فهرست مطالب

هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 41 (بهار 1389)
  • پیاپی 41 (بهار 1389)
  • 136 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 15,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/02/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • مهندس مسعود قاسم زاده صفحه 5
    این پژوهش، در پی شناخت مفهوم وجایگاه اتاق در معماری مسکونی و نقش آن در تامین خرسندی ساکنان است، تا علاوه بر بازنمایی اهمیت موضوع، تعیین وضعیت، ترکیب و گزینش شمار مناسب از اتاق های متفاوت را در هنگام طراحی یا تدوین ضوابط معماری، ساماندهی کرده و آسان تر سازد. امروزه مشاهده می شود که اساس طراحی بیشتر خانه های متداول در ایران، فضای عمومی وسیعی است که معمولا با آشپزخانه باز یک سره بوده و سایر فضاها در باقیمانده سطح طرح جای گرفته اند. اما در معماری گذشته این سرزمین، اتاق ها با عملکردهای پایه ای گونه گون، اندام های بنیادین خانه به حساب می آمدند. مطالعه میدانی نشان می دهد، امروزه نیز اتاق ها نقشی اساسی در رضایت ساکنان دارند. فراهم نشدن فضاهای کافی و مناسب در عرصه های متفاوت خانه به دلایلی مانند محدودیت های اقتصادی و اجرایی، به ویژه درتامین مسکن اقشار میان درآمد و کم درآمد، پیامد های ناخوشایند اجتماعی و فرهنگی را در پی دارد که جبران آنها دشوار و گاه ناممکن است. در جمع بندی این مقاله گفته می شود که در برنامه ریزی و طراحی مسکن، افزون بر الزامات فنی برای پایداری و ایمنی ساختمان، چرا و چگونه باید به انتظارات عملکردی و کیفی مهمی نیز در راستای تامین موقعیت ها یا اتاق های کافی و مناسب برای عرصه های مختلف زندگی خانواده، پرداخته شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اتاق، معماری، مسکونی، خرسندی، ساکنان، طراحی مسکن، گونه گونی، الزامات عملکردی
  • حمیدرضا انصاری صفحه 17
    امروزه هر رشته علمی به تعریفی از نظریه نیاز دارد که متناسب با آن رشته باشد. علی رغم اذعان به ضرورت شناخت و تعریف نظریه در معماری، منابع بسیار اندکی در این خصوص وجود دارد و هنوز وجه تمایز نظریه در معماری با نظریه در سایر رشته ها به دقت تدوین نشده است. این مقاله سعی دارد تا به این موضوع توجه نموده و ویژگی های نظریه معماری را بکاود. بدین منظور در ابتدا سعی گردیده تا منابع مکتوب در حوزه نظریه معماری بررسی شود. سپس واژه”نظریه“ریشه شناسی شده و تلاش گردیده تا بدین طریق معنای کهن این واژه آشکار شود. انواع نظریه ها از جنبه قطعیت و استحکام، در قالب سه دسته ی نظریه مبتنی بر برهان، نظریه مبتنی بر تجربه، و شبه نظریه طبقه بندی شده و وجوه اشتراک و افتراق هر دسته معرفی گردیده است. در ادامه، این دسته بندی در حوزه نظریه پردازی معماری مورد کنکاش واقع شده و سعی گردیده تا ویژگی و حوزه کاربرد هر یک از این دسته ها در معماری شناخته شود و با سایر رشته ها نیز مقایسه گردد، تا از این طریق بهتر بتوان به جایگاه نظریه در معماری پی برد و راهبرد و تدابیر بکار رفته در هر یک از آنها و نیز نحوه تاثیرگذاری آنها بر معماری را شناخت.
    کلیدواژگان: نظریه معماری، مراتب نظریه، شبه نظریه، نظریه مبتنی بر تجربه، نظریه مبتنی بر برهان
  • مهندس مژگان خاکپور، مجتبی انصاری، مهندس علی طاهرنیان صفحه 29
    سرعت تغییرات در بافت قدیم شهرها، ما را در رویارویی با نحوه نگرش و چگونگی برخورد با آن قرار می دهد. صرف نظر از برشمردن جنبه های مثبت یا منفی تحولات کالبدی که به دیدگاه های برنامه ریزان و سیاست های اتخاذ شده آن وابسته است، لزوم ثبت و ضبط الگوهای معماری پیشین مسجل می باشد. چالش اساسی در این رویارویی این است که آیا بناهای بافت قدیم شهر رشت قابلیت دسته بندی و گونه شناسی را داراست؛ و نیز چند گونه اصلی را برای شناسایی بناهای این بافت می توان برشمرد. در این نوشتار، بر اساس اطلاعات و اسناد تاریخی، به مطالعه محدوده شهر در ادوار گذشته اقدام گردید و ویژگی های بافت تاریخی آن بیان شد. شرح خصوصیات معماری و سیمای کالبدی این شهر از نگاه سیاحان و مورخین، بخش دیگری است که در مقاله به آن پرداخته شد. در ادامه ی این تحقیق توصیفی ابتدا به شرح کلی شمای معماری پرداخته و عرصه بندی در معماری مسکونی بافت قدیم، جهت گیری عمومی بناهای مسکونی، عناصر کالبدی و اجزای آن به تفکیک نام و کاربرد آنها در مساکن قدیمی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ماحصل بحث که تحقیقی توصیفی و تجربی بوده، به گونه شناسی و تفکیک انواع عمده الگوهای معماری مسکونی در بافت قدیم انجامید و در پایان، دسته بندی انواع خانه های محدوده تاریخی شهر رشت مورد توجه واقع شد.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوهای مسکن، بافت قدیم رشت، بناهای مسکونی، گونه شناسی معماری
