فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 41 (تابستان 1389)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/05/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • امیرسهیل پیرایش فر، محمدمهدی جلیلی، سید یحیی موسوی صفحه 5
    در این پژوهش معایب چوب برای کاربرد در ساخت آلات موسیقی از جمله حساسیت بالا به رطوبت، خواص متفاوت چوب در درخت های مختلف از یک گونه و همچنین در قسمت های مختلف از یک درخت، ساخت زمان بر و مشکل سازهای چوبی، مقاوت پایین در برابر ضربه و سایر موارد که به صورت مفصل به آنها پرداخته شده است، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و نسل جدید کامپوزیت های پلیمری برای جایگزینی چوب در ساخت ادوات موسیقی معرفی شد. بکارگیری کامپوزیت های چوب پلاستیک برای جایگزینی چوب در ساخت آلات موسیقی می تواند بسیاری از مشکلات ذاتی چوب برای کاربرد در ساخت آلات موسیقی را بر-طرف نماید، با این حال برای ساخت تخته صدای کامپوزیتی استفاده از کامپوزیت های لیفی که ساختاری دقیقا مشابه چوب دارند، به دلیل خواص ارتعاشی و آکوستیکی ویژه آنها، رشد بسیاری نموده است. در این مقاله از سه نوع مختلف الیاف مصنوعی (الیاف شیشه، کربن و کولار) و یک رزین پلی استر غیر اشباع استفاده گردید. همچنین خواص آکوستیک این نمونه ها در قیاس با نمونه های چوب درخت توت سفید و سرو سیمین مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. مطالعات نشان داد که الیاف کربن به همراه رزین پلی استر بالا ترین پارامتر های آکوستکی را در بین سایر نمونه ها به خود اختصاص می دهد و در نتیجه می تواند به عنوان یک جایگزین بسیار خوب برای چوب با خواص استثنایی در ساخت آلات موسیقی به کار رود.
    کلیدواژگان: الیاف مصنوعی، آلات موسیقی، چوب، الیاف طبیعی، کامپوزیت های پلیمری
  • سوسن خطایی، اکبر عالمی، مهدی پوررضاییان، حبیب الله آیت اللهی صفحه 13
    هدف این پژوهش، ارزیابی مجدد برنامه درسی انیمیشن یا تصویر متحرک در رشته لیسانس گرافیک و ارائه یک روش تلفیقی آموزش می باشد، زیرا ارایه ی این واحد درسی در موارد بسیاری، نتوانسته است منجر به شکل گیری خلاقانه کاراکترهای برتر، در فیلمنامه های ارایه شده ی دانشجویان شود. روشی که این مقاله پیشنهاد می کند، یک روش تلفیقی است که از روش های سنتی و حل مساله، جهت رسیدن به روش آموزش«تعاملی پویا» بهره می گیرد. روش اجراء پژوهش حاضر کیفی و کمی بود. بخش کیفی آن، به صورت مطالعه توصیفی بر مبنای مشاهده، پرسش و پاسخ، مصاحبه باز، مطالعه موردی و کتابخانه ای انجام شد و در بخش کمی از روش تحلیل کوواریانس استفاده شد. از جامعه آماری دانشجویان دوره لیسانس گرافیک دانشگاه شهید رجایی که درس کارگاهی انیمیشن را اخذ کرده بودند، یک کلاس به عنوان گروه آزمایش و کلاس دیگر به عنوان گروه گواه انتخاب شدند. متغیر مستقل نیز استفاده از روش آموزشی تعاملی پویا بود. فرضیه پژوهش تایید شد و می توان گفت که استفاده از روش آموزشی «تعاملی پویا» بر درک مفهومی دانشجویان از فیلمنامه نویسی تاثیر دارد. در این روش، مشارکت دانشجویان و فعال کردن احساسات، تجارب و مهارت های آنان در جهت ارائه فرض های صحیح، برای حل مساله و آزمودن آنها از اولویت برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: انیمیشن، فیلمنامه نویسی، آموزش تعاملی پویا، شخصیت پردازی
  • ایلناز رهبر، هومان اسعدی، رامون گاژا صفحه 23
