فهرست مطالب

Chemical Society - Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2010
  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2010
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1388/12/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 34
  • M. Faraji, Y. Yamini, M. Rezaee Page 1
    This review focuses on the synthesis, protection, functionalization, characterization and with some applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The review begins with an overview on magnetic property and single domain particles. The synthetic strategies developed for the generation of MNPs, with a focus on particle formation mechanism and recent modifications made on the synthesis of monodisperse samples of relatively large quantities are also discussed. Then, different methodologies for the protection and functionalization of the synthesized MNPs, together with the characterization techniques are explained. Finally, some of the recent industrial, biological, environmental and analyticals application of MNPs are briefly reviewed, and some future trends and perspectives in these research areas will be outlined.
  • M. Asad, M. Setoodeh Khah, A.H. Kianfar Page 38
    The electronic and steric effects of some Schiff bases and the solvent on the thermodynamic parameters of the pentacoordinate Co(III) Schiff base complexes were studied. The formation constants and the thermodynamic parameters were measured spectrophotometrically for 1:1 adduct formation of the complexes as acceptors with tributylphosphine (PBu3) as donor, in some solvents (acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, butanol, ethanol and N,N-dimethylformamide) in constant ionic strength (I = 0.01 M, sodium perchlorate) and at various temperatures. The trend of the reactivity of the pentacoordinate cobalt(III) Schiff base complexes toward tributylphosphine according to the solvent is as follows: acetonitrile > tetrahydrofuran > butanol > ethanol > N,N-dimethylformamide. The trend of the reactivity of pentacoordinate cobalt(III) Schiff base complexes toward the donor in a given solvent according to the equatorial Schiff base is as follows: BBE > BAE > Salen.
  • A. Alizadeh Karsalary, M.R. Mohammadizadeh, A.R. Hasaninejad, A.A. Mohammadi, A.R. Karimi Page 45
    In this study we report a novel one-pot reaction which stereoselectively affords alkyl spiro[indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline-11,3''-pyrrolizine]-2''-carboxylates via the four-component condensation of ninhydrin, phenylenediamines, proline, and acrylic acid derivatives. The reactions were run in ethanol and completed at less than 25 min and the products were obtained in very good yields. The stereochemistry of the products was deduced on the basis of the 1H NOESY and comparison with the related systems.
  • A.H. Pakiari, M. Farrokhnia, A. Moradshahi Page 51
    Adenosine 5''-triphosphate (ATP) and Guanine 5''-triphosphate (GTP), which are highly significant species for biological system as sources of energy, along with two other compounds, ribose 5''-triphosphate (RTP) and triposphate (TP), have been investigated theoretically. The capability of releasing terminal phosphoric acid and existent intramolecular bonds in their structure have been studied in gas phase. Due to the presence of hydrogen bonds in the above molecules, several inner and stable rings have been formed by atoms in molecules. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) has been used in order to discover the intramolecular interactions properties in terms of charge densities. We have also demonstrated that the release of terminal phosphoric acid in ATP and GTP are both facilitated in the presence of ribose and base in comparison with TP and RTP. Our calculations have been done using density functional procedure.
  • F.A. Shaha, S. Ali, S. Shahzadi Page 59
    The new organotin(IV) complexes with 4-({[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}methyl)cyclohexane carboxylic acid (HL, Schiff base) were synthesized by the reaction of di- and triorganotin salts in the presence of triethylamine as base or dioctyltin oxide using Dean and Stark trap for the removal of azeotropic water. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and mass spectrometry. The IR data indicate that in both di- and triorganotin(IV) carboxylates, the ligand moiety -COO acts as a bidentate group in solid state. Multinuclear NMR data show that triorganotin complexes exhibit the four-coordinated geometry, while diorganotin(IV) complexes show the coordination number greater than four, probably five or six, in solution state. These compounds were screened for antibacterial activities against six pathogenic bacterial strains. The activities were measured in terms of inhibition zones (mm). Antifungal activity was determined against six pathogenic fungal strains, cytotoxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results for antibacterial and antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity of these compounds demonstrate that complexes exhibit significant biological activity with few exceptions.
  • A. Hasaninejad, A. Zareb, M.R. Mohammadizadeh, M. Shekouhy Page 69
    A highly efficient, simple and green procedure for the synthesis of β-enaminones and β-enamino esters is described. The reaction of aromatic and aliphatic amines with β-dicarbonyl compounds using catalytic amount of silica-supported LiHSO4 (LiHSO4/SiO2) under solvent-free conditions at 80 °C affords the title compounds in high to excellent yields and in short reaction times.
