فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Majid Aghasi, Zailina Hashim, Mitra Mehrabani, Amir Hosein Mahvi Page 470
    Background
    To determine the atmospheric contamination by pesticides, conducting laboratory studies is necessary before operating field studies. The aim of this research study was to develop an analytical method to sample and simultaneously determine airborne amitraz and its metabolite.
    Methods
    A modified fritted impinger with acetonitrile as the liquid sorbent was used in order to study the air concentration of amitraz. Air samples were extracted using a rotary evaporator and then under a soft stream of nitrogen gas. The determination of amitraz and its metabolite in the air samples was made using gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). Quality control of the method was determined at three concentration levels of 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL for both analyses. The findings revealed that the average values of extraction efficiency were 97.3% and 97.9% for amitraz and its metabolite, respectively, while the detection limits (LOD) for amitraz and 2,4-dimethylaniline were 0.01µg and 0.009µg per one cubic metre of air, respectively.
    Results
    Furthermore, the percentage values of accuracy were 97.5% for amitraz and 97.9% for its metabolite, whereas the precision values were determined as 1.4 and 1.2 for amitraz and its metabolite, respectively. In addition, the least stability of amitraz and its metabolite was found at room temperature 25°C, while the most stability was determined at -20°C.
    Conclusion
    The technique developed was a simple, sensitive, specific, and reproducible one that allowed the determination of low-levels of substances of interest in air samples.
  • Mostafa Delavar, Gholam Reza Asghari, Farya Amiri, Mahdi Abdollahi Page 482
    Background
    Medicinal plants use is growing in Iran and controlling their quality in terms of contamination with toxic metals is critical. City of Arak, due to its large industrial plants, is one of the most polluted cities of Iran; these pollutants can be transferred to the farms.
    Methods
    In this study, concentrations of metals such as aluminum, arsenic, lead and cadmium are measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in five medicinal plants (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis) cultivated around the city of Arak.
    Results
    According to the test results, the aluminum concentration levels were between 319.06 and 561.08 μg.g- and the amount of