فهرست مطالب

هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 44 (زمستان 1389)
  • پیاپی 44 (زمستان 1389)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • مریم مونسی سرخه، فریده طالب پور، مصطفی گودرزی صفحه 5
    جایگاه عرفان را می‎توان اعتماد بر اشراق در کشف حقیقت دانست تا عقل و استدلال. عرفان در میان مسلمانان، مخصوص صوفیان است که در گذر زمان و مکان تغییر نام داده‎اند. یکی از راه های درک زبان عرفا، شناخت نمادهای ایشان در لباس و رنگ‎های آن است. عرفا معتقدند که علمای طریقت، باید به شکل و رنگ لباسی درآیند که مناسب حال و مقام ایشان باشد. در این مقاله سعی بر آن است تا علاوه بر معرفی ویژگی صوفیان و اهل زهد در اسلام، جام? ایشان، برخی از تاج های ایشان، رنگ تاج ها و معانی نمادین آن مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. همچنین علل استفاده از اینگونه پوشش و رنگ‎ها نیز بیان گردد. نگارنده در جهت درک و شناخت صحیح، از کتب، روایات و گفتار اهل حق سود جسته است. در انتها بنیادهای عرفانی رنگ را از منظر برخی عرفای مسلمان مانند نجم رازی، نجم‎الدین کبری، علاءالدوله سمنانی و ابن‎هیثم و جایگاه‎ رنگ‎های مورد استفاده به عنوان سنجشی عقلانی و شرعی را بیان داشته است. در استفاده از کتب سعی بر آن بوده تا جای ممکن از برخی منابع نوشتاری اسلامی بهره گرفته شود و سپس با طبقه‎بندی محتوای مطالب، به بازشناخت البسه و رنگ‎های آن در میان اهل حق پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تصوف، رنگ در لباس، عرفان اسلامی، نمادگرایی رنگ، لباس زهد (خرقه)
  • بداهه سازی در هنر نقاشی و تصویر سازی
    سید محمد فدوی، اصغر کفشچیان مقدم صفحه 15
    تجربه های نوین و آزمایشگری های متنوع. هنرمندان در قرن بیستم و ظهور جنبش های هنری مختلف که حول محور شعار نوآوری و نوگرایی در جهان رخ نمود، آنچنان گسترده بود که در هر دهه از قرن گذشته با تحولات عمیقی در روند شکل گیری هنرهای جدید و شیوه های نوین روبرو می شویم. بداهه سازی نیز از جمله این پدیده هاست که در هنرهای تجسمی به گونه های مختلفی در اوایل قرن بیستم احیاء گردید. در سال1909 در فراز و نشیب تحولات هنری غرب، حوزه هنرهای تجسمی با واژه بداهه نگاری در آثار واسیلی کاندینسکی آشنا گردید. در خصوص این نگرش، معنا، مفهوم و ویژگی های بصری و بیانی آن، نظرات متفاوتی از سوی هنرمندان و صاحبنظران ارائه شده است. گرچه این شیوه هنری، به لحاظ ساختار، شکل و نوع نگرش، دارای سابقه طولانی در هنر شرق است، اما بررسی ها نشان می دهد؛ که مبانی ساختاری و زیباشناختی آثار بداهه، مبتنی بر معناگرایی و شهودات آنی هنرمند، در دوره مدرنیته در غرب تحقق یافته است. این پژوهش سعی دارد تا قابلیت های بیانی بداهه سازی در هنرهای تجسمی به ویژه نقاشی و تصویرسازی را در مسیر شکل گیری آن مورد بررسی قرار دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: کاندینسکی، خلاقیت ناب، بداهه نگاری، خیال پردازی، بداهه
  • علیرضا طاهری صفحه 23
    دستبافته بایو، یکی از آثار گرانبها و ارزشمند، به لحاظ تاریخی و هنری در تاریخ اروپای غربی و بطور دقیق تر فرانسه و انگلستان می باشد و از جنبه تاریخی اطلاعات تصویری ارائه شده از وقایع سده یازدهم میلادی قرون وسطی، نبرد ها، پوشاک و زندگی روزمره مورد توجه بسیاری از مورخین است. پرده آویز بایو با عنوان پرده آویز «ملکه ماتیلد» نیز معروف است و به نظر می رسد که بوسیله اودون دو بایو برادر«گیوم فاتح» سفارش داده شده است. این پرده شرح ماجرای فتح نرماند انگلستان در سال 1066 میلادی است که حوادث کلیدی این فتح، بویژه نبرد هاستینگ را با جزئیات تصویر می کند. نقوش سوارکاران به خصوص سوارکار با شاهین بر روی دست و همچنین روش نقش پردازی جانوری حیوانات واقعی و تخیلی و شیوه ترسیم آنها، این فرضیه را که هنر ساسانی و اسلامی در خلق این شاهکارهنری تاثیرگذار بوده اند را مطرح می نماید. دو نوع تصویر در این پرده بافته تاثیر پذیرفته از هنر ساسانی و اسلامی است: 1- حیوانات تخیلی و واقعی متقابل روبرو و همچنین پشت به پشت، 2- سوار کار با شاهینی بر روی دست.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر ساسانی، هنر اسلامی، سوارکار با شاهین، موجودات تخیلی، فرشینه، بایو
  • مدیریت تولید هنر در دوره هخامنشی / بررسی موردی: بهره برداری از نقش مایه های مشابه در هنره ای گوناگون
