فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2001
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1380/08/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Farrokhseresht R Page 53
    mbination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid (also named Coamoxyclav) is a known drug of having adverse hepatic effects, mainly by three mechanisms: Cholestasis, Hepatocellular injury and Mixed mechanism. The most important predisposing factor is age more than 65, however, history of serious medical illness, liver associated comorbidity, use of other medications, drug dose, route and duration of therapy, smoking or previous use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, were not associated with liver disease induced by Co-amoxiclave. Co-amoxiclav can produce a wide range of liver injury including intrahepatic cholestasis without hepatitis, acute hepatocellular injury, and cholestatic hepatitis with hepatocellular necrosis. It can produce cholecystitis-like symptoms. Rarely acute pancreatitis, acute interstitial nephritis and acute lacrimal gland inflammation and sialadenitis with prolonged xerostomia rarely occur simultaneously with cholestatic hepatitis. Normalization of liver enzymes usually occurs some time between 11.5-18 weeks after discontinuation of drug. Treatment is just supportive. The prognosis is favorable in general. Rarely the liver enzymes remain elevated with resulting chronic liver disease and progression to cirrhosis.
  • Rezvanfar, M. R Page 57
    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), with an estimated prevalence of greater than 30%(1), ranging from 9.5-15% at age 20-34 years up to 45-55% at age³60 years (2,3). The onset of erectile dysfunction occurs earlier in diabetic men than the general population(4,5). Sometimes erectile dysfunction is the first symptom for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (6) and prevalence of undiagnosed DM was 4.7% in 107 men with erectile dysfunction referred to urology department(7). Various treatment options are available for erectile dysfunction, most notably the use of external vacuum devices(8), intracavernous self injection of vasoactive agents(9), and transuretral insertion of prostaglandin E1(10). While these treatments can be effective, they are not ideal(11). An efficacious oral agent would extend patients, options in the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated with DM.
  • Dorfeshan, Zh Page 62
    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, tasteless, colorless, and nonirritant gas formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Uptake is via lungs and is influenced by minute ventilation, and duration of exposure. Clinical symptoms are highly variable and nonspecific. CO poisoning should always be considered when a comatose person is found in a confined area with poor ventilation. Symptoms and signs may include headache (the most common symptom), nausea, malaise, altered cognition, dyspnea, angina, seizures, cardiac dysrrhythmias, congestive heart failure (pulmonary edema), and coma. Severe poisoning is identified by loss of consciousness (syncope, seizures, and coma), neurologic deficits, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and severe metabolic acidosis. Diagnosis of CO poisoning is based upon a compatible history and physical examination in conjunction with an elevated COHb level measured by cooximetry. COHb levels correlate poorly with severity of poisoning and is not predictive of delayed neurologic sequelae. The patients are treated with high flow Oxygen. Severe cases should be admitted to hospital.
  • Ghotbi Sh, Beheshti M., Teimoori S., Ghaderi Aa Page 66
    Today four types of secretion are mentioned among secretory cells: endocrine, exocrine, paracrine and autoerine. Autocrine response is defined as one which hormone secreting cells also response to their own products. It needs appropriate external receptors to be binded to those secretions which are mostly growth factors. The concept of autocrine stimulation of cell proliferation postulates that cells can escape from normal growth control and become malignant by the endogenous production of growth factors that act on themselves via functional external receptor. The autocrine action of growth factors as transforming growth factor (α-TGP) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGP) has been demonstrated in certain virus-transformed cells.
  • Alborzi, P Page 74
    Varicella among adults is more common in tropical climates also seasonality is described less clearly over there. Recently, adult varicella is going to be a seen more frequently due to immigration of non-immune adults and immunodeficiency states. Clinical manifestations of adult varicella are more severe than children and complications (pneumonia is the most common and then encephalitis) and so the mortality rate higher. Acyclovir should be administrated in all adults. Routine immunization of all susceptible adults is not recommended and administration of VZIG to normal adults should be considered case by case. Its use is strongly recommended in exposed susceptible pregnant women. Varicella immunization of susceptible adults is encouraged susceptibility is defined by lack of proof for varicella immunization, lack of reliable history of varicella or absence of serologic evidence of varicella. In patients who present to a health care provider with a negative history of chicken pox in past, varicella serology testing is a relatively cost effective policy for adults but not for school age children. Priority should be given to immunization of high-risk groups.
  • Ostovan, M. A Page 79
  • Lankarani, K. B Page 80
  • Quiz Ostovan, M. A Page 81
  • Lankarani, K. B Page 82