  • H.P. Ebrahimi, M. Tafazzoli, R. Islampour Page 77
    The molecular Hamiltonian of polyatomic molecules has been obtained. A general choice of internal coordinates depending on external parameters was considered. The rovibrational Hamiltonian for this set of coordinate system was derived in general terms as a function of the external parameters a and b. This procedure is also applicable to various kinds of internal coordinates in a straightforward way. The rovibrational Hamiltonian of triatomic molecules is considered as an application of this general formulation. In addition, orthogonal Radau coordinates are considered as cases of this new approach.
  • S. Ranjbar Page 84
    In this work, we have used the combinatorial factor method to find the thermodynamic properties of the monolayer surface adsorption with a limited number of rows and nearest neighbor interactions so that the maximum coordination number of each adsorbed particle could be varied from zero to four. The results show that the thermodynamic properties of models with different number of rows are close to each other. In addition, for adsorbed particles with the nearest neighbor interactions, when the fractional coverage becomes 1/2, a phase transition takes place.
  • B.F. Mirjalili, A. Bamoniri, M.A. Karimi Zarchi, H. Emtiazi Page 95
    In a one-pot procedure, enolizable ketones reacted with aromatic aldehydes, acetyl chloride and acetonitrile at room temperature in the presence of Zr(HSO4)4/SiO2 to furnish the corresponding β-acetamido ketones in improved yields.
  • P. Salehi, M. Dabiri, G. Kozehgary Page 100
    The enantioselective alkylation of aryl aldehydes by diethylzinc in the presence of catalytic amounts of several novel chiral imino alcohol ligands, synthesized from the reaction of (R)-2-amino-1-butanol with aromatic aldehydes, was studied. The influence of temperature and ligand structure was investigated and enantioselectivity up to 81% was obtained.
  • M.R. Hadjmohammadi, K. Kamel Page 107
    Multi-linear gradient elution was applied for simultaneous optimization of resolution and analysis times for ten phenylthiohydantoin amino acids (PTH-AAs) in liquid chromatography. Relation of lnK upon † for each analyte was determined using isocratic retention time data, and gradient retention time of analytes was predicted using fundamental equation of gradient elution. Then a grid search program was used to predict retention time of solutes in variable space. Two different chromatographic goals-analysis time and minimum difference between adjacent peaks- were simultaneously evaluated using Pareto optimality method. Gradient program in optimum condition was: initially 24% CH3OH/Water for 10 min, linear ramp to 34% over 5 min, to 29% over 5 min, and to 70% over 20 min. The average of calculated relative error in the prediction of the retention time in optimal conditions was -1.67% that shows a good agreement between predicted and experimental values of the chromatographic retention time in optimal condition.
  • A.R. Hajipour, F. Rafiee, A.E. Ruoho Page 114
    We have developed a chemoselective, simple and efficient method for the preparation of aldoximes using microwave irradiation in the presence of tribenzylamine or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane or 1-benzyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide as bases and useful precursors for in situ generation of ionic liquids.
  • H., W. Gao, P. Qin, C. Linz., M. Shang, W. Sun Page 119
    An electrochemical DNA biosensor was established for the determination of actin-assembly inducing protein (actA) gene sequences from Listeria monocytogenes and its polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product. The actA gene probe sequences were covalently immobilized on the surface of the mercaptoacetic acid self-assembled gold electrode with the help of N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), which was further used to hybridize with the target sequence. Toluidine blue (TB) was used as an effective electrochemical indicator for the discrimination of the hybridization reaction on the electrode surface, which had stronger interaction with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) than single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The electrochemical parameters of TB on DNA modified electrodes were carefully calculated. Based on the different electrochemical responses of TB on DNA modified electrodes, the actA gene sequences can be detected in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-7 to 8.0 × 10-5 M.The PCR product of Listeria monocytogenes was successfully detected by the proposed electrochemical biosensor.
  • M. Hassanein, M. Sakaran, S. Shendy Page 128
    The oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by dioxygen has been investigated in aqueous micellar aggregates of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) using tetrasodium phthalocyaninatocobalt(II) tetrasulfonate (CoPcTsNa4) as catalyst. The CTAB/CoPcTsNa4 system showed enhanced catalytic activity in the oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol compared to that observed in the oxidation reaction in the absence of CTAB. 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 3,5,3'',5''-tetra-tert-butyl-4,4-diphenoquinone were identified as reaction products. The initial rate constants of auto-oxidation reaction was found to increase with increasing the pH range from 7.0 to 13.0. The rate constants kobs of auto-oxidation reaction showed linear dependence on catalyst concentration. The rate of auto-oxidation reaction was found to fit a Michealis-Menten kinetic model for the saturation of catalyst sites with increasing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol concentration and dioxygen pressure. Tetrasodium phthalocyaninatocobalt(II) tetrasulfonate in aqueous micellar solution of CTAB was found to be mainly monomeric.