    علیرضا هژبری نوبری، ماهیار طاووسی، محمود طاووسی، فرهنگ خادمی ندوشن صفحه 33
    یکی از ویژگی های مهم هنر هخامنشی، تکرار نقش مایه های یکسان در آثار هنری این دوره طولانی و انسجام این هنر است. از این رو، بسیاری ازپژوهشگران ایده وجود الگوهای ثابت و از پیش تعیین شده برای این هنر را ضروری دانسته و آن را الگویی برای حجاران، پیکرتراشان و فلزکاران دانسته اند. اما پژوهش حاضر درصدد نمایش تفکر منسجمی است که با بهره-گیری از تفکری جامع به تدوین این الگوهای ثابت و متناسب پرداخته است. به این منظور بررسی میدانی بر روی نقش سر شیر بواسطه کثرت استفاده در هنرهای گوناگون هخامنشی و بازنمایی آن از وجوه گوناگون مورد نظر این مقاله قرار گرفته است. شیوه پژوهش استفاده از دستگاه ترسیم نماهای گوناگون برای دستیابی به ساختار هندسی این نقش مایه و نحوه بازنمایی آن در آثار نقش برجسته، سرستون و مجسمه ها و هنرهای کاربردی این دوره است. نتایج نشان می دهد که مدیریت هنری کارگاه های دربار، یک سازمان سه بعدی دارای انتظام معین ایجاد و بنا به نیاز بازنمایی های گوناگون، با استفاده از قوانین صفحات تصویر و ترسیم نمای مورد نظر، ضمن حفظ انسجام نقوش، نمای متناسب با جایگاه مورد نظر را پدید می-آورده است. از سوی دیگر، نتایج می تواند راهی برای تمایز آثار هنری کارگاه های دربار و دیگر آثار این دوره محسوب گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: فلزکاری، هخامنشیان، مدیریت هنری، طراحی نقشمایه، حجاری
  • منصور حسامی صفحه 41
    «پاتاشان جن» (1705 – 1625) هنرمندی چینی است که او را همتراز نقاشان سبک اکسپرسیونیسم دانسته اند. او به خود اسامی متعددی داده، لیکن پاتاشان جن نامی است که او ازدوران وابستگی تائویستی خود طی سال 1689 بکار می برده است. در میان آثار او برخی از زیباترین واعجاب آورترین نقاشی ها رقم خورده اند. تقریبا«تمامی آثار این هنرمند به صورت مطالعه ی طرح گونه از گل، پرندگان چابک، ماهی های پرحالت وصخره ها انجام شده است. موجودات تصویر شده توسط او در خلاصه ترین حالت با ضربه قلم های سریع مرکب تیره درفضاهای تهی، بیان جامعی از زندگی ارایه داده اند. او کمتر به منظره پرداخته لیکن ضخره های او حالتی جاندار را تداعی می کند. او از نظر زمانی در سده ی هفدهم میلادی میزیسته و لذا دودمان مینگ بر سر قدرت بوده است. مقاله ی پیش رو، حاصل تحقیقی درباره ی این هنرمند است که بر زندگی پر از ابهام وی نوری هرچند اندک، می افکند. پرسش آن است که هنرمند مورد بحث را چگونه می توان در سبک شناسی نقاشی چینی جایابی نمود و دیگر آنکه، بیان اندیشه ی پرمغزشرقی، با هنر نقاشی چینی و به ویژه در شیوه ی پاتا شان جن به چه شکل صورت پذیرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: اندیشه شرقی، هنر شرق دور، نقاشی چینی، پاتاشان جن
  • حسنعلی پورمند، محسن موسیوند صفحه 51
    شهرهای امروزی، سرشار از عناصر و آرایه های نامناسب و آشفته هستند و شهروندان به نوعی غرق در این همه آشفتگی، نیازمند مواجهه با فضاهایی مناسب، زیبا و هماهنگ با محیط خود هستند. بی شک ورود هنر و به ویژه «مجسمه های شهری» به عرصه فضاهای شهری، یکی از مناسب ترین راه حل ها، جهت زیباسازی فضاهای محیطی و ساختن فضاهایی جهت تمرکز و تعامل شهروندان در شهرها می باشد. اگر این آثار هماهنگ و متناسب با فضای محیطی خود باشند، مجسمه در فضای شهری مورد نظر به شیوه ای هماهنگ قرار می گیرد و البته شهروندان هم می توانند به خوبی با آن ارتباط برقرار نمایند و به نوعی درک و سلیقه زیباشناسانه این مخاطبین نیز ارتقا می یابد. در این راستا، علاوه بر مهارت هنرمند در خلق یک اثر حجمی زیبا و متناسب، شناخت فضاهای شهری مورد بحث و تسلط هنرمند به آن نیز می تواند به توفیق هر چه بیشتر اثر بیانجامد. غرب، البته در این زمینه پیشتاز بوده است. در این مقاله فارغ از تمامی فضاهای متعددی که در شهرها یافت می شود، فضاهایی هنرمندانه و حاوی آثار زیبا و متناسب مجسمه های شهری پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: مجسمه شهری، مجسمه، فضا، فرم، شهر، فضای شهری
  • محمدعلی بیدختی، حبیب الله آیت اللهی، اکبر عالمی، بهمن نامورمطلق صفحه 59