    در دوره ی صفوی برخلاف ادوار گذشته مانند دوره ی تیموری بحث سازشناسی در رسالات موسیقی وجود ندارد و مولفان فقط به ذکر نام سازها در رسالات اکتفا کرده ا ند. بنابراین برای جستجو در این مقوله باید از منابع ارزشمند دیگر تاریخی بهره گرفت. به دلیل رفت وآمد بی شمار سیاحان، در این دوره تعداد بسیاری سفرنامه نوشته شده است که دربردارنده ی اطلاعات ارزشمندی از تاریخ و فرهنگ ایران هستند. در بین سفرنامه نویسان، توصیفات شاردن و کمپفر قابل توجه است. شاردن در کتاب خود توصیفاتی از سازهای ایران در دوره ی صفوی بیان کرده است. همچنین در سفرنامه ی کمپفر نیز تصویری از سازهای ایرانی همراه با توضیحات آنها آورده شده، اما به دلیل متن لاتینی کتاب تاکنون این بخش ترجمه نشده و مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است. در این تحقیق با بررسی تطبیقی و تحلیل تصویر و نوشته های کمپفر با یادداشت های شاردن اطلاعات ارزشمندی از مباحث سازشناختی دوره ی صفوی حاصل شد. اگرچه هر دو آنها در حدود یک محدوده ی زمانی قرار می گیرند، نحوه ی توصیف، طبقه بندی و انواع سازها در دو سفرنامه متفاوت است. در برخی دیدگاه ها مکمل، مشابه یا متناقض یکدیگر هستند. طبقه بندی سازها در سفرنامه شاردن بسیار منظم است، اما توصیفات کمپفر بسیار دقیق تر و ریزبینانه تر از شاردن است و با دقت بسیار این کار صورت گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: شاردن، سازهای موسیقی، دوره ی صفوی، کمپفر، سفرنامه
  • اسماعیل شفیعی، جلیل خلیل آذر صفحه 33
    نور از آغازین روزهای پیدایش تئاتر به مفهوم امروزین آن، همراه تئاتر بوده و تا به امروز کارکردهای گوناگونی برای آن تعریف شده است. وجود نور در صحنه ی نمایش همیشه همراه با سایه بوده و غیاب آن، تاریکی را به وجود آورده است. به همین دلیل می توان نور، سایه و تاریکی را عناصر یک حوزه ی مشترک دانست و نسبت ها و کارکردهای آنها را مورد بررسی قرار داد. جایگاه نور، سایه و تاریکی و کارکردهای آنها در تاریخ تئاتر دارای یک نقطه ی عطف اساسی است و آن نقطه ی حضور متفکرانه و نظریه پردازانه ی آدولف آپیا در عرصه ی تئاتر می باشد. تا زمان حضور آپیا در تئاتر، تنها کارکردی را که برای نور متصور بودند؛ روشن سازی صحنه جهت دیده شدن عناصر موجود بر روی صحنه بود. لیکن با حضور آپیا در تئاتر سایه و تاریکی به همراه نور سه عنصر تشکیل دهنده ی هنر نمایش شده و هر یک جایگاه و کارکرد متفاوتی را یافتند. این مقاله می کوشد با بررسی شرایط تئاتر در قبل و بعد از حضور آپیا کارکردها و نسبت نور، سایه و تاریکی را در صحنه ی تئاتر مورد بررسی و تطبیق قرار دهد. روش تحقیق بکار برده شده در این مقاله توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و از تکنیک کتابخانه ای بهره برده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سایه، نور، تئاتر، تاریکی، آدولف آپیا
  • محمدعلی صفورا، حسین صافی، سیدبدرالدین احمدی صفحه 43