  • یوسف گرجی مهلبانی، علی یاران صفحه 43
    معماری گیلان، به عنوان نمونه ای مناسب از هماهنگی و تلفیق بنا با طبیعت، که حاصل عوامل مختلف اقلیمی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی و... است و بیشترین تاثیر را از اقلیم و طبیعت پیرامون خود گرفته است. به نظر می رسد معماری این منطقه از مصالح مورد استفاده تا فرم کلی بنا تحت تاثیر محیط پیرامون می باشد. برای شناخت این معماری باید تاثیر عوامل اقلیمی بر ساخت و ساز ابنیه شمال ایران مورد بررسی قرار گیرند. لذا در این مقاله پس از معرفی خصوصیات اقلیمی، به تاثیر اقلیم بر شکل گیری فضاها و عناصر معماری این منطقه پرداخته‎ایم. در این مقاله جهت بررسی راهکارهای معماری پایدار در گیلان؛ ابتدا مفهوم پایداری، توسعه پایدار و تاثیر و اهداف آن در معماری بررسی شده است. سپس به بررسی معماری گیلان، بویژه تاثیر ویژگی های اقلیمی و طبیعی بر آن پرداخته ایم. در ادامه چند نمونه از ساختمان‎های موفق در زمینه معماری پایدار در کشور ژاپن با اقلیم مشابه شمال ایران و با الگوگیری از معماری بومی آن منطقه که مشابه معماری بومی گیلان می باشد، مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. در آخر، با مقایسه ویژگی ها و شباهت های معماری بومی گیلان و ژاپن و راهکارهای مطرح در معماری پایدار ژاپن، راهکارهای معماری پایدار گیلان، برگرفته از معماری بومی منطقه، نتیجه گیری شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری پایدار، معماری گیلان، معماری ژاپن، معماری بومی
  • مهندس فرزانه فرشید نیک، رضا افهمی صفحه 55
    گسترش مسیرهای ارتباطی برای فتح سرزمین های نو و تجارت بخشی از فرآیند توسعه تمدن ها محسوب می شود. ایرانیان نیز به واسطه قرارگیری در مسیر جاده ابریشم، به احداث راه و تاسیسات جانبی آن مانند پل برای گذر از موانع طبیعی و کاروانسرا به عنوان استراحتگاه و محل تامین نیازهای مسافران مبادرت نموده اند. پژوهش حاضر درصدد اثبات نوآوری ایرانیان در پیوستن دو بنای مذکور به منظور کاهش حجم ساخت و ساز و ایجاد شرایط مطلوب برای استقرار کاروانیان و از بعد تحلیلی در صدد نمایش شیوه طراحی و قابلیت-های ساختاری پل ها برای تامین فضای سکونت و با بررسی تاریخی نمایشگر شواهد تاریخی ادغام پل، محل اطراق و سیر تکامل آنهاست. شواهد مزبور از خلال سفرنامه ها و بررسی موردی استخراج شده است. نتایج حاصل نشان می دهد که نوآوری ایرانیان در احداث «پل -سکونتگاه»ها با هدف تامین آب کاروانسرا، کاهش حجم ساخت و ساز در شرایط نامناسب برون شهری، کاهش حجم مصالح و وزن ساختار پل از طریق ایجاد فضای خالی درون سازه و استفاده از شرایط اقلیمی مناسب مجاور رودخانه ها برای سکونت صورت گرفته است. شواهد تاریخی نشانگر آنست که به مرور پیوند این دیدگاه کارکردی به بخشی از طراحی پل بدل گشته و پیوند آن با دیدگاه های زیبایی شناسانه زمینه ساز شاهکارهای پل سازی عصر صفوی شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: پل، سکونت، تاسیسات بین راهی، پل، کاروانسرا، معماری ایران
  • مهندس نیلوفر نیکقدم، صدیق رئیسی صفحه 67
    رنگ مهم ترین عنصر بصری از نظر بار احساسی است. بسیاری از نظریه پردازان رنگ اعتقاد دارند که رنگ ها بر روحیات انسانی تاثیر گذارند. مطالعه تاثیر روانی رنگ به دلیل اهمیتی که در محیط پیرامون ما دارد امروزه به یک علم کاربردی تبدیل شده است. هر شهر مجموعه ای از رنگ ها است که به غیر از ساختمان ها و طبیعت، مربوط به مبلمان ثابت شهری و خودروها به عنوان عناصر متحرک شهری می شود. رنگ از مهم ترین مشخصه های ظاهری خودرو است که اولین و مستقیم ترین تاثیر را بر بینایی می گذارد. ترکیب های رنگی مختلفی از کنار هم قرار گرفتن خودرو ها بوجود می آید که هر یک حاوی بار معنایی خاصی است. این تحقیق به بررسی تاثیر روانشناختی رنگ خودروهادر معابر شهر تهران از طریق مطالعات آماری و میدانی پرداخته و با مقایسه نتایج حاصل، با نظر نظریه پردازان در نحوه تاثیرگذاری هر دسته از رنگ ها، نشان می دهد که طیف های رنگی حاصل از کنار هم قرار گرفتن خودروهای در حال حرکت در تهران، طیفی خنثی، سرد و بی تفاوت است. اگر چه طیف خنثی می تواند سبب ایجاد حس تعادل و توازن شود، اما این طیف در مجموع ایجاد کننده حس کسالت و پوچی است.