    «نقد تکوینی» مبتنی بر مطالعه فرآیند شکل گیری آثار بر اساس «پیشامتن»ها یعنی بقایای مادی برجامانده از طرح ریزی های اولیه منتهی به شکل نهایی آثار است. این شیوه نقد که در دهه 70 قرن بیستم م و ابتدا در ادبیات پدید آمد و به تدریج در هنرهای دیگر، مانند نقاشی نیز به کار گرفته شد، امروزه در محافل هنری و مجامع علمی، علاقمندان فراوانی یافته و درحال پیشرفت است، اما هنوز درعرصه عکاسی به کاربرده نشده است. گاه در نقد و بررسی عکس ها، مواجه با نوعی از شرح مراحل تولید عکس ها و یا مسائل پیرامونی خلق آنها هستیم، اما این گزارش ها، مبتنی بر اصول و روش نقد تکوینی نبوده و اهداف آن را محقق نمی سازند. در این مقاله، ابتدا پیدایش و روش نقد تکوینی و عناصر مربوط به آن، مانند پیرامتن، پیش متن و پیشامتن، بصورت اجمالی معرفی شده است. پس از آن با نگاه به تجارب منتقدان تکوینی در عرصه های دیگر و بررسی فرآیند های خلق عملی عکس، عنصر محوری نقد تکونی یعنی پیشامتن، در عکاسی، تعریف شده و امکان و شیوه کاربرد نقد تکوینی در عکاسی مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. در پایان نیز به عنوان مثال، عکس «پسرک با نارنجک دستی اسباب بازی» اثر دایان آربس، تحلیل شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقد عکس، فرآیند خلق عکس، نقد تکوینی، عکاسی، پیشامتن
  • نسیم کوچک پور، رضا افهمی، مجتبی انصاری صفحه 71
    تغییر مختصات زندگی در عرصه های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، ارتباطات و فرهنگ عصر پسامدرن ماحصل دگرگونی هایی در شرایط تولید و رسیدن به جامعه وافر است. توانایی نوین تولید، تغییر شرایط اجتماعی، دگرگونی ساختار اقتصادی، افزایش رقابت در بازار و بازتاب کاستی های طراحی عصر مدرن در پاسخگویی به نیازهای غیر عملکردی کاربران، آغازگر تغییراتی در نگرش ها نسبت به طراحی صنعتی گردید. اما با وجود بسیاری از تجارب در این عرصه، هنوز طراحی پسامدرن امری تجربی محسوب می شود و فاقد ساختاری روش شناسانه و مولفه های تثبیت شده برای طراحی و نقد است. مقاله حاضر با هدف دستیابی به روش شناسی های نظام مندی در طراحی غیرعملکردگرا به تحلیل تجارب فکری آلساندرو مندینی، یکی از پیشگامان طراحی پسامدرن ایتالیا پرداخته است. بررسی شامل درک شرایط و نیازهای این عصر، بررسی مقوله روش شناسی طراحی، تحلیل مقوله روش شناسی در آثار مکتوب، اندیشه نگارهای فکری و محصولات طراحی شده توسط مندینی و استخراج اندیشه راهبردی هر محصول و رویکرد انتخاب شده توسط وی برای حصول به نتیجه و استخراج متداول ترین آنها بعنوان روش شناسی عام عصر پسامدرن است. در نتیجه بررسی، مشخص گردید که تداعی آنیمیسم، طراحی مردمی، خلق هویت اجتماعی و احساس گرایی، راهبردهای اصلی و به موازات آنها، طراحی تعاملی، مفهومی، تجربه گرا و اسطوره بنیاد کارآمدترین رویکردها تلقی می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: راهبردهای طراحی، طراحی صنعتی، روش شناسی طراحی، رویکردهای طراحی، پسامدرن، آلساندرو مندینی
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    The significance of mysticism can be traced in relying on illumination rather than logic and reasoning to discover the truth. Theoretically speaking, mysticism means having belief in understanding the truth and practically speaking it means leaving superficial customs and resorting to suffering. Mysticism among Muslims is exclusive to mystics who have changed names over time. Sufi is someone who sees nothing but God. In addition to that, wool in Arabic is called “Suf” and those who wear wool clothing choose staying away from materialism, a simple life. Mystics believe that the scholars of the way should come in the type of form and color is suitable for their condition and status. In this Article, 14 kinds of costumes have been introduced for most of the mystics. Also some of their crowns and the way they are supposed to be worn and also their colors and patches and the meaning of their symbols, have been defined. Also, there has been an attempt to analyze the colors of the clothing of the mystics and their colorful symbols and the reasons for using these garments and colors will be studies. As far as the costumes are concerned, the mystics have no special conditions in clothing unless the sole purpose is to stay warm or cool, not showing any bragging, not to be pretentions, not to seek fame, staying