    هر اثر هنری برای جذابیت و تاثیرگذاری بیشتر، سعی دارد مخاطب را وارد فضای اثر هنری کند. این فضا در ابتدا شکلی مجازی دارد و ناشی از ذهن هنرمند است؛ سپس شکل عینی یافته و در قالب اثر هنری بروز می کند. فیلمساز نیز فضای مجازی فیلم را که درون ذهن وی و نویسنده فیلمنامه نهفته است با واسطه تصویر، در قالب توالی نماها آشکار می کند. قبل از قرارگیری پلان ها، صحنه ها و سکانس ها در کنار هم، برای تحقق تصور مجازی فیلمساز، به کمک ابزار پیش تصور مانند طراحی ها و فیلمنامه مصور، فضاهای اولیه عینی برای روایت فیلم خلق می شوند. فضاسازی، اولین گام برای عینی شدن تصورات فیلمساز است. خلق فضاها در سینمای زنده به اشکال مختلفی مانند، تعیین لوکیشن و گاه با طراحی دکورها به صورت طبیعی، مصنوعی، دیجیتالی و تلفیقی امکان پذیر است. در این مقاله تحقیقی می توان دریافت که: در سینمای انیمیشن شیوه های خلق فضا از تنوع بیشتری برخوردار است. تعدد روش و تکنیک در ساخت فیلم انیمیشن به ساختار خلق فضاهای جدید منجر می شود؛ می توان برای هر انیمیشن در هر روش و تکنیک، بر پایه نیازهای دراماتیک فیلمنامه، فضای مناسب را طراحی و ارائه کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی محیطی، انیمیشن، مدیریت فضاسازی، سینما، آموزش
  • پویان فرزین صفحه 51
    سنت بداهه پردازی آزاد یکی از جذاب ترین موضوعات برای دنبال کنندگان اصول اجرای موسیقی قدیم به ویژه موسیقی دوره باروک است. اعمال این نوع از بداهه پردازی در مورد قطعاتی مربوط به دوره خاص نیازمند دانش و نگرشی است تا نوازنده را قادر سازد، بدون خارج شدن از اصول و سلیقه همان دوره به بداهه پردازی بر اساس ساختار موسیقی اقدام کند. برای درک اصول، مفاهیم و حس موسیقیایی دوره ای که مربوط به سال ها قبل است، موسیقی شناسان بیشتر منابع اولیه (شامل نت های موسیقی و نوشته های تئوریک) به جای مانده را اساس کار خود قرار دادند. دوازده سونات متودیک تلمان برای فلوت یا ویلن به همراهی باسو کنتینو که توسط جورج فیلیپ تلمان نوشته شده از جمله این منابع و از مهمترین منابع مطالعاتی برای بداهه پردازی آزاد است که در این نوشته مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته و تلاش شده تا با طبقه بندی هر نت و یا جمله براساس نقشی که در قطعه موسیقی ایفا می کند و همچنین پرهیز از رسیدن به جوابی واحد و در عوض آن نشان دادن راه های مختلف بداهه پردازی بر اساس ایده های مشابه، خواننده بتواند اطلاعات کاربردی نسبت به این موضوع بدست بیاورد.
    کلیدواژگان: اصول اجرا، تلمان، باروک، بداهه پردازی آزاد
  • احمد کیا صفحه 59
    این مقاله درباره ی انگاره ی شقاوت آرتوست. واژه ای که معانی آن از حیطه ی کلمه ای معمولی فراتر رفته و تبدیل به نوعی نگاه فلسفی به زندگی می شود. مقاله ی حاضر درصدد بررسی وجوه معنایی و مفهومی این انگاره در سینما است و برآن است تا خوانش جدیدی از آن را در این هنر ارائه دهد. به دستاورد این مقاله؛ انتقال این مفهوم به قالب هنری دیگر (سینما)، با تمام کاستی ها و افزودنی هایش در آثار فیلمساز آوانگارد آمریکا، دیوید لینچ، میسر شده است. در این مسیر، یافتن واسطه های تئوریک برای انتقال نگاه آرتو به سینما به عنوان راه حل کاربردی مورد نظر قرار گرفته، چرا که مبنای نظریه ی آرتو در صیرورت دائمی و استحاله است و برای درک آن می بایست از انعطاف پذیری بیشتری برخوردار بود. این مقاله تعریف نوینی از شقاوت بر مبنای «توسعه به سمت آگاهی» ارائه می دهد و شرح بصری این سیروسلوک را در سینمای لینچ دنبال می کند. در ضمن بنیان اصلی دیگر این مقاله بر رابطه ی تجریدی سینما و تئاتر قرار گرفته که از آرتو می توان به عنوان فصل مشترک این رابطه یاد کرد. آنچه در نهایت این مقاله ارائه می کند، نمونه های بصری تازه، از یک فرم جدید هنری مبتنی بر مفاهیم آرتو و از همه مهم تر «شقاوت» وی، در آثار دیوید لینچ است.