    کلیدواژگان: رنگ، خودرو، طیف رنگی، تاثیر روانی، انسان
  • اسفندیار زبردست صفحه 79
    روش های ارزیابی چند معیاره کاربرد وسیعی در همه علوم از جمله در شهرسازی پیدا کرده اند. از بین این روش ها، فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) یکی از روش هایی است که بیشتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. یکی از محدودیت های جدی AHP این است که وابستگی های متقابل بین عناصر تصمیم، یعنی معیارها، زیرمعیارها و گزینه ها را درنظر نمی گیرد و ارتباط بین عناصر تصمیم را سلسله مراتبی و یکطرفه فرض می کند. روش فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای (ANP) ارتباطات پیچیده بین و میان عناصر تصمیم را از طریق جایگزینی ساختار سلسله مراتبی با ساختار شبکه ای درنظر می گیرد. به همین دلیل در سال های اخیر استفاده از ANP به جای AHP در اغلب زمینه ها افزایش پیدا کرده است. در این مقاله فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای ANP و کاربرد آن در شهرسازی با بکارگیری آن در تعیین سایت مطلوب برای احداث شهرک های صنعتی در یک منطقه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می دهد که فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای، ضمن حفظ کلیه قابلیت های AHP از جمله سادگی، انعطاف پذیری، به کارگیری معیارهای کمی وکیفی به طور همزمان، قابلیت بررسی سازگاری در قضاوت ها، و امکان رتبه بندی نهایی گزینه ها، می تواند بر محدودیت های جدی آن، از جمله درنظر نگرفتن وابستگی های متقابل بین عناصر تصمیم و فرض اینکه ارتباط بین عناصر تصمیم، سلسله مراتبی و یکطرفه است، فایق آمده و چارچوب مناسبی را برای تحلیل مسایل شهری فراهم آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای (ANP)، مکان یابی، روش های ارزیابی، برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی
  • تحلیلی از عرصه های شهری در شیوه آذری / نمونه موردی: شهر آرمانی خواجه رشید الدین فضل الله - ربع رشیدی
    فرح حبیب صفحه 91
    خواجه رشیدالدین فضل الله همدانی دانشمند و سیاستمدار برجسته ایرانی قرن هفتم هجری در شمال شهر تبریز، شهرکی با جنبه علمی و ‎آموزشی به نام ربع رشیدی بنیان گذاشت. هدف وی از تاسیس ربع رشیدی ایجاد مکانی بود که در آن جمعی از علما و دانشمندان را مستقر کند. وی شهری آرمانی را طرح و در عمل اجرا کرد. شهر آرمانی طی تاریخ به اشکال گوناگون مطرح بوده و به گونه ای تبلور ارزش-ها و آرمان های هر نسل در تحقیق جامعه مطلوبشان بوده است. هر چند از کالبد ربع رشیدی چیزی به جا نمانده است، اما جزئیات و تاسیسات ربع رشیدی در وقفنامه آن بسیار دقیق بیان شده تا جایی که امروزه می توان از روی همان توضیحات نقشه آن مکان را پیاده کرد. از آنجا که بسیاری ازآرمان های وی در این شهرک متجلی گردیده است، لذا به عنوان مصداقی از شیوه آذری و با روش تحلیل محتوای متن با استفاده از وقفنامه مذکور تلاش گردید تا فضاهای شهری آن به تصویر و تحلیل در آید. بطور خلاصه این مجتمع را می توان به سه قسمت اساسی تقسیم کرد: ربع رشیدی، شهرستان رشیدی، ربض رشیدی. در این مقاله به بررسی عرصه های شهری این شهرک به عنوان شهری آرمانی از دیدگاه خواجه رشیدالدین پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر آرمانی، ربع رشیدی، وقف نامه، شیوه آذری، عرصه های شهری
  • مهندس وحید تاجدار، مجتبی رفیعیان، علی اکبر تقوایی صفحه 101
    همراه با مزیت های اقتصادی و اجتماعی شهرها آثار سوء ناشی از رشد روزافزون جمعیت، گسترده تر شدن ابعاد تخریب و آلودگی های زیست محیطی، ناکافی بودن خدمات و زیر ساخت ها، بافت های فرسوده شهری، سکونت غیر رسمی و... زمینه وسیعی از عوامل تهدیدکننده سلامت انسان و کیفیت زندگی شهروندان را در شهرهای جهان در حال توسعه فراهم کرده است. سلامت به عنوان یک رویکرد نوین در ادبیات برنامه ریزی توسعه شهری، با هدف بهبودکیفیت زندگی شهروندان مورد تاکید قرار گرفته است. دراین مقاله با هدف سنجش وضعیت سلامت در رویکرد برنامه ریزی شهری، تلاش شده است با بررسی سوابق و تجربیات جهانی و در نظرگرفتن شرایط بومی، سنجش وضعیت سلامت در شهر مشهد صورت گیرد. نتایج نشان داد نیمه شرقی و شمالی شهر با بیشترین شدت نسبی تهدید سلامت روبه رو بوده که مربوط به شاخص های کالبدی- فضایی و اجتماعی- اقتصادی است. در کلانشهر مشهد بیش از 12.5درصد محدوده در حالت بیشینه تهدید و تهدید نسبتا بالا، 16.5درصد با حالت تهدید متوسط، بیش از 29 درصد حالت تهدید نسبتا کم و حدود 41 درصد حالت کمینه تهدید سلامت قرار دارند که این وضعیت متوسطی را برای شهر مشهد در زمینه شاخص سلامت شهری نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: سلامت، برنامه ریزی شهری، توسعه پایدار، برنامه ریزی شهری مبتنی بر سلامت، مشهد
  • مهران علی الحسابی، مهندس سلمان مرادی صفحه 111