  • J.W. Fan, X.H. Liu, Y.N. Huang, L.T. Pan Page 134
    The effect of Cu2+ on the catalytic degradation of Acid chrome dark blue (ACDB) in UV-TiO2 process and Fenton process was studied. In these two processes, Cu2+ markedly inhibited the degradation of ACDB. These inhibition effects had an obvious relationship with the concentration of Cu2+. The experimental results indicated that in pH 5.0 buffer solution, ACDB reacted with Cu2+ with the formation of new complex Cu(ACDB)2. This interaction was favorable to protect some groups in ACDB from the oxidation of reactive oxygen species generated in UV-TiO2 process and Fenton process, and consequently had suppressing effects on degradation of ACDB.
  • A.R. Salabat, M.H. Abnosi, A. Motahari Page 142
    Partitioning of Bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and zein as model proteins in aqueous two-phase systems (S) containing polypropylene glycol (PPG425) or polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) and salts (MgSO4, (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4) is presented in this paper. The effects of different factors such as tie-line length, salt type and polymer type on the partition coefficient and recovery percent of proteins were analysed. The model proteins were separated by these systems (S) and directly used for gel electrophoresis without separating the target proteins from phase-forming reagents. The results revealed that the S, studied in this work could be used as a novel prefractionation method in proteomic analysis and could separate proteomic proteins in multigroup by one step extraction.
  • F. Crisan, E. Sallo Page 150
    A zinc anode in acidic media is a new oscillatory electrochemical system which manifests interesting behaviors, from steady states to simple oscillations and chaos. This paper presents an experimental study of the influence of metal ions on the shape, amplitude and duration of the cell potential oscillations, and gives a qualitative explanation of the system''s behavior. A small quantity of Cu2+, Zn2+ or Fe3+ ions added to the system change dramatically the potential oscillations from chaotic behavior to simple oscillations. The method may be used for chaos attenuation.
  • M. Hussain, M. Hanifa, S. Ali, S. Shahzadi Ahmad, B. Mirza, H.S. Evansd Page 155
    New organotin(IV) compounds containing the carboxylate ligand 2,3-methylenedioxybenzoic acid (HL) have been synthesized with the general formula R2SnL2 (R = Me, Et, n-Bu, Ph and n-Oct) and R3SnL (R = n-Bu). All compounds have been studied in the solution state by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C and 119Sn) by using the non-coordinating solvent and also in solid sate by FTIR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Spectroscopic data have shown that methylenedioxy moiety does not coordinate with tin atom and the coordination site is actually -COO group, as is proved by X-ray structure determination. The solid state structure of compound (2) has been determined by X-ray crystallography which shows that the complex (2) has distorted octahedral geometry. These complexes have been evaluated in vitro against crown gall tumor and antibacterial activity. Interesting results were noticed during the bio-activity screenings, which proved their in vitro biological potential and possible use as drugs.
  • M. Mirzaei, Z. Samadi, N.L. Hadipour Page 164
    A computational study was conducted to examine hydrogen bond (HB) properties of peptide group in four derivatives of acetamide by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters at the sites of oxygen and nitrogen nuclei of peptide groups. The available crystalline structures of four derivatives; 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)acetamide, N-(2-acetylphenyl)acetamide, 2-chloro-N-(4-nitrophenyl) acetamide, and N-(4-fluorophenyl)acetamide were obtained from literature. Following the influence of HB interactions, calculations were done on non-hydrogen bonded (single) and hydrogen bonded (cluster) models of derivatives. The results revealed different behaviors of peptide group in contributing to HB interactions in different derivative structures. HB interactions are the strongest in 2-chloro-N-(4-nitrophenyl)acetamide. However, the strengths of HB interactions in all of the four derivatives are still less than that of acetamide. The calculations are done at the level of B3LYP method and 6-311++G** standard basis set using GAUSSIAN 98 package of program.