    کلیدواژگان: سینما، آنتونن آرتو، تئاترشقاوت، بازشناسی و تحلیل، دیوید لینچ
  • امیرحسن ندایی، مونس بسکابادی صفحه 71
    پرده خوانی به عنوان یکی از اشکال نمایش سنتی در ایران از قابلیت های بسیاری در بیان هنری و نمایشی برخوردار است. در مورد این شیوه ی نمایشی تاکنون به ساختار و شیوه های اجرای آن در شکل سنتی خود پرداخته شده است. پرسش این پژوهش آن است که آیا با ایجاد تغییر در عناصر نمایشی پرده خوانی و امروزی کردن آنها، این شیوه ی نمایشی می تواند در یکی از مهم ترین اشکال هنری جهان امروز، یعنی هنر چندرسانه ای مورد استفاده قرار گیرد و قابلیت جذب طیف وسیعی از مخاطبان را دارا شود؟ فرضیه ی اصلی آن است که شناخت عناصر نمایشی این هنر و مقایسه ی آن با نمونه های هنر چندرسانه ای می تواند قابلیت های پرده خوانی را در پدید آوردن زمینه های بیانی نوین، آشکار سازد. این مقاله با مطرح کردن چند نمونه ی غربی از هنر چندرسانه ای و تطبیق آن با عناصر پرده خوانی در شکل کلی آن تلاش دارد تا این قابلیت ها را بازشناسی کرده و توانایی های آن را برای استفاده در هنر چندرسانه ای امروزی تبیین نماید. بررسی این عناصر مانند نحوه ی اجرا، استفاده از تصویر، کاربرد لحن و موسیقی (چه به صورت آواز و چه به صورت همراهی کننده) و نیز چگونگی تاثیر آن بر مخاطب، نشان می دهد که پرده خوانی می تواند از قابلیت های ویژه ای در عرصه ی هنر امروز جهان برخوردار شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پرده خوانی، نمایش ایرانی، شیوه های اجرا، نمایش سنتی، هنر چندرسانه ای
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  • Amir Soheil Pirayeshfar, Mohammad Mehdi Jalili, Seyyed Yahia Mousavi Page 5
    In this study, the disadvantages of wood, which is widely employed in producing music instruments, are discussed. For example, high moisture sensitivity, low impact resistance, and time-consuming procedure as well as various properties of different species or in several parts of one specimen which are the main problems of wooden music instruments are extensively discussed in this paper. Many materials have been employed to replace with wood in many applications. The most successful ones are wood plastic composites (WPCs) which have been extensively applied in some fields due to their better moisture and impact resistances and low-cost producing procedure (Injection molding). But, finding a suitable alternative for wood with properties required in acoustic filed is relatively difficult since many considerations have to be noted when it will be utilized in music applications. Although wood particles, which are dispersed in wood plastic composites at high concentrations, induce wood properties to the resultant composite, they could not support all acoustic requirements throughout the composite. In this paper, a new generation based on polymeric composites is introduced as suitable alternative for wood in order to produce music instruments that could resolve the above mentioned problems of wood. Application of fiber composites possessing a structure as same as wood, has been developed due to their specific vibrational and acoustical properties. In general, such fiber composites are provided using various types of synthetic and natural fibers such as glass and hemp fibers, respectively, and different kinds of resins e.g. modified polypropylene, epoxy, and polyester resins. In this study, three different kinds of fibers (i.e. glass, carbon, and Kevlar fibers) were employed to produce fiber composites for replacing with wood in music applications. Also, an unsaturated isophthalic polyester resin was used as polymer matrix. All fiber composites were produced utilizing pultrusion method and their acoustic properties were then compared with two natural wood called white Mulberry and Cedar wood. Density and elastic modulus (in longitudinal direction) of all mentioned specimens, which are the main parameters to determine acoustic properties of a material, were measured and reported comparatively. Consequently, other acoustic parameters such as sound velocity, acoustic coefficient, sound quality factor (Q) and acoustic converting efficiency (ACE) were calculated and reported in comparison with those obtained from two kinds of natural wood. Although the results show that all manufactured composites have higher densities than those of natural wood, which reduce their acoustic efficiency, their considerable high moduli improve it increasingly. Therefore, much higher sound velocities could be obtained for fiber composites compared with wood. Furthermore, the composites demonstrate higher values of sound quality factor as well as acoustic converting efficiency in compared with those calculated for natural wood. From the obtained results it can be also deducted that carbon fiber/polyester composite possesses the highest value of acoustic coefficient among others which can be ascribed to the exceptional modulus of carbon fiber inducing to corresponding composite. The results reveal that carbon fiber reinforced polyester resin shows maximum performance and as a consequence could be undoubtedly used for making high performance music instruments.