    در دو دهه اخیر، توسعه مبتنی بر حمل و نقل عمومی(TOD) به عنوان راهبردی برای تسکین پراکنده رویی موجود، توجه بسیاری را به خود جلب کرده است. در مقاله حاضر، پس از بررسی نوشتگان موجود، مفهوم شهر منطقه ای و الگوهای رابطه حمل و نقل عمومی و فرم شهری، توسعه مبتنی بر حمل و نقل عمومی به عنوان “راهبردی در چارچوب الگوی شهر انطباقی که با ایجاد تغییراتی در فرم و ساختار عملکردی شهر و منطقه از طریق ایجاد مراکز TOD، به افزایش کارایی شهر، حفظ منابع طبیعی و ایجاد کنترل در رشد شهری و منطقه ای کمک می کند”، تعریف شده است. پس از تبیین و بررسی این تعریف، برای تعیین نقاط مناسب جهت تبدیل به مراکز TOD، دو شرط از تعریف ارائه شده استخراج شد: 1) قابلیت بکارگیری در الگوی شهر انطباقی 2) پتانسیل لازم برای ایفای نقش در تغییر یا تعدیل هدفمند ساختار عملکردی شهر و منطقه. بر مبنای این دو شرط و با توجه به ویژگی شهرهای ایران، دو معیار: 1) سطح توسعه یافتگی و 2) موقعیت شهری، به عنوان معیارهای تشخیص ایستگاه های قابل تبدیل به مراکز TOD معرفی گشته و در همین چارچوب، ایستگاه های خط 1 مترو شیراز در ارتباط با فرم شهر مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه مبتنی بر حمل و نقل عمومی، فرم شهری، حمل و نقل عمومی، گونه بندی
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  • Masoud Ghasemzadeh Page 5
    This article identifies the significance of rooms and the role of their design in satisfaction of the recent habitants, in Iranian architecture. Accordingly, some guidelines and criteria are presented to optimize dimensions and number of different types of rooms in housing design and could be used in residential building codes. In a review of recent ordinary dwelling unit plans in Iran, we observe that the common big living spaces that usually attach to an open kitchen, are recognized as the basic part of contemporary housing design. So in such cases, the other spaces especially the private or family rooms, are formed after that without any relevance to the real needs of the habitants. In this condition, there are some uniform and single purpose rooms in dwelling units without any clear identity, and each one is called by an individual name such as bedroom or living room; But survey on the room patterns in Iranian past architecture, shows that they were designed and located with different concepts, based on the various cultural, geographical and climatic conditions. In the past architecture, rooms were often named upon their figure or shape (like the Pealy or Talar), number of their windows or external door ways (like the Panj-dari), location in house (Bala-khaneh), the term of service or using time (Zemestan-neshin), and were rarely named according to their special or individual function (like the Bastar-gah). Because, the current activities in such rooms were often various and they had multi purpose and flexible roles. Hence in the some regions of Iran, houses are still presented with the total number of their rooms (like the five room house), and not with the number of their bedrooms. The result of a field study carried out in several residential complexes in different regions in Iran also shows that the rooms with similar shapes and areas could have some different arrangements and functions formed by habitants for every unit in relation with their various population and social, economical and cultural conditions. In the cases that their design, dimensions and the number of rooms have no coherency with the conditions of habitants, the home can not provide their comfort and satisfaction, and can cause several disorders in their life. As regards the deficiency in possible dwelling areas for middle and low income housing in Iran, it is necessary to define manifold activities and functions for rooms rather than the ordinary plans. So in the configuration of spaces in housing design, besides observation of the technical aims such as stability, safety and health, we should have some other functional provisions, amongst: to supply required separate locations or spaces with adaptability to create and develop sufficient private or family sanctums. In this process, we should provide diversity in the rooms based on better recognition of the target people, and look ahead to flexibility and poly functionality on the room planning.
