فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفتم شماره 2 (تابستان 1388)
  • علوم انسانی
  • بهای روی جلد: 6,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1388/07/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • A. Partovimoghaddam Page 3
    The quantity and quality of historigraphy were changed in Qajar period. The first sign of these changes appeared in prose and writing style. Then the changes led to the content and historigraphers. The horizon of historigraphy was expanded from geographical and cultural border of Iran and its neighbouring countries to the teritory of the world history. So, a matchless variety occurred in the historical writing and historians. Writing and study of history were not restricted only to the literary governors. A few authors proceeding this way, developes the contents of historical subjects and changed them from descriptive biography of kings and wars to the social and economical comments. They critisized the traditional historigraphy and circulated the method and technique of the scientific historigraphy. And finally they emphasized on phylosophical concept in history. In this essay, the circumstances of historigraphical changes and also the different aspects and factors which caused these changes in Qajar period before Constitutionalism are giong to be considered.
  • H. Khosrowbeigi, Y. Farrokhi Page 16
    One of the important characteristics of Iran’s society after Mongol invasion is the growth and development of Sufism Sheiks’social and political existence and influence. Undoubtedly, they had significant roles in the social and political relations and also in the trend of following changes. The social and political way of Sheik Safi-al-Din Ardabili, as a great sheik in that period, ultimately resulted to the establishment of the powerful Safavid dynasty. In spite of incapability of the successor of Shah Abas II and the fall of Safavid dynasty by afghan and foreign troops, Sheik Safi-al-Din Ardabili protected his influence among the people. However, Afshar and Zandieh dynasties had to attend to that dynasty. Famous Sheiks such as Sheikh Safi-al-Din and his ancestors gained political power by attracting the social groups and increasing the number of followers among people. They used their great power and influence for capturing the political influence.There is not enough knowledge about the quality of Sheiks’ relations and cooperation with social groups. The purpose of this essay is accessibility to way of action and reaction of craft groups and Sheikh Safi’s sect based on multiplicity, type of presence and the cooperation of craft groups in the Ibn-e- Bazzaz narration. Consideration of Sefvat-al-Safa and collecting and analyzing the information of this work is an effort in this aspect. Such questions as the crafts used in Ibn-e-Bazzaz narration, the maximum and minimum of cooperations between the craft groups and Sheik Safi-al-Din’s sect and the types of crafts, goods and services, determined how much the groups could approach Sheik Safi-al-Din’s sect. Since this essay is reffered to craftsmen and marketmen, it does not indicate other governmental members. In this essay every purposed effort towards providing people’s needs or accomplishing the social services is considered as a craft
  • A. Shahvari Page 46
    The insecurity of both foreign and local trademen was always a basic problem in iran’s trading in Qajar period. Political influence of western countries on Iran caused protection of western trademen and their economical affairs by government and makes them secured. This happened when Iran failed in the second war with Russia and Turkmanchai treaty was concluded in 1828. According to one of the materials of the treaty, Iran’s government was undertaken to receive only 5 percent of the tariffs taken from imported and exported goods by the Russian trademen. The reason why Russians inserted this material was the terribly chaotic conditions of Iran’s government in taking teriffs and Russians who were aware of the conditions clarifies their duties by doing that. In the second half of 19th century, English and other foreigners could gradually gain the same credit for their own subjects and finally the barriers and problems stood still and keep the Iranian trademen in difficult situations. In this essay some main barriers of trading growth in Iran and the trading strategies will be briefly considered as a plan for a deep and elaborated research.
  • A. Alisoofi Page 55
    Continuity of Iran’s changes, world events, and the role of main characters in the international scene in the contemporary history is so expanded that ignorance of it can make the precise introduction and accurate understanding of different social, economical and political events impossible. Therefore, what makes events of Mohammad Reza Shah’s ruling system and the international system complex and widespread, is a cold war between the communism and capitalism in which Iran was considered as a center of the international struggles. So, the events such as the crisis of Iran’s evacuation order that occurred at the end of World War II, Nationalization of the Oil Industry and subsequantly the Coup of Mordad 28th in 1332, Upheaval of Khordad 15th in 1342 and finally Islamic Repunlic Revolution in 1357 can not be analyzed apart from the international policies and Iran’s foreign policy tendencies. For these reasons the Iran’s civil events which are linking together like a chain and their relation to the international changes that enfluence Iran’sevents will be discussed in this essay.So the crisis of Shah’s government are devided into four following parts:1. The crisis of political legitimacy (political popularity).2. The crisis of religious legitimacy (religious popularity).3. The crisis of economical legitimacy (economical popularity).4. The crisis of international legitimacy (international popularity).Since the separation of these crisis from the last Shah’s fate is not possible, and because of the significant role of the foreign factors in the appearance and intensification of these crisis, and also final result of the current argument, the events have been followed up to Islamic.
