فهرست مطالب

تعلیم و تربیت استثنایی - پیاپی 106 (اسفند 1389)
  • پیاپی 106 (اسفند 1389)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh, Sajed Yaqobnejad Page 4
    Social skills refer to perform certain behaviors in accordance with the norms and requirements of social environment and interpersonal interactions, and absence of asocial behaviors. Social skills improve independence, acceptability, and quality of life. Social skills are important for social adaptation and normal functioning. Social skills affect on person’s ability in playing, learning, working, and participating in recreational activities throughout life. Individuals who fail to develop adequate social skills and competencies are at risk for a number of negative outcomes including peer rejection, manifestations of psychological disorders, dropping out of school, loneliness, criminality, and poor academic performance. Social skills are positively related to successful employment. Social skills play a critical role in employment settings. Social skills development is essential for transition studentsfrom school to work. Therefore, according to importance of work-related social skills such as following instructions, asking for help, sharing business information, and accepting criticism by most employers, the present article meantime define and describe the social skills and importance of teaching these skills in job search and maintenance, hasbeen tried to discuss on social skills training procedures.
  • Ghorban Hemati Alamdarloo Page 18
    Job retention is too important for individuals with intellectual disabilities to achieve independency. Many people with intellectual disabilities are unable to maintain their jobs and for this reason lose their work. Studies on job retention in people with intellectual disabilities indicate that 25% of those successfully placed in jobs are no longer employed three months later and approximately50% are not employed 12 months after jobplacement. How can they improve job retention? This study reviewed job retention ad its importance in individual with intellectual disabilities. Then, the effective factors of job retention for people with intellectual disabilities have been reviewed under external and internal factors. Finally, some suggestions for job retention are offered.
  • Seyed Ali Samadi Page 27
    There is a growing number of prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the world based on the recent statistics. Presently, most of the available information focuses on children with ASD and there is a dearth of studies on adults with an ASD. There is also a growing need for research on the people with ASD in different developmental stages such as adults. Vocational education and keeping job are among the necessary abilities for adults with ASD. The present article tries to make some suggestions for vocational education and post-educational employment based on the previous studies in this field. Supported employment as a probable model is fully explained and at the end a list of jobs based on the levels of functioning and abilities of people with ASD is proposed.
  • Setareh Shojaee Page 34
    This article reviews employment barriers and obstacles of individuals with visual impairments. Generally, barriers of employment of individuals with visual impairments divided under two categories according to our
    Findings
    a) barriers that related to the visual impairment directly or indirectly such as orientation and mobility, identification of alerting sign and so one, b) barriers that related to attitudes and behaviors of otherpeople such as employers and coworkers attitudes. Furthermore, the results revealed that many others factors are detriment to their employment, such as degree of academic achievement, orientation and mobility skills, solving mobility problems, use of assistive technology. Finally, the author offered suggestions for improvement of employmentof individuals with visual impairments.
  • Mojgan Farahbod Page 42
    Vocational rehabilitation is a continuous programmed and role based strategy related to needs of people with disability to return back a person with physically or mentally handicapped to maximal capability in physical, mental, psychological and social conditions. It leads to find out a suitable job and be economically independent. A specialist in the areaof vocational rehabilitation should be aware of physical, mental abilities required for each special work or activity to be able to recommend an appropriate job. There for the specialist should be able to perform a precise analysis on the activities in different jobs. Analysis of an activity means that, division of an activity to smaller parts based on physically, psychological, mental and emotional conditions. It facilitates theeducational process and evaluation of the students performance. Furthermore, it reveals the required level of sensory-motor and cognitive potential for selected job. Hence, vocational assessment is performed more precisely. Due to importance of this issue, the process of return to job will be discussed in more details at this article. Finally, the programwhich is administered in Exceptional Educational Organization, will be specifically discussed.
  • Sajed Yaqobnejad, Ma, Javad Bakhtiari Page 49
    Most special education teachers of students with intellectual disabilities consider acquiring personal, economic and social independence in the cultural context of the society, as the main academic goal for these students. Vocational success has been emphasized as an important criterion for social adaptation. However, after vocational training inschool, when most of students with intellectual disabilities abandon the school, encounter an unknown future. For this reason, the process of transition from school to job setting is accompanied with certain challenges that sometimes without special strategies and supports, will lead the frustration of impaired individual in this transition process.Regarding the fact students with intellectual disabilities need a variety of rehabilitation and educational services in their whole life stages, especially occupation after graduation, it seems that a sectional attitude to vocational training can be one of the impediments of its efficiency. From this point of view, training students with intellectual disabilities isa constant effort that requires the contribution and cooperation of school, family, and productive social institutions. The present study tries to explain the necessity of following occupation after graduation by looking at the vocational stages. It also tries to describe Taher vocational secondary school’s measures in this domain which has gone beyond theformal responsibilities of the school.
  • Nazly Mashayekhi, Ma Page 56
    Vocational curriculum is an organized content of competencies, which a student must attain in achieving an occupational goal. It involves the total learning activities provided in the class. Curriculum modification and accommodation is tailoring all experiences to meet the unique needs of individual students that lead to their success in the program. Adaptation is changing some components of learning activities like instructional pace,extended time in the program. but modification consider some adjustment like level of skills or number of activities but it shoud not decrease the students’ chances for successful employment. Both modification and accommodation help student for learning activities.
  • George D. Haber Page 70
    Newly hired secondary career and technical education (CTE) instructors are often surprised by the rate at which students with disabilities enroll in their classes. While many educators see CTE as a logical placement for students who are otherwise academically unsuccessful, the CTE teacher is too often unprepared for serving this population. Alternative routes of CTE teacher licensure often leave these teachers feeling unsure andineffective. This article discusses concerns about this issue and includes an easy, four-step model CTE teachers serving students with disabilities can use to be more effective overall: 1. orient staff, who refer students to CTE programs and assist them in placement decision; 2. obtain assistance in implementing Individual Education Plan (IEP) accommodations; 3. assess the appropriateness of the accommodations, record and make recommendations to the IEP team; and 4. act as an advocate for the student in counseling and IEP development procedures.
  • John Watts Worth Page 76
    Career development activities by professional school counselors at th elementary, middle, and high school levels can help students with mental retardation make meaningful career choices as adults. School counselors can be advocates and providers of career development activities that link the individualized educational process for students with disabilities to career success. Career development activities that promote career goals, career interests, transferable occupational skills, decision-making skills; and therefraining of occupational opportunities can lead to greater vocational satisfaction in adulthood for people with mental retardation.