  • Susan Khataei, Akbar Alemi, Mehdi Pourrezaeyan, Ayatollahi Ayatollahi Page 13
    Animation with its broad audiences is very popular as a modern art. Beside the fantasy, imagination, designing and drawing for making an animation film, the most important role of Screenwriting shouldn’t be neglected as the basic activities for professionals and amateurs. Keep your students interested and engaged in lessons by making them interactive. While the classroom will be a bit noisy and perhaps even seem disorganized, when you know how to manage these teaching techniques, you will notice more participation in the classroom. In addition, the students may discover that learning is more fun they previously thought. Arrange the students so that each one is paired with a partner. Instead of calling on just one or two students to answer a question, instruct the students to tell their partner what they think the answer is. Then ask for a volunteer to tell the class what their partner answered. Interactive teaching is not something new or mysterious. An even more interactive teaching technique is to divide the class into cooperative learning groups. Each group should have four or five members. There are many ways to facilitate group activities but it is important to give clear directions about what the group is supposed to do. It is also important to provide a tool that will make it likely for each member to participate. Art of animation the offspring of its previous arts emerged more than 50 years ago in Iran. From the very beginning, the need to create better characters which fitted the intellectual system, beliefs and traditions of our people was felt. The purpose of this research is reassessment of animation syllabus in Bachelor of Arts (B.A. Program) in graphics courses and representing an integrative educational method, as covering this syllabus, in many cases, does not lead to formation of creative super characters in scripts which are prepared by university students. The method in which this thesis proposes is a mixed method draws upon traditional and problem solving procedures in order to reach a Dynamic Interactive Teaching method. The way of carrying out this research is both qualitative and quantitative. Its qualitative aspect was accomplished by descriptive study on basis of observation, question and answer, open interview, case study and library research and in few cases, covariance analysis was applied. From the data pool of animation students of Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University who had taken animation work-shop course, a class was chosen as experimental group and other one as control group. Independent variable was application of Dynamic Interactive Teaching method. The research hypothesis was confirmed: Dynamic Interactive Teaching method affects the student’s conceptual understanding of screenwriting. In this method, students participation and enhancing their motivation, experiences and abilities for bringing upon correct hypotheses, problem solving abilities and testing their hypotheses have priority. Due to very nature and special educational atmosphere of Art degree, it is recommended to draw upon and incorporate educational technology in universities as an additional subject in teaching Art courses.Teaching and learning animation Screenwriting have usually many creative principals. This research indicates that use of Dynamic Interactive Teaching in learning animation screenwriting can reduce some of these difficulties.