  • J. Ghaemi Page 76
    Sardar Rafi’s dynasty was of local governing dynasties ruling from the beginning to the end of Qajar period in Hezar Jarib and Astar Abad. The heritage attained by the ancestors of this dynasty instead of Agha Mohammad Khan battles with Zandieh dynasty, lasted continually until the end of this period. They seized power by this way and achieved many prperties so that in Constitution period, contemporary with the realm of Mohammad Bagher Khan Sardar Rafi, he was one of the four persons who called himself a king and increased his power and influence as he made the Constitution governments worried. When Vosoogh-al-Doleh became premier in 1957, the policy of eradicating local influentials andconstituting a powerful central government was pursued; so Sardar Rafi was also affected by that loss and a large amount of his properties, states and army weapons were confiscated and, like other commanders, was imprisoned in Tehran for some time. Thereafter, he never ruled again and commanding began to decline for about 150 years in this dynasty.
  • H. Masjedi Page 88
    Mohammad Shah Qajar entrusted Manoochehr Khan Motamed-al-Dowleh the duty of solving the problem of the Bakhtiari’s restraint and refusal of paying taxes. Resorting to different tricks, Motamed-al-Dowleh totaly abolished Mohammad Taghi Khan Kenorsi’s dominance and made him withdraw and give up. Then he destroyed Sheik Chaeb’s government. Bahar’s Biography of Madayeh-al-Motamedieh is the only elaborate source of chronography which compromises this event although because of his kinship with king he kept some of the information hidden. But this can be revealed in comparison with such logbooks as Layard’s.
  • H. Rahimi Page 102
    War, as a social phenomenon, has never been absent from human communities and the periods of war and peace, victories and defeats have frequently occurred during history. Meanwhile, the political leadership, as a determiner in every political system, has a fundamental influence on the way of managing and leading the wars; since one of the main taks in a political system is military defense and its management and guidence for the sake of protection of territorial integrity of the country and survival of the political system. This essay is going to analyze the role of political leadership in wars and its influence on defeats and victories. Thus by considering the ups and downs of Iran history, the four significant wars of the recent 200 years, the first war between Iran and Russia, and the last one which occured between Iran and Iraq are studied not only to compare the political leaderships of iran and its consequences in these wars but also to give reasons why the Iran- Iraq war ended in a reasonably acceptable conclusion while the previous ones in Qajar period came to failure and defeat. This essay, by a theoretical discussion on the role of political leadership in victories and defeats and analytical attitudes towards the the two wars between Iran and Russia, Iran and England and Iran and Iraq, gives a hint to the effective role of the quality of political leadership in wars and its consequences.
  • A. Sajedi Page 120
    By forming a dipolar system and relative stability in the international relationships and plans of United States for economical reconstruction of Europe and the strategic situation of Iran for its oil profits were significant and overt in the late 1940. Apparently, America had made its own plans in Iran based on benevolent advice but in fact it was a mere show. America was thinking about its own strategic benefits in Iran and seeking for a suitableopportunity to strengthen its authority. As a matter of fact it established Point Four in Iran for two following important politic
    Aims
    1. Prevention from expanded influence of Communism2. Improving the level of people’s lives in order to provide certainmarkets for products and using oil and its behifits and also strategic situation of Iran to promote their own profits.
  • J. Roosta Page 131
    The Chaghanian Amirs (Aale Mohtaj) were at first a small and local dynasty ruling in a corner of the Chaghanian's territory (in the Transoxania). But as time passes, they became powerful and were succeeded to immortalize their name in the eventful history of Iran. This dynasty succeeded in proving their name in the eventual history of Iran. This dynasty could seize more power and prestige gradually and increase the governmental realm in the course of their bilateral relationship with the Samanids. When Abu-Bakr Chaghani assumed power, Aale Mohtaj turned from a small and obscure family into a famous dynasty and could finally won the fame. Then, his son, Abu ali came to power. He succeeded in bringinging Ale Mohtaj to the peak of power and fame. He as a Samanian commander, could even surround Zanjan, Abhar, Nahavand and Dinvar. After his death, the period of the Chaghanian's run-down and decadence began since any of those who claimed his succession neither could come to power nor stay on power more than a short while, and nothing is known of their fate. As the Chaghanian were fostered by the Samanids, they made an effort to propagate the Persian language to attract the Iranian rhetoricians, authors and poets and encouraged them to write their books in the Persian language.
  • J. Noroozi Page 145
    Iranian’s immigration to India in Mongol kingdom is one of the events that had several cultural and social effects. Among the effects we can indicate the growth of some men of science and the creation of significant historical and literary works. Mirza Nizam-al-Din Ahmad Heravi, the author of Tabaghat Akbari was among the effective characters of that period. In this essay his biogrophy and personality will be described and various aspects of Tabaghat Akbari will also be considered as an authentic historical referance.