    Keywords: Room, Variety, Residential Architecture, Functional Provisions, Housing Design, Satisfaction of Habitants
  • Hamid Reza Ansari Page 17
    Theory is a base for all scientific disciplines. Theorizing is an important branch in architecture too. There are a little reference that tries to define theory and show the differences between theory in architecture and theory in other disciplines. This article aimed to show the characteristics of architectural theory. At first we try to review different books and articles which are written on architectural theory. There are many books on this title, but most of them don’t pay attention to the nature of theory in architecture. There are few books on architectural theory that present a comprehensive view of the field and none that review the essence of theory in architecture. We can find two categories of the works on architectural theory, the works that try to define theory especially in architecture, and the works that try to theorizing a new idea in architecture, particular or generic themes. The second part is finding the characteristic of architectural theory. The meaning of this word is surveyed through etymological references and dictionaries. It can help us to find out the origins, history and changing meaning of theory, so we can follow the changes of the meaning through the centuries till now. Starting from its origins in theoria, theory has become much more developed in meaning. It has never lost its basic characteristic as a removed and systematic accounting of an object. It shows us that logical rigor is the base of every theory so we categorize theories according to this characteristic and we can develop operational definitions of them. Theory in general has certain attributes, but it is difficult or perhaps impossible to conceive of it as one conceptually homogeneous domain. As David Wang in his book on the title of “architectural research methods” said the difficulty reflected the complex unity that is human mind, with its ability to receive and explain empirical experience in multiple ways and simultaneously. There are many kind of theory, positive versus normative theory, different scales of theory, polemical versus scientific theory and so on. But in this article theories are categorized according to their rigor. We address three kinds of theories: logical based theory, experimental based theory, and semi-theory, then similarity or differences between these theories are shown. Then we try to clarify situation of them in architecture, and define the characteristics, domains, and ability of these theories especially in architecture. The theories of aesthetic and philosophy of architecture usually are logical based. Deduction is the method for this kind of theories. Typology, styles of architecture and case studies researches in architecture usually use experimental based theories. They use induction as method. The third category is semi-theory. Semi-theories is the most popular theories in art, architecture and social sciences. The theories which have a kind of prediction, suggestion, description of best architecture and architect’s viewpoints are semi-theory. Persuasion is the method used in this kind of theories. The approach of two first categories of theory is positive, but semi-theory is based on normative approach.
    Keywords: Logical Based Theory, Semi, Theory, Architectural Theory, Experimental Based Theory
  • Mojgan Khakpour, Mojtaba Ansari, Ali Tahernian Page 29
    The old tissues of the cities have been faced to rapid changes and turned to destructive process during the last decades, because of the huge rush of technology and consequently the social revolutions and changes as a conceivable result of such technological attacks. As a general argument, in one hand, such changes and technological flourishing provided urban modern services and let the modern equipments to enter in lives, but unfortunately, on other hand, the increasing slam of the changes invited us to the battle of rapid compatibility, which inherently could not lead to wisdom decisions about the living patterns, and even the conservation of cultural characters which as a result leads to an unknown urban patterns and meanwhile urban instabilities. Although, the observation on advantages and disadvantages of constructive evolutions which substantially depend on the decisions and policies of the planners and urban designers is not the main goal of the current paper, it is highly recommended and necessary to record the ancient architecture patterns, finding out the outlines and the main characters of the older architecture characteristics. In current paper, during the investigations about the history of Rasht, and how it has been constructed, upon information and issues, a deeper concern was made on city borders and its constructive frame in older eras. On this way, the old quarters were specified and divided from each other to perform the required assumptions and fundamentals of architectural investigations to find out the characters of the houses in such old periods. The architectural and urban characteristics of Rasht from the view of overseas scientists were generally reviewed within the context. In addition, some older houses were chosen in the defined quarters, and consequently studied as the samples to perform the required data and information for further predictions. These studies contain the maps, photos. However, a set of worthwhile information was gathered from older residents and the people who had reliable knowledge about the history of the houses and even in more details, how estates faced to constructions. Naturally, on the way of completing the conclusions about the quarters and the houses of the old Rasht, further descriptive researches were provided, and at first, the general architectural characteristics were investigated and explained, in which the constructive properties of houses, space configurations of the old architectural designs, general directions and moods of house patterns, and their applications in old residences were gathered, and finally the classifications of the old houses were concerned, to provide the required foundations of scientific predictions and architectural forecasting. In these regards, all the old houses were classified in four styles (may be interpreted as moods or patterns), and all of them were described and compared with each other to cater for a better further proposed recommendations. The conclusions were efficiently applied to find the way how to improve the performances of residential houses, and finally to find out the required, robust, and sufficient reliable rules for essential future constructions in Rasht.