  • Ilnaz Rahbar, Hooman Asadi, Ramon Gaja Page 23
    In the Safavid period, as opposed to previous periods such as the Timurid era, there is not any discussion of organology in musical treatises and authors had just referred to the name of some instruments. Thus, in order to investigate in this field, it is necessary to study other worthwhile historical sources. In the discussed historical period, there are lots of travel accounts which contain important information of Iranian history and culture. In these travel accounts, Chardin’s and Kaempfer’s descriptions are remarkable. In Chardin’s travel account, there is a part specifically discussing the Iranian musical instruments. Also, in Kaempfer’s travel account, there is a picture illustrating several Iranian instruments, in addition to explanations on them; however, because of the Latin text of the original book, this part has not been translated and surveyed up to now. In this research, considerable information has been got as a result of comparative studies between the very two travel accounts. Although both of them are written in the same period, the style of description, classification of instruments and the types of instruments are different. In some approaches they are complementary, similar or contradictory. In Chardin’s travel account, the instruments have been classified in four groups. While, Kaempfer doesn’t follow this pattern exactly. As a whole, unfortunately, Kaempfer descriptions of Iranian musical instruments have not been considered so far though they are much more accurate and comprehensive than Chardin’s descriptions and he describes this part with more details. There were many nominal differences between two travel accounts based on membranophones, but it could not be possible to compare chordophones because the Chardin’s mean is not clear whereas Kaempfer describes them perfectly. About aerophones at both travel accounts just only minor points have been presented. Both travel accounts bear considerable and complementary explanations, despite some contradictions. Both travel accounts addressed exotic instruments but there was not any common ground in the name of instruments and each one pointed to a specific set as exotic instruments. Western and maybe authoritative point of view about instrument and Iranian music has been seen at both accounts. On the one hand if both accounts viewed etically, it should be stated that at old treaties membranophones has not been considered normally but both at Kaempfer and Chardin’s travel accounts all instrument families described visually and theoretically. With regard to that at first they start to introduce and describe this kind of instruments, one can obtain history and nature of some undescribed instruments. It could be inferred that they select the most applicable Safavid period instruments and explained them, because Kaempfer told that there was some other instruments besides selected ones that because of boring description were not dealt with. It is probable that they describe some instruments that seem stranger and interesting than others. However, at this very period that such information could not be only obtainable from treaties, visual or historical texts this kind of information included in travel accounts could be very valuable and it could be explanatory of small part of music history.
  • Esmaeel Shafiee, Jalil Khalil Azar Page 33
    The light in modern concept has accompanied by theater as one of the formative elements of showing art from the first days of theater emergence and todays various functions have been defined for that and it has been and is being used for different purpose. On the other hand, the light is always with shadow on the scene and lack of light causes to darkness on the scene. So, the light, shadow, and darkness can be known as an elements common domain and the ratios and their functions would be examined. Position of light, shadow, darkness, and their functions has a major milestone in history of theater and that milestone is thoughtful and theoretician presence of Adolf Appia on arena of theater. Before Appia's time, showing groups, regardless of shadow and darkness only considered the light to light up the scene to see the exciting elements on the scene including actor, decoration, and accessoire. But, with presence of Appia, the shadow, darkness, and light became three ingredients of showing art and each of them found different position and function. Appia strongly focused on the light element on scene and considered its counterparts, that is, shadow and darkness as two separate elements. He believed that it should be absorbed all of the visual elements of scene by light in one”‌total unity”, consequently, the light together with actor create vertical decoration and horizontal floor of existing elements on theater scene as possible as highest unity; i.e., “perfect unity”. In point of view Appia, the light together with shadow and darkness cause to painting the scene, and in addition, these three elements with each other lead to be three- dimensional scene. He believes that the light which is important in the theater shapes the shadow; otherwise, this light only defines and shows and has not any value. In point of view Appia, the light, shadow, and darkness have several important functions that they are as bellows: The light will create and provide the state and space, It will induce the emotion to viewer, It will appear the basis of place and time dimension and the variation of them, It will create the visual unity and solidarity of different and sporadic elements on scene, The shadow and darkness will present the fundamental and/or important shape, They extract the space from hollow being state, They will visual verification the shape, They will return the emotion to induced state of scene. The aim of this article is to examine and compare the two historical sections before and after Adolph Appia on theater scene in point of view application and the nature of light, shadow, and darkness in the arena, and also to examine and explain Appia’s opinions about functions of light, shadow, and darkness in theater, that it is lead to create new attitudes in this arena. Research methodology used in this article is analytic – descriptive and it has used library technique in it.
