فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفتم شماره 1 (پیاپی 25، تابستان 1389)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/06/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Houchang Hassan, Yari Page 1
    The global war on terrorism as currently waged is a strategic error. Its stated goals are unrealistic and condemn the United States to a hopeless quest for absolute security. Its strategies are politically, fiscally, and militarily very difficult to sustain and its methods lacks moral justification and contravenes international laws. Containment policy worked with the Soviets for several decades. The Soviet experience holds important lessons for current U.S. foreign policy. 1967 is attestation that first strikes quickly and irrevocably remove diplomatic options off the table. An over-reliance on preemption can lead to the downplaying of diplomacy. Today, the doctrine of preemption has fallen on hard times. Far from demonstrating the principle's effectiveness, the Iraq war and its aftermath have ultimately underscored its limits. Preemptive war is not and cannot be just.
    Keywords: War, Terrorism, US, Preemptive Action
  • Hussein Aghaei Janatmakan Page 53
    Using the children in the armed conflicts in the unmilitary role has been from the old time. However, using the children as a military in the armed conflicts has been increasing during several past decades through the world. As that causes anxiety in the world community. Prohibition the using of children as a soldiers in the armed conflicts has been debate in the international conventions and agreements. the Rome statute has also criminated using children in the armed conflict. aim of the this article is survey about prohibitions and limitations based on prevent from using children in the armed conflict.
    Keywords: Children, Soldiers, Armed Conflict, Prohibition, Limitations, International
  • Amir M. Haji, Yousefi, Mahboobe Roohi Page 75
    It seems there are at least two principal schools in Turkish foreign policy namely Eurasianism and Europeanism. Each school has its cons and pros. The Europeanists adhere to Turkey’s integration to Europe while the Eurasianists adhere to Turkey’s closer ties with Eurasia. Few factors may be named as influencing Turkey’s foreign policy orientation in this regard, i.e., different Turkish governments` capacities, the dominant ideology in each government, the geographical and geopolitical factors as well as Europe’s policy towards Turkey specially with respect to its integration in Europe. In this paper we seek to examine Turkey’s key goals and interests in Eurasia by examining in particular its relations with Israel and Iran.
    Keywords: Turkey, Foreign Policy, Eurasianism, Turkey's Regional Policy, Turkey, Israel, Turkey, Iran
  • Morteza Bahrani, Seyed Abdolamir Nabavi Page 115
    Following the crucial transformations happened in the Arab world through the last 2 centuries, Arab scholars and intellectuals have attempted to know the basic elements of the western civilization and the roots of its prosperities and successes. Thus, they have to learn about the relation between the “self” and the “other”, besides reviewing their own Islamic-Arabic heritage. Hisham Sharabi (1927-2005) is among the intellectuals who introduce the concept of “Neo-Patriarchy”, through which we could see a realistic image of the Arab political systems. Noe-Patriarchy, as he has seen, is neither a modern state nor the traditional, but is the paradoxical combination of modernity and patriarchy; and thus just a mimic of Modernity. Therefore, the now middle class which emerges is a kind of sub-Bourgeois Neo-patriarchy as the comprador capitalism. However, while the Secularist and Fundamentalist discourses have emerged as the potential alternatives for the status quo, their backward ideological attitudes –and especially the patriarchic essence of Fundamentalism- have caused them to fail. According to Sharabi, it is only through the critical discourse and approaching to the gradual transformation, rather than sudden one, that the Neo-Patriarchism could be destructed.
    Keywords: Neo, Patriarchy, Fundamentalism, Secularism, Orientalism, Arabian Middle East, Hisham Sharabi
  • Mohsen Khalili, Mohammad Javad Ranjkesh Page 139
    Oil and gas in the contemporary history of Iran, synchronically, are the nostalgic / dramatic phenomena. It seems that the incomes of selling oil andgas are useful for development, but it has not been occurred. The survey of the history of Iran's foreign relations shows that the energy has caused Iran to an attracted attention country and converts to an international state. Foreign policy is based on four main factors: understanding international environment, preparing a strategy for protecting national interests, devising a tactical plan for the implementation of the strategy, and diplomacy, or organizing diplomats for the implementation of the tactics. Designing and implementing foreign policy is dependent on the internal situation, external pressures, statesmen's perception from other countries foreign policy, understanding global events, decision-maker's perception from international arena, and efficient diplomacy. If the above factors are missing, we can only talk of foreign relations, rather than a foreign policy. Rent is an economic word that means in political economy: income without any inconvenience.Now, Iran, has many engagement and contention with its neighbors: Caspian Sea, Parsejonoobi / Qatar, and Peace pipeline (Iran, India, and Pakistan).The authors, in this paper, try to answer a main question: Do the rentire state can use the rent factor to appointing and defining of rules of behaviors in foreign policy with neighbors? It seems, in our opinions, that the energy factor is a catalyst parameter for the converting foreign policy to foreign relations in rentire states.
    Keywords: Foreign policy, Oil, Gas, Energy, Rentire States, Iran's Neighbors
  • Mehdi Taheri, Reza Kiani Page 167
    The US-led invasion of Afghanistan is the first official war on terror which is the centerpiece of the Bush administration’s foreign policy and it showcases a new brand of realism: a mix of neo-conservative and liberalist thinking. But, from 8 years on, two wars and hundreds of thousands of lives, we can agree on the longevity of the challenge and it is likely to endanger strategic interests of US and its allies in the region, bearing in mind that Afghanistan was always likely to be a difficult theatre of operations for outside military forces. Current US-led operation faces different challenges in south Asia in general and in Afghanistan and Pakistan in particular and as the times passes the tensions between Taliban and Coalition forces deepen,threatening situation which can bring the region into an interstate conflict and terror at transnational level and endanger strategic interests of US and its allies if the crisis of this region takes too long. Great emphasis on hard power in war on terror not only fan the flames of Tensions among regional countries but also would further increase attack against the foreign (inter/trans) national interests on the foreign front. A workable solution for improving the security conditions around the globe in general and in Afghanistan and Pakistan in particular, the study continues to suggest, can be achieved by spreading smart power, taking into account that Global Superpowers such as US often underestimate the impact of soft power in the long term and overestimate the impact of hard power in the short term, but success is out of reach unless it addresses the balance a bit.
    Keywords: International Relations, US, South Asia, Obama, Regionalism