  • J. Shahbazi Mojarrad, H. Nazemiyeh, F. Kaviani Page 171
    Most of the known effects of angiotensin II are mediated via AT1 receptor by increasing intracellular Ca2+ by influx of extracellular Ca2+. Combination therapies of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) with calcium channel blocker (CCB) which act through L-type calcium channel have beneficial therapeutic and protective effects on cardiovascular system. Thus, it was hypothesized that merging the key structural elements present in an AT1 receptor antagonist (telmisartan) with key structural elements in 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (nifedipine) would yield a compound with dual activity for both receptors. This strategy led to the design and synthesis of dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-[2-n-alkyl-1-[(2΄-carboxybiphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole-4(or 5)-yl]-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylates (4 and 6). The synthesis of compounds 4 and 6 was accomplished through the reaction of 2-n-alkyl-1-[(2΄-carbomethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole-4(or 5)-carboxaldehydes with alkyl acetoacetate followed by regioselctive hydrolysis of carboethoxybiopheny to carboxybiphenyl that are essential for ARB activity. It is suggested that existence of hindrance by substituted groups prevent hydrolysis of esteric groups on dihydropyridine ring. The structures of the compounds were characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and mass spectroscopy.
  • W. Chen, Z. Yao, S. Ying, D. Liu, J. Liu Page 180
    The title complex, {(N,N''-dimethyl-4,4''-bipyridinium)[Cd2(μ2-Cl)4Cl2]}n (1), in which the N,N''-dimethyl-4,4''-bipyridinium was generated in situ, was synthesized via hydrothermal reaction. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed that the structure of 1 consisted of MV2+ (MV2+ = N,N''-dimethyl-4,4''-bipyridinium) cationic moieties and infinite [Cd2(μ2-Cl)4Cl2]n anionic chains. The cadmium atom was bound by one terminal chlorine atom and four μ2-bridging chlorine atoms, yielding a slightly distorted triangular bipyramid. Photoluminescent investigation revealed that the complex displayed an emission in greenish blue region.
  • H.A. Samimi, M. Mamaghani, K. Tabatabeian, H.R. Bijanzadeh Page 185
    An efficient method was employed for the preparation of 2-(benzylideneamino)-N-[(R)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenylpropyl] acetamide utilizing optically pure (R)-5,5-dimethyl-4-phenyloxazolidin-2-one. This product showed interesting dynamic NMR properties for the methylene protons adjacent to the azomethine group (G‡ = 15.1 ± 0.1 kcal mol-1).
  • A. Ghorbani, Choghamarani, J. Zeinivand Page 190
    A catalytic, chemoselective and environmentally friendly procedure for the oxidation of sulfides is described. A wide range of aliphatic or aromatic sulfides were successfully oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxides using NaNO2, Al(HSO4)3 and a catalytic amount of KBr or NaBr in the presence of wet SiO2 (50% w/w) in CH3CN under heterogeneous conditions in moderate to high yields.
  • M. Asadi*, M. Mohammadikisha, K. Mohammadib Page 195
  • R. Thakkar, U. Chudasama Page 202
    Novel hybrid material, zirconium titanium hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate (ZTHEDP) of the class of tetravalent bimetallic acid (TBMA) salt was synthesized using sol-gel route. ZTHEDP was characterized for elemental analysis (zirconium, titanium and phosphorus by ICP-AES and carbon and hydrogen by CHN analyzer), spectral analysis (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction studies and SEM. Chemical resistivity of this material was assessed in various media-acids, bases and organic solvents. The protons present in the structural hydroxyl groups in ZTHEDP indicate good potential to exhibit solid state proton conduction. The proton transport property of ZTHEDP was explored by measuring specific conductance at different temperatures in the range of 303-423 K at 10 K intervals, using Solartron Impedance Analyzer (SI 1260) over a frequency range 1 Hz-32 MHz at a signal level below 1 V. Zirconium hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate (ZrHEDP) and titanium hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate (TiHEDP) were also synthesized under identical conditions, characterized and their proton transport properties investigated for comparative studies. It is observed that, in all cases, conductivity decreases with increasing temperature. Conductivity performance of ZTHEDP, ZrHEDP and TiHEDP is discussed based on conductivity data and activation energy. It is observed that, ZTHEDP exhibits enhanced conductance and the mechanism of transportation is proposed to be Grotthuss type.
  • E.S.M. Abu, Nameh, A. Hussein, I.I. Duraidi Page 210
    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of butamyrate citrate. The HPLC separation was achieved on a diol column (300 × 4.6 mm) packed with 5.0 µm particle size using a mobile phase of ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 6.5) and methanol (750:250, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.4 ml min-1. The UV detector was operated at 225 nm. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The retention time was 5.9 min. The proposed method provided linear responses within the concentration range 75-225 µg ml-1 with LOD and LOQ values of 0.69 and 2.29 µg ml-1, respectively. Correlation coefficient (r) of the regression equation was 0.9999. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and reproducible.