away from materialism, elevation to higher degrees of humanistic aspect, not paying attention to the type of clothing worn, staying away from the multiplication of the pieces of clothing, getting close to God, a reason for being humble and staying away from pride and corruption. Their garment is symbol of cutting away for worldly attachment. Of course showing off by the type of material texture and the size of the garment is also of importance which should be ignored. The color of clothing should not be the reason for preference of one person over another. It is a reminder that Prophet Mohammad never declared wearing such garments as an official slogan. In Islamic- Iranian chromatology, the spiritual observations of the mystics in hustle and the bustle of his life appropriate with the level of knowledge and the purity of his soul are different and these differences in colors are clear. For example, wearing white garment is the symbol of peace. Black (color) belongs to those whose heart is the treasure of secrets. Dark blue in clothes is the most common color among the mystics which has the simplicity of white and the perfection of black. Green is the accepted and lively color which contains the illumination existence of mankind and it is an image of divine nature. In this direction, this article wishes to shed more light on mystics and the pious in Islam, their costumes and the colors thereof. The author has used from books and narrations of mystics for better understanding of the issue and then through content classification, the mystics, costumes and their colors will be touched upon
  • Improvisation in painting and Illustration
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    In 20th century, artist’s new experiences and diverse examinations along with emerging different art movements, was so immense that in every decade of last century we faced with prodigious changes in modern arts. Improvisation is one of the phenomena which enlivened in visual arts of early 20th. In 1909, among art revolutions in the west, visual arts experienced the “improvisation” in the works of Vasily Kandinsky. Artists and critics offer different comments on this vision. In the second half of the 20th century, this vision spread more widely in visual arts, performance arts, and vocal arts, so that new movements with overall title of conceptual art or modern art shaped and named under this vision; such as: performance art, accidental art, process art, body art, …. Although improvisation had long been used eastern art, but surveys show that structural and aesthetic principles of improvisational works, based on artists concepts and instant intuition, is the product of western modern art. This research, aims to the study expressive qualities of improvisation in visual arts, especially in painting and illustration. Functions and samples of this vision show that improvisation bases on personal concepts of individuals, and it can not be identified as a union format or restricted method. In fact, this research shows that improvisation, before becoming visible should shape in concept and idea, and artist chooses and makes his visual elements by his instant intuition. This intuitional approach, in one hand, proves that improvisation not only doesn’t belong to a specific period of time, but also it can pass among local and tribal memories, and create works suiting its time. On the other hand, as improvising is a conceptual and intuitional process and it is not restricted to some especial formats, many artists in different fields of art and even in innovative combined approaches of artistic and non artistic materials, make new works based on these meanings. Besides the flexibility of