies can be associated with dysregulation of the immune system. There are some conflicting data regarding serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with such malignancies.
    Material And Method
    In order to evaluate the humoral immunity of the patients with hematologic malignancies, 58 patients were enrolled in this study. 24 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 17 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), eight with lymphoma, five with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and four with multiple myeloma.
    Results
    There were six cases with decreased serum IgG level (5 AML and 1 ALL). Forty patients with elevated serum IgG levels (69%).24 with elevated IgA and/or IgM level; 12 patients with elevation in all classes of immunoglobulin (8 ALL, 2 AML, and 2 lymphoma).
    Conclusion
    Serum immunoglobulin levels can be abnormal in the patients with hematologic malignancies. Abnormalities of IgG, especially elevated level, seem to be the most frequent finding encountered in these patients.
  • Pourhassan M.*, Taravat Najafabadi A.** Page 5
    Childhood obesity is now being recognised as a global epidemic. Children in developed or industrialised countries، such as the UK and US currently demonstrate high levels of overweight and obesity. The rise in childhood obesity is likely due to a complex set of interactions across a number of relevant social، environmental، and lifestyle factors. Each of these factors play pivotal roles on their own، and each requires their own interventions. In general، overweight and obesity are assumed to be the result of the excessive intake of the type of calories، fat، and sugar that are commonly found in soda drinks and purchased in "fast food" outlets. These convenience foods are becoming increasingly popular not just in industrialised nations، but in the developing world as well، causing a rise in obesity rates all around the world. Most researchers agree that prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity، secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss، and avoidance of additional weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions، such as by targeting the built environment، through physical activity، and by changing the individual’s diet. Some of these strategies can be adapted for children and implemented in preschool institutions، schools، or after-school care services، providing a natural setting for influencing diet and physical activity. Furthermore، Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are now being used to prevent childhood obesity by generating school-level and neighbourhood environmental indicators، which can be useful in designing targeted interventions.
  • Badiei Sh*, Bahasadri Sh** Page 5
    Contraception has emerged as an important health issue as the world’s population continues to rise. New male contraceptive methods are likely to become a valuable tool in addition to other resources available for family planning. Having access to a wider range of contraceptive methods will improve population control efforts worldwide. For this review, Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE searches were performed using the terms "male contraception, male contraceptive advances, and contraception for men" in key word searches. Hits were restricted to resources written in [what languages?] and published between the years 1966-2007.
  • Fallahian F.*, Rahimi F.*, Khedmat H.*, Mohammad Alizadeh Ah±. Page 6
    The case study reported here involves a 47 old man who presented with hematochesia, intermittent fever, anorexia, weight loss, and postprandial vomiting at our clinic. A upper gastrointestinal series with water-soluble contrast media was performed in addition to a gastroscopy, an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and surgical examination. These diagnostic tests revealed that the patient had gastric MALTOMA, gastrointestinal bleeding, and gastrocolic, gastropancreatic, and gastrosplenic fistulas, however, multiple fistulization of gastric MALT lymphoma to adjacent organs was not observed.
  • Roozbeh J.*, Yavari V.*, Sharifian M§, Afshariani R± Page 7
    Acute post-infectious necrotizing myelitis, a rare neurological complication of bacterial meningitis, is clinically defined by acute onset of paraplegia, or quadriplegia, sensory loss and loss of sphincter control. The condition should be differentially diagnosed from vascular accidents and immunogenic demyelination. This is a case of chronic otitis media complicated with meningitis which was further complicated with acute necrotizing myelitis.An eighteen-year-old man presented with fever, headache and nausea of one day duration. He was suffering from actively purulent right sided otitis media for more than a year. Patient’s data were first consistent with bacterial meningitis. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started and continued in spite of the CSF cultures showing no growth due to previous administration of antibiotics for otitis media. Again the patient was complicated with acute hydrocephalus and sudden attack of quadriplegia and loss of sphincter control after 48 hours. Cervical MRI was in favor of acute necrotizing myelitis, regarding the patient''s clinical situation.
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