  • S. Sahin Basak, F. Candan Page 216
    The present study was designed to determine the composition of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. leaves and to examine its in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The chemical composition of the essential oil from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. leaves was analyzed by GC/GC-MS, twenty-nine compounds representing 99.10% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the oil were p-cymene (68.43%), 1,8-cineole (13.92%), 1-(S)-±-pinene (3.45%) and R-(+)-limonene (2.84%). The antioxidant features of the essential oil were evaluated using inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation assays. We also studied ±-amylase and ±-glucosidase inhibition in vitro to assess the antidiabetic properties of the essential oil. Both ±-amylase and ±-glucosidase were inhibited by a non-competitive mechanism.
  • S. Sobhani, A. Vafaee Page 227
    A new and convenient procedure has been developed for the one-pot synthesis of different types of primary 1-aminophosphonates from aldehydes/ketones, HMDS and diethyl phosphite using I2 as an inexpensive, non-toxic, non-metallic and readily available catalyst. These reactions proceeded under solvent-free conditions and produced the desired products in high yields.
  • S. Ghassamipour, A.R. Sardarian Page 237
    Dodecylphosphonic acid is a solid Bronsted acid that catalyzes efficiently the preparation of dihydropyrimidinones by Biginelli condensation under solvent-free conditions. This protocol offers several advantages including high yields, short reaction times, easy work-up, and use of cheap, relatively moderate acidic and safe catalyst.
  • K. Singh, Dharampal, S.S. Dhiman Page 243
    Some new organotin(IV) complexes having general formulae R2MCl[L] and R2M[L]2 were synthesized by the reactions of Me2MCl2 with Schiff bases [5-Mercapto-4-(pyrrolcarboxalideneamino)-s-triazole, 5-Mercapto-3-methyl-4-(2-pyrrol-carboxalideneamino)-s-triazole, 3-Ethyl-5-mercapto-4-(2-pyrrolcarboxalideneamino)-s-triazole] in 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios. All of the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, UV, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectral studies. The IR and 1H NMR spectral data suggest the involvement of azomethine nitrogen in coordination with the central metal atom. With the help of the above-mentioned spectral studies, penta and hexacoordinated environments around the central metal atoms in the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, respectively, have been proposed. Finally, the free ligands and their metal complexes were tested in vitro against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi to assess their antimicrobial properties.
  • M. Mazloum, Ardakani, Z. Taleaa, H. Beitollahi, H. Naeimi Page 251
    A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for the determination of L-cysteine was developed using a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) with quinizarine. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the redox properties of this modified electrode at various solution pH values and at various scan rates. The apparent charge transfer rate constant, ks and transfer coefficient for electron transfer between quinizarine and carbon paste electrode (CPE) were calculated as 2.76 s-1 and 0.6, respectively. This modified carbon paste electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-cysteine in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The linear range of 1.0 × 10-6 to 1.0 × 10-3 M and a detection limit (3σ) of 2.2 × 10-7 M were observed in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solutions. In differential pulse voltammetry, the quinizarine modified carbon paste electrode (QMCPE) could separate the oxidation peak potentials of L-cysteine and tryptophan present in the same solution, though at the unmodified CPE the peak potentials were indistinguishable. This work introduces a simple and easy approach to selective detection of L-cysteine in the presence of tryptophan. Also, the modified electrode was employed for the determination of L-cysteine in the real samples such as serum of blood and acetylcysteine tablet.
  • D. Nematollahi, R. Esmaili Page 260
    The electrochemical oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (1), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3) were studied in the presence of triphenylphosphine (4) as a nucleophile using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate that the quinones derived from oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid participate in Michael addition reaction with triphenylphosphine (4). In this work, based on an EC mechanism, the observed homogeneous rate constants (kobs) of the reaction of produced benzoquinones with triphenylphosphine (4) were estimated by comparing the experimental cyclic voltammograms with the digitally simulated results.
  • M. Mirza, Aghayan, A. Moradi, M. Bolourtchian Page 269
    A novel and efficient one-pot method for the preparation of fused ring 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones and thiones from cyclocondensation of aldehydes, cyclic ketones and urea or thiourea using a catalytic amount of cupric chloride under mild conditions reaction is described. This new method has the advantage to give high yields, to be completed in short reaction times and simple product isolation procedure.
  • H. Sharghi, R. Khalifeh, A.R. Salimi Beni Page 275
    Synthesis of novel lariat ethers containing polycyclic phenols and heterocyclic aromatic compound using graphite via Mannich reaction are herein described. For this purpose N-(methoxymethyl) azacrown ether 4 was synthesized in nearly quantitative yield. The reaction of N-(methoxymethyl) azacrown ether 4 with polycyclic phenols and heterocyclic aromatic compound was performed in 10-20 min in the presence of graphite. The graphite powder can be reused up to five times after simple washing with acetone.