structural principles of this vision, there would be a new method for teaching art. Having faith in countless qualities of this vision in perceiving pure intuitional moments is another important factor which can just be understood by creating conceptual and intuitional works. We will find that visual structure of a painting or volume or even vocal structure of a musical composition (whether it comes from public tradition or rise from artist s individual historical memory) in expression is much weaker than abstract meanings. It seems that, artist by educating himself with improvisations can experience the moment of discovery and instant intuition from a meaning and give an external existence to it. The outputs are works that comes from the purest inner feelings.This style prevents the artist from mere representation, and showing objects with out understanding meanings, and guides his artistic talent to a new life which is appropriate to its time.
  • Page 23
    The Bayeux Tapestry which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. In France it is occasionally known as "La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde" (Tapestry of Queen Matilda) ", and it seems that it is recommended by " Odon of Bayeux ", the brother of "William the Conqueror". It is an illustration of the Norman conquest of England, in 1066, which explains particularly the important events of the battle, especially that of Hasting. The Bayeux Tapestry is one of the precious leaders of the artistic and historic works, in West or more precisely in France or England. This tapestry absorbs the attention of historians, because it gives the pictorial information as regards the events, the battles, the clothes and the everyday life of XI th century. The images of the riders, especially the rider in the hawk on the hand and the style of the representation of real and fantastic animals, confirm the hypothesis according to which the Sassanid and Islamic arts influenced the creation of this masterpiece.We can notice two types of images influenced by the Sassanid and Islamic art:1) The leaned or opposite real or fantastic animals, 2) The rider in the hawk in the hand. On this tapestry, two registers at the top and below represent the animal different reels and fabulous. The silvers dishes Sassanid or post-Sassanid which made in the ateliers of Moslem Caliphs, carry the Sassanid motives, as Simurgh or Griffon. Besides, tissues precious silk, was a mattering object to transport these motives. The motives of animal's Sassanid could arrive at the hands of the artists of the weaving workshops of Bayeux.The various fantastic and real animals were drawn in two registers at the top and at the bottom of the tapestry. The rider with a hawk in the hand was an absolutely royal subject and the symbol of the strength and the power of King Sassanid. It is for that reason that at the beginning of Islamic periods, this scene was very appreciated by the Caliphs or the governors of the various regions Iranian as Khurasan and Ray, and its reproduction was continued in weaving workshops and ceramic, after the fall of Sassanids. The animals illustrated with the style Sassanid represent not only on Sassanid's tissues, but also on Roman churches in France, in Spain and even in England. It can be one of the arguments of this idea that the artistic studios knew the Sassanid's motives, in this period. We can specify two mains directions for the transfer of the motives towards countries situated at the border of the Mediterranean Sea: 1-Countries in the North of Africa as the Copt (Egypt), Morocco; 2-Countries in the East and in the North of the Mediterranean Sea as Syria, Turkey (Byzantium), Italy, Andalusia (Spain).