    Keywords: Old Configuration of Rasht, Architectural Style Observation, House Patterns, Residential Houses
  • Joseph Georgian Mhlbany, Ali Yaran Page 43
    Gilan architecture, good examples of the coordination and integration with nature, the result of various factors, climatic, social, economic, cultural and. .. Has the greatest impact on the climate and nature is. It seems the area of architectural materials used to form the overall environment is affected. This architecture should be to identify the impact of climatic factors, construction of buildings north of Iran are examined. Therefore, in this study after the introduction of climate characteristics, climate impact on the formation of architectural spaces and elements in this region have paid. This article reviews strategies for sustainable architecture in Gilan; first concept of sustainability, sustainable development and its impact on architecture and targets have been investigated. Then the architecture of Gilan, particularly the impact of climate and natural features, it dealt. More examples of successful buildings in Sustainable Architecture in Japan with a similar climate and North Algvgyry native architecture of the region is the same architecture native Gilan, were analyzed. Finally, comparing features and indigenous architectural similarities Gilan and raised in Japan and strategies for sustainable architecture, Japanese architecture, sustainable solutions Gilan, from the indigenous architecture, has been concluded. Physical architecture of the beautiful native Gilan in the heart of its harmony with nature and have been combined, meet today in order to create an appropriate atmosphere in harmony with nature and climate of the region. So that it can be the best model for achieving sustainable regional architecture, he said. Therefore, rich architectural features of indigenous Guilan, a review of the principles applied in order to achieve solutions for today's architectural design is essential to the region. Be such that the goals of sustainable architecture, its major features and climate of harmony with nature and maintain its regional and optimal use of natural energy to achieve comfort conditions of human life is achieved. In this paper, the first study of indigenous architecture approach Gilan impacts of climate factors on the buildings was considered, then the analysis of Japanese architecture, view and extract the fundamental principles of sustainable design in its climate, considered and finally the analogy of two possible factors impact sustainable architecture climate, sustainable architectural design strategies necessary in Gilan, will conclude. In this study two methods of combining descriptive and comparative analysis was used, and therefore targeted to better understand the facts and circumstances described architecture study, selected samples, with the aim of understanding the nature and status of conditions and events in the relationship between positive factors This architecture was analyzed and described. Given that this study also described the situation illustration of how and why the situation of architecture requires that the principles of argument we compare methods or comparative anatomical study Japanese architecture with continent found a similar benefit.
    Keywords: Local Architecture, Architecture Gilan, Japanese architecture, Sustainable Architecture
  • Farzaneh Farshid Nik, Reza Afhami Page 55
    Expansion of communication routes to conquer new lands and trade goals are part of the progression process of various civilizations. Iranians with its strategic position in Silk Road tried to build roads and road side facilities such as bridges to pass natural barriers, posts and caravansaries as resort centers and a place to provide passenger needs like food, water and feed. Beginning of the road construction and side facilities starts at Achaemenid era. During this era, security and support facilities show a dominant management. During Parthian era, second Mithridat tried to expand commercial relationships with china and Europe. Changing world commercial condition during crusades speeds up and Iran became the junction point of Eastern and western civilizations. The peak of this can be seen in Safavid era. Important routs are main international, pilgrimage roads and domestic less important roads. But most of bridges are constructed in northern and western mountainous situations of Iran plateau. This process changed in the late Safavid era that maritime grows and reduced the importance of Iran as a strategic connection point in world trade. In Iranian Bridges we have numerous examples, that bridges have been used for two
    Purposes
    as a passageway and a place to stay. Embedded blank spaces over stone bases and arches, connection points between bridge and banks and underside pass level are used at first examples as a temporary place for builders, a place to store construction materials, guard shelter and eventually as a rest area for travelers and their horses. This study aims to demonstrate Iranians innovation to merge two functions and reduces them into a united construction volume. This create a favorable conditions for travelers resort station and from analytical point of view research tries to show design method and structural capabilities of bridges to providing spaces and a historical review to appeal evidence of their evolution from a simple empty space to a methodology for designing bridges. At first a comparative study shows the structural capabilities of Persian bridges than roman bridges to shows their capabilities to create vast empty spaces. Evolutionary process of these spaces begins with utilize a vast empty space due structural relations and lead to an important factor during design and construction process. Results show that Iranian innovation in construction of "resort-bridge" structures at first with the aim of providing water for people living in the inn, reducing the volume of construction volume in poor condition of countries, reducing bad working condition and reduce the volume of construction material usage to minimize the pressure loads on bases, use of suitable climatic conditions of rivers. Historical evidence shows that a simple functional trend became to an aesthetical point of views that created great masterpiece of Safavid era. During this era and in inner city bridges, previous thoughts became a model to building bridges with recreation facilities. Jooyi, Allahverdikhan and Khajoo Bridges are the best sample of aesthetical viewpoint of this evolutionary process. During Qajar era, only two bazaars were constructed on Tabriz inner city bridges.
    Keywords: Bridge, Caravansary, Persian Architecture, Bridge, Road Side Facilities, Caravansary
  • Niloofar Nikghadam, Sadigh Raissi Page 67
    Colors as a key element of emotional (sentimental) impacts and interaction with its surrounding, which is the most important visual factor, has had a great importance in the history of art and culture of Iran for decades. This key element has shown its importance in several historical monuments and buildings. A large number of color theoreticians believe that colors affect the human beings’ spirit with a delicate awareness and importance of the subject. Today, due to undeniable importance of colors in our surroundings, the research on psychological impacts of colors has become a practical science. Besides buildings and nature, the color of fixed urban furniture and also vehicles, as an urban mobile element, make each city a collection of different colors. Colors are the most important outward characteristic of vehicles, which has the first and the most direct (immediate) effect on the sense of vision. Different color compositions made by various car arrangements in streets; induces a particular meaning. The research surveys the psychological impact of the color of vehicles in Tehran by statistical and field studies; and then compares the outcomes with the theories of color theoreticians on how each group of colors affects the human beings’ spirit. In the field study people thought of a combination of black, gray, white, blue and violet as absurdity and dullness; and a combination of white, light blue, yellow, orange, red and green induces happiness and joyfulness. In this paper, a field study is conducted by using a matrix like pattern put on the streets and at the same time, the vehicle production statistic acquired from an important car manufacturer sorted by the color of the vehicle. The color pattern in the street is known for different day time at the rush hours. In the field study, the combination of some colors to make a certain feeling has been gathered. Some specific colors shows different emotional impacts when they are in a combination of other colors. The public trend for each color of vehicle differs in each year by the number of the vehicles manufactured in production line of Iranian car manufacturer. These findings indicate that the color spectrums created by the cars arrangement in the streets of the city, are mostly white, silver, black and gray, which a neutral, cold and indifferent ones are. However, this neutral spectrum could create a sense of balance and equilibrium; totally, it implies a sense of absurdity and dullness. The number of joyful colors are so few that it is almost omitted. This paper introduces an stand alone investigation of the psychological impact of color spectrums created by the color of vehicles in urban pathways without the consideration of other colorful elements of the cities. It is expected to conduct further investigation on other combination of parameters like pathway colors, affects the urban pathways. Since the people trend to certain colors and the change of colors of public transportation vehicles are inevitable; this investigation must be conducted every year to achieve the psychological impact.