  • Mohammad Ali Safoora, Hossein Safi, Seyed Badreddin Ahmadi Page 43
    In order to be attracted, each work of must encounter viewer in its environment. At first it is virtual and is the result of sensitive subjectivity of the artist, and then it will be changed to objectivity and forms a piece of artwork. The artist of filmmaker is changing the virtual environment of the film; the virtual situation which is made in the mind of the scriptwriter and himself; and uses images in, shots, scenes and sequences. However, before to set the images, shots, scenes and sequences, he must create the real environment of the narrative movie by pre-visualization like design and storyboard. Creation of environment is the first step in concretion of the imaginations of the filmmaker. There are different ways to create an environment for live action movie, like determining a location, to design decors whether natural or artificial or digital or combination of them. This variety is countless in animation movie. The variety in styles and techniques help the variety in the structure of creation an environment in an animated work. So we can use different techniques of design in producing each style of animation. Space designing, in place dimension relates to location and scene, and in time dimension relates to editing and other factors such as mise-en-scene and sound. Making space in animation cinema like any other cinematic works emanates from story plot; at first the work exists in creator's mind potentially and then it appears in form of words and sentences in screenplay. The director or creator of an animation movie, in his first step, tries to visualize the space which has been created in his mind. For such a director there are many possibilities for creating different spaces than a live action movie director. Surreal and virtual world of animation which makes everything artificially opens the way for creativity in emplacements of space. In live action movie, Instance, there are limitations even in camera place for taking different shots and point of views. But in animation these limitations are far less than they. The ways of formation and projection of an idea are varied in animation formats. Different visual techniques in animation are among their possibility that helps to create space. The director makes his firs decision for objectivity to the subjective impressions of space by identification techniques. While we say, for instance, that we can make an idea, a plot, or screenplay in puppet animation format, in fact, we have decided about its appearance. Film spaces that must have been made by this technique are objective and depicted, by sets and puppets. In another movie, for instance in paper animation, spaces must have been painted in two dimension in form of consecutive frames. Hence, we can say that after identification technique, style and creator's view in implementation and way of making film, space and task force is determined. In real and animation cinema creating space and visual space is production designer's task which is done with main director consulting and art director supervising.
  • Pooyan Farzin Page 51
    After Historically Informed Performance Practice movement in 1950, Extempore embellishments have attracted lots of interests in this style of performing and after some time, it became one of the mandatory and important abilities for all stylesof music performing. The extempore embellishments that a musician applies to the music being performed represent a good understanding of music and also the ability of performer to arise the feeling of listeners. A good and sensitive extemporization needs lots of knowledge and ability of understanding of the sense of musicians during the era which music has been composed. In other hand a musician should seek for a good balance between the personal feelings or characteristics and being faithful to the sense of the music and composer. It’s not an easy task to think in the same way that a musician did some 200 years ago because the cultures are different and the traditions and taste about music and music performing has changed a lot especially during romantic and modern era. Because of these issues, musicologists always try to use the primary sources which have been written by music composers of that time or musical theorists. George Philip Telemann's Zw?lfmethodischeSonaten, is among one of the most interesting and famous sources to study for understanding of the free ornamentation in Baroque era. Telemann(b Magdeburg, 14 March 1681; d Hamburg, 25 June 1767) is of curse on of the most important composers of baroque era, he is a self-taught composer and instrumentalist he has traveled a lot during his life time, giving concerts and observing musicians in different parts of Europe.He has such a taste that can be a good example of "mix-tasted" composer of his time since he was affected by different styles of music such as German, French, Italian and Polish while he was open to some aspect of galant style. Zw?lfmethodischeSonaten is a combination of 12 sonatas for flute or violin which has been written in Hamburg between 1728 and 1732,on one hand a music being composed and extemporized by a composer such as Telemann and on the other hand a realistic way of presentation of extemporized line and basic line together makes these sonatas a perfect case to study. In this essay Ive tried to classify the un-ornamented line based on the aesthetic role that a note or a phrase have with in the music to make it easier to compare and understand the approach of the composer. Although Ive tried to focus more on Telemann's methodic sonatas, Ive also compared it with examples of other composerssometimes to give more general schema of extemporization. The other aim of mine was also Not only to show a single way of extemporization but also to emphasize on the different way of extemporization in the similar basic ideas with the same music. Although this essay does not try to give a certain answer, it would be a guide to start understanding improvisation in baroque era.
  • Ahmad Kia Page 59
    This study of attitude is about the cruelty of Artaud that was much discussed by scholars, directors and theorists in various cultural and artistic fields. A word that its meanings and interpretations domain and beyond ordinary words into a kind of philosophical approach of life. This study sought to investigate this issue whether this concept can be transferred to cinema and offer a new standpoint in this exchange and margin for the art or not. Along with this outlook, the concept of transfer of claims to other art [cinema] and recognize again with all its deficiencies and its additives would be possible in American avant-garde filmmakers, David Lynch. What has this recognition is very important philosophical approach selected readings at the Artaud and transfer it to the movies is because the approach to the study claims, fewer vulnerabilities in principle the concept has Artaud's cruelty, because in the fields of thought, isolation, secession is more superior in comparison to other subjects such as psychological, social,… issues and this article is immune from comparative views of other sciences. so philosophical idea originated by the cruelty Artaud's choices and his outlook is his analysis of theater and theater of his theory on the one hand, and mediated by a philosophical concept in this regard is placed on explaining to them by the look of this of theoretical and theoretical limits for theatrical release is on the other hand for the research as a practical solution to look at the theater and cinema has been used. Along this approach and the basis of Artaud's theory, toward a constant upheaval and alchemistical, dialectical and dreamy permutation confronts with madness and salvation dilemma. Cruelty exists in all part of it. At this point, a new definition of cruelty on the basis of "Development toward cognition" and "inevitable necessity of life" is represented. To be conscious of pure senses and absolute existence are the existential sources of new arts in Artaud's theoretical system; although before this time, this intuition was not real and was unknown. The theory of cruelty cinema, with tendency toward Artaud in this approach is defined as: that kind of cinema which begins and becomes involved in with havoc and chaos nightmares and dreams have interior permutations of work with themselves, and finally what remains is symbolic confusion, and because of this, the spectator has a paradoxical feeling og displeasure, magic Jouissance and emotional and physical impacts.Analysis and visual explanation of this exploration is sought in Lynch's cinema. Another basis of this study is on the metaphysical relation of cinema and theatre, and it can be said that Artaud acts as a firm connection between these two. And finally this study try to find examples of a new art especially based on the concepts of Artaud's cruelty in David Lynch works. This theory, as a model, is used for understanding and perception via feeling of Lynch's cinema, in order to be an evidence for of surrealistic, cruel and distinct experiences of Lynch in dreamy and uncanny world.
  • Amir Hassan Nedaei, Moones Boskabady Page 71
    The storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani), as one of the traditional forms of theatre in Iran has many capabilities in artistic and dramatic expression. Yet, about this kind of traditional theatre, many researches has been accomplished about its structure and performing methods. The main question of this article is that, is it possible to use this theatrical form in one of the most important artistic forms of today, multimedia art, by changing and modernizing theatrical elements of the storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani) to attract wider range of audience? The main hypothesis is that recognition of theatric elements of this traditional theatre and comparison that with multimedia art can be increase it’s capabilities in modern artistic expression. This article tries to propose some of the elements of this traditional theatre by comparison between western examples of multimedia art and eastern theatric elements of the storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani), to recognize its capabilities and potentialities. Investigation of these elements such as performing methods, using picture (illustration), application of melody and music (both in song or in accompaniment), as well as the way of having influence on audiences, demonstrate that the storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani) can have exclusive capabilities among today’s art world. Storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani) is one of the oldest monodrama in Iran and it is one of the oldest dramatic forms in the world. Storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani) can be classified in the traditional theatres and it consists of different forms of art such as performing (in storytelling), singing (as a part of storytelling), poetry, music (in songs), literature (story sources), and painting (used on screen for telling the story). Hence, because of using various expression methods which emanate from various artistic mediums, we can propound this hypothesis that this art form has many capabilities for entering to modern art contexts. In these screens have been paid attentions to the religious subjects, and sometimes heroic, epic or legendary stories. Multimedia art as a branch of new and postmodern art in west and with the main character of combining various media in a work of art is close to storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani). Artist, In both of these two art forms, for having multiple and deeper contact with the audience, has gone beyond the use of one medium and art form. Freedom of the artist in choosing any art form makes this capability in storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani) to use many performing methods and multimedia tips. This article tries to answer this question scientifically, that can we use this Iranian traditional theatre, storytelling with picture (Pardeh-khani), in new performance methods and in multimedia art? Contemporary art attends to change subjectivity to objectivity, and Iranian traditional arts want to do so, therefore, these traditional forms are very close to those ones. So, we can create a new form of performance in multimedia art by adding the elements of installation art, performance art, environmental art, video art, and event art into storytelling (Pardeh-khani) to provide a new arena opened to new range of audiences.