  • Art Production Management during Achaemenid era
    Page 33
    One of the important features of Achaemenid art is the repetition of almost similar motifs and their consistency during this lengthy era. Consequently, a large number of researchers consider the presence of the constant and pre-conceived patterns as necessity for stonecarving, sculptors and metalworkers. Apparently, this coordination arising from similar repeated patterns is visible in the Achaemenid arts hence; some of the researchers considered this phenomenon as the part of related constant patterns that were constantly employed in this art. The current research tries to highlight a cohesive thought that has focused on and arranged these constant and suitable patterns by applying comprehensive thought. For that reason, the paper has conducted a field study about the role of extensive use of lion head designs in various Achaemenid arts and their representations. The lion images in the current paper include designs of capital at eastern part of Apadana palace, image of lion from ahead on the facade of staircase, image of female lion as a gift by one of the subdued nations of achaemenid empire, a piece of ivory and two agate beads related to this period and a stone vessel kept in Reza Abbasi Museum, necklace of louvre museum and two rhytons each in Metropolitan Museum and Iran’s National Museum. Research methodology includes the usage of different design sketching apparatus in order to access to geometrical structure of this motif and their bas relifs representations, capitals and statues and functional arts of this era. Results show that the art management at royal workshops was a three-dimensional regulation that took into account different representations by using the proposed sketch and image regulations, preservation of cohesive designs in proportion to place. This aspect distinguished that there existed a distinct system in the Achaemenid art and patterns were provided for artists to perform them. In total Achaemenid artworks, a work that can be related to Achaemenid workshops through its qualitative execution is a head in a presumed cubical foundation with 60 degree angle in proportion to horizon and lateral sheets with similar angle in proportion to image used for representing lion on horizontal or actual surface of the voluminous art work. A comparative study between the sketched façades and the surfaces of these items shows that much attention and accuracy was paid to their representation including facial particulars. In comparison between two important materials of the proposed period i.e. Iran national and Metropolitan museums, metal rhytons, it was observed that rhyton of Metropolitan Museum lacks proportion and attention in representation of parts hence; it can be considered a work free and separate from royal workshop, or not the same time of achaemenid era. On the other side, results could be a way to distinguish works from royal workshop and others of the same period. As such, it is suggested that similar studies on other Achaemenid arts and similar models must be conducted.