    Keywords: Psychological Impact, Hhuman Being, Color Spectrum, Vehicle, Color
  • Esfandiar Zebardast Page 79
    Multi-criteria evaluation methods (MCEM) have been widely used in the scientific arena as well as in urban and regional planning. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is one the MCEM that includes relevant tangible as well as intangible criteria and sub-criteria. It allows for a more complex relationship among the decision levels and attributes, as it does not require a strict hierarchical structure, whereas the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) models a decision-making framework that assumes a unidirectional and hierarchical relationship among the decision levels. The ANP is a comprehensive technique that allows for the consideration of interdependencies among and between levels of criteria and therefore is an attractive multi-criteria decision-making tool. This feature makes ANP superior to AHP, which fails to capture interdependencies among different criteria, and sub-criteria. In other words, while AHP decomposes a problem into several levels, which contain the different elements of a decision, in such a way that they form a hierarchical structure, the ANP does not impose a strict hierarchy but rather it enables interrelationships among the decision levels and elements in a more general form by modeling the decision problem using a network structure. The network structure consists of clusters of elements, rather than elements arranged in levels. The implementation of the ANP involves the following four main steps:Step 1 – Model construction and problem structuring. This step consists of defining clearly the decision problem and structuring it into a rational system such as a network. Step 2 – Pair-wise comparisons matrices of interdependent component levels. Similar to AHP, the ANP is based on deriving ratio scale measurements founded on pair-wise comparisons among the elements and clusters of the network. Step 3 – Supermatrix formation. The supermatrix is a partitioned matrix, where each sub-matrix is composed by a set of relationships dealing with two levels in the network model. Step 4 – Prioritizing and selecting alternatives. If the alternatives are considered in the supermatrix formation, then the values in the column of alternatives of the limit supermatrix show the priority weights of alternatives. The alternative with the highest overall priority would be selected. If the alternatives are not considered in the supermatrix formation, then the selection of the best alternative is done through the calculation of a desirability index which was the case in this article. In this article the ANP is applied for site-selection of an industrial estate in a hypothetical region to show its applicability in the urban and regional setting. The results obtained show that the ANP is a powerful decision making tool in urban and regional planning which has all the advantages of the AHP, such as simplicity, flexibility and capability for utilizing quantitative as well as qualitative criteria simultaneously. Additionally, it captures both interactions and feedbacks within clusters of decision elements (inner dependence) and between clusters (outer dependence).
    Keywords: Urban planning, Site selection, Evaluation methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
  • Farah Habib Page 91
    Khaje Rashid-Al-din, Fazl Ul Allah Hamedani, well known scientist and politician of 7th century, founded an educational and academic centre in northern Tabriz city called Rabe Rashidi. The main objective of this centre was to assemble all the scientists altogether inside a scientific centre. His Utopia has attracted special attention in different periods and played a crucial role in demonstrate of the ideal thoughts of different generations. Utopia in definition is a great and comprehensive schema of an idealized and desired society which is a real world and not a legend. However, nowadays, the whole traces of Rabe Rashidi center have been entirely ruined. Fortunately, all the characteristics of this small town have been recorded in detailed in the bequest of the founder. So that today it can be found easily. Since a huge part of his ideal thoughts were manifested within this town, then by means of mentioned bequest, this centre is attempted to be analysed as a remarkable sample of Azari period. In short, this town is divided into three sections: Rabe Rashidi, Rashidi Province and Rabze Rashidi. This study aims to survey the urban domains of this town as an idealized utopia for Khaje Rashid Al Din. key findings derive from studies shows that this settlement had a structural design which was scheduled that includes the main core as the main structure in the form of Rabe-Rashidi which was introduced before. The main structure of the city based on the location of the tomb and the tomb as the focal point of the city had major impact on the formation of main physical structure of the urban area an urban fabric. Here an important consideration is the impact of the religious tradition which we name that "Vaghf" in this period which becomes as a popular institution with the social function of urban management which creates urban spaces and has a major role on urban management and permanent urban spaces and their continuity. Core composed of large dome, mosques and accessories related to them Daralzyafh Daralshfa. Here we can consider religious atmosphere, which configured the city and also the importance of school and Daralshfa, together and Daralzyafh as a series of strategic multi-functional spaces which worked together in city. Another important point in establishing this city was the social cultural assimilation which despite distinct neighborhoods and locating every grade or category and different kind of expertise in their own physical domain and territory but in hole the city was totally designed for educated and elites of society which choosing the name of districts shows it well. The number of Karvansaras tells us about a well active economy and educational Centers, Health center and research Centers demonstrate that this city was scientific pole of its own time. This makes this city unique. Another important consideration is the very important role of urban space and public domains in spatial organization of this city which shows the interrelation of society and its physical aspects in the city configuration as urban public spaces.
    Keywords: Bequest, Utopia, Urban Domains, Rabe Rashidi, Azari Period
  • Vahid Tajdar, Mojtaba Rafieian, Ali Akbar Taghvaee Page 101
    Population growth in urban areas is a world-wide phenomenon, particularly in developing countries, urbanization has been rapid in the past two decades, and such rapid urbanization is expected to continue in the coming years. While urbanization has provided opportunities for employment, education and socio-economic development, it has also brought about a number of adverse health problems. These urban health problems are caused by different factors called health determinants. These are related, to a certain extent, to the adequacy of medical and health services, but perhaps more so to the physical, social and economic environments of the urban areas, as well as people’s lifestyles and behaviours. The Healthy Cities initiatives address priority urban health determinants, many of which are not under the direct control of medical and health services. Solutions to urban health problems require the effective involvement of non-health sectors (e.g. industry, transport, labour, education, commerce/trade, municipal utilities and services, urban planning, etc.), as well as nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and the community. The overall strategy employed by the Healthy Cities initiatives is to generate intersectoral action and community participation to integrate health protection and health promotion activities and transform health determinants for the better.“A healthy city is one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential.” A Healthy City commits to a process of trying to achieve better physical and social environments. Any city can start the process of becoming a Healthy City if it is committed to the development and maintenance of physical and social environments which support and promote better health and quality of life for residents. Building health considerations into urban development and management is crucial for Healthy Cities. In this case new philosophy of the health, defined the health as a significant factor which contains many parts of human life in relevance with peripheral environment elements (i.e. environmental, physical, social and economic), and give attention to health as a vital aim in different domains of development planning. Neglecting the close relation between health and urban planning, in case of citizens health improving, made the importance of scrutiny of health in urban planning double. The main purpose of this research is to find out the heath indicators and use them in the process of analyzing the data through AHP method to be able to classify the results.GIS has also been used in the research. The spatial and analytical conclusions show that more than 12.5 percent of Mashhad district is in condition of maximum and relatively maximum menace, 16.5 percent of this district is in condition of medium menace, in excess of 29 percent is in relatively low menace and approximately 41 percent is in minimum menace condition. What is more the maximum relative rate of health menace is placed in north east field of the city.
    Keywords: urban planning, Mashhad, urban planning based on health, sustainable development, health
  • Mehran Alalhesabi, Salman Moradi Page 111
    The current status and quality of urban and regional development has been criticized by many academics and professionals in different fields. At city centers in addition to traffic congestion, population growth, urban and regional sprawl and suburbanization have resulted in unsustainable conditions in many cities all around the world. In this regard, different aspects of urban form, especially the transportation and its mutual interaction with the urban and regional form, have been paid more attention. Therefore, too much emphasis is currently placed on land-use planning as a means toward transportation policies and vice versa. Also, the new generation of transit systems has revealed the powerful role of transit investments in changing the urban and regional forms. Transit-oriented development (T.O.D) is claimed to be one of the most popular concepts that can fulfill this relationship. When the idea of transit-oriented development entered the lexicon of urban planning and design in the late 1980s, it was enthusiastically endorsed by some planners, designers and academics who viewed TOD as a means of redressing a number of problems, including traffic congestion, air pollution, and incessant regional and urban sprawl. However, although many projects have been defined under this topic and many transit systems and communities around the world have participated in TOD programs, but there is no agreement on its definition. Generally, TOD is explained as the development focusing around transit facilities and aim to improve accessibility, support community, enhance the quality of life at a regional scale, and support the financial success of transit investment. These explanations are apparently too general to represent an analytical framework of this concept. In addition to the examination of the concept of TOD through the existing literature, the present article examines other relevant concepts like regional city and the patterns of urban form-transportation relationship in order to view TOD from a different perspective. According to the regional city and TOD literatures, TOD is a strategy for creating changes in regional scales through the establishment of TOD centers for obtaining sustainability goals such as increasing transit ridership, reducing reliance on the private automobile, improving walkable spaces and preserving the natural resources. Considering the patterns of urban form-transportation relationship, four patterns have been explained, including adaptive transit, adaptive cities, hybrids and strong-core cities; it has also been emphasized that TOD acts in adaptive cities framework. In this article, therefore, TOD is defined as a strategy in adaptive cities framework that through the creation of changes in regional and urban physical forms and functional structures by establishing TOD centers along transit lines, which helps obtain the sustainability goals. This can be used as an analytical framework of TOD. Investigating for criteria to designate the TOD centers in transit lines, the degree of development and urban location are recommended and examined in Shiraz metro line? . Also, these criteria help analyze the transit line and stations in relation to urban form.
    Keywords: TOD, Urban Form, Transit, Oriented Development, Regional City