  • Page 41
    The fundamental doctrine of Eastern culture is based on the ethics. This is a thought found in every, even tiny, lesson taught to the children. In fact, all the values are takes from the life, even apparently materialistic but spiritual deep inside. Here, in order to exalt the soul and to fulfill the valuable status an endless effort of the man is taken in his life. Therefore, no boundary can be traced between the criteria of this or that world. Actually, the union of the two is the essence of the thought in which the man is assisted to gain the knowledge of the life in accordance, and not contrary, to the nature. The eternal search of the scholar turns into a never-ending training inside. In other words, as long as he is being educated and therefore he is gaining the spiritual level he is parted from the carnality and closer to the moral elevation. The Chinese artist is not normally a professional as it is in the western art. He is a scholar whose job is to work as an official serving the State. One of his requirements, apart from being literate, is to be able to understand the literature especially the poetics which might be the reason through which Chinese scholars would become poets afterwards. Their occupation forced them to deepen the thought and the philosophy beside the arts and especially the painting presented many Chinese scholars through the long history of this civilization. Chu Ta or Pa-ta Shan-jen (1625-1705) is known as a Chinese expressionist. He gave himself many names among which Bada Shanren is more accepted recently. He loved company and drink and seemed to have many friends. In his later years, his well known eccentricities bordered on madness. People who wanted his works plied him with wine until he was completely drunk, and were rewarded with some of the most joyous and startling pictures in the history of Chinese painting. Nearly all works of him are swiftly studies of flowers, angry little birds, or fishlike rocks. Poised in empty space, and drawn with the fewest possible strokes in dark, rich ink, his small, lively creatures capture the very essence of living nature. Even his rocks seem to be alive. Occasionally he painted landscapes, beneath whose cryptic, abstract forms lies a deep feeling for the monumental compositions of the Northern Sung Dynasty. This article presents a study of the painter’s life through which the analysis of his works seemed necessary and to familiarize the reader with eastern and more precisely Chinese visual arts an overall view of this culture has been schemed in brief. The methodology of this research executed through library works and the majority of analysis on the artist's paintings is done in a descriptive way. The methodology of this research executed through library works and the majority of analysis on the artist's paintings is done in a descriptive way.
  • Page 51
    Nowadays, cities are all filled up with improper and chaotic elements and ornaments; and the citizens, being drowned in such a chaos, are deeply in need of facing proper and emotionalizing atmosphere. Undoubtedly bringing art and specifically “urban sculptures” into the realm of urban areas is one of the most influential ways to beautify and soften the urban settings and to build emotionalizing atmosphere in the cities. But the most noteworthy of all is the coherence and harmony of these three-dimensional structures with their environment. And will promote understanding and aesthetic tastes of this audience, In this regard, in addition to artist's skill in creating a beautiful volume, Recognition of urban spaces and discuss the artist's mastery can also lead much of the success, (…Around the world Can be found Many innovative volume that have helped to beautify the space and cause it to pause at citizens and deep are connection with their audiences. When these works are accurate, we see that the design and implementation has been considered several points of principle and professionalism that been the result the effect is to create a beautiful and harmonious urban environment. These principles and criteria for the sculpture in a city, can include: Regard to principles of artistic creativity in sculpture such as composition, rhythm, balance,. ... Regard to dimensions and the size of the space environment and coordination with the proportions of the space. Attention to material and Coordination with local weather conditions Discussion of the meaning hidden in sculpture: Given the level of knowledge and attitudes of citizens- as a core audience of urban works. Notice to practical to special features that it stimulate trigger, pause, wonder and amazement in the citizens. Attention to innovative concepts or requested at work (Name elders or religious figures that match with important work which match with local conditions and characteristics) and also See type and understand of audiences Right to be protected mentioned principles ultimately led to the creation of innovative and lasting effect…. There is a volume of beautiful and harmonious with their surrounding space also can help to bring more of a particular space. Also help in attracting tourists and the tourism industry and economy of the region or city: How many valuable works have reached special works. Another important point is that urban sculpture and it can enter artists at the city and among ordinary people. Typically transfer the impact of limited space and closed galleries to open space and large audiences cases have been referred to properly address the issue of more importance Sculpture in urban spaces. At this article that it being extracted from my thesis (Study of Urban Sculptures Form and Their Relation With Open Space), regardless of all the spaces that are found in many cities, recommended artistic spaces and includes beautiful works and proportion of urban sculptures.
  • Page 59
    Genetic Criticism, founded in 1970s; at the beginning developed in literature studies and gradually in other fields like Painting and Music. This critical approach, is based on the study of Text's becoming process, focusing on practical creation of artworks, by analyzing changes in ' avant texts ' – preliminary forms of final texts, like drafts in writing process or sketches and ethuds in painting. This way, finally, genetic study help us understanding artworks and creating process much better. Nowadays, Genetic Criticism has developed and has many eagers among researchers, critics and academic scholars. But yet Genetic Criticism have not been used in criticizing photographs. However Sometimes writers on photography are explaining circumstances, events and stories behind producing of great photographs or any other photograph, because of methodical differences, these writings are not genetic criticism ones. In this paper, after a short introducing of Genetic Criticism and it's main elements - Paratexte, Metatexte, Hypotexte, Avant Texte and Final Text -the possibility, characteristics and the specific method of applying it on photographs has investigated and explained. Reaching this purpose, we have considered Various kinds of working processes in photography, from photojournalism to Fine Arts photography, and we have divided them in two main groups: Realistic and Creative. Also, we have studied practical fabrication of photographs according a three-steps scheme: before shooting, shooting and after shooting. In this respect, we have defined elements of genetic criticism in photography, specially the most important one, named " avant texte " which we have identified its instances in photography include: Negative, Contact Sheet, Testing Prints and so on. Genetic method can be applied in photography through analyzing these elements, related to Paratexts such as photographer,s explanations about camera and other equipment and situation or conditions of making or taking photographs. We have also taked into consideration, differences between Analog And Digital photography in this study. Finally, as an example, one of the most famous photographs, Dian Arbus’s “Child With a Hand Toy Grenade “is presented and analyzed, to show elements and using method of Genetic criticism approach in photography. Now, after changes caused by advanced digital technology and progressive complexities in creation process, resulted of using new approachs and styls in photography - like Performance art and Installation- photography is located at the central point of the art world.Thus, thinking about applaying the genetic criticism in photography and designing its method, will enrich gentic method, generally; also it will help criticizing all types of photographs. Now, after changes caused by advanced digital technology and progressive complexities in creation process, resulted of using new approachs and styls in photography - like Performance art and Installation- photography is located at the central point of the art world.Thus, thinking about applaying the genetic criticism in photography and designing its method, will enrich gentic method, generally; also it will help criticizing all types of photographs.
  • Page 71
    Passing trough industrial revolution to achieve postmodern era, development of production and distribution facilities, development of communications, and economic and development of society structural changes and lack of accountability of functional industrial design to the human psychological needs, other products based on the particular response to the needs of a limited component design, such as accountability to the economy, public taste, match to the new materials, are not responding to human needs. All changes and consequences of their cultural, social, beauty and etc. create a condition in life circumstances that accountability industrial design to more aspect of human life required. One of the strategies used in the branch of Industrial design of equipment in interior design is consideration to the psychological and content-oriented characteristics in this field.The purpose of this project is achievement to a series of desirable and appropriate strategies and approaches to the postmodern period in accordance with expanding domain of methodology and providing the analytical tools in the design field which can be answered to the current situation is. Activities that are sought in a method designed to create a process designed to focus on design aspects of functional, cultural and content-oriented approaches to suit a variety of conditions. The aim of this understanding postmodern experiences and change them with methodology stereotypes that replace common method into new structure and method in which the response to performance issues as the accepted method for projecting is considered and approaches used in any field strategy must specify the design. Because for reviewing each method and approach in designing and achieving to the desired strategy should study theories, methods of thinking and design work of designers which are influential designers in a particular period or style, this research also decide to organize experience theory and practice for the design of discovery approaches by consideration on Bryan Tyson, Kris Johns and others, and study methods, experience and approaches to conceptual design of the most important leader of this period during 1980-90, in both fields of design and theory. Whereas Italy is one of the important centers of expansion of postmodern design, tried by relying on pioneers’ experiences in this field, consideration to the strategies used by these people in going beyond the approaches, reply to different issues of design. According to this, works of Alessandro Mendini in various field's accordance to macro strategies and design approaches will be analyzed. Finally it concluded that it is possible to chose a strategy that can extended to general fitness of human capabilities component which are considerable to various aspects of postmodern design, in addition there are collection of variety of approaches that give strategies with fitness of various aspects of design. In addition, by reviewing past experiences indicated that Animism strategies, produce method, people design, creating social identity, sensation, immorality, using visual cultures in parallel with interactive design approaches, conceptual design, experience oriented design, and mythical design for the design period in postmodern period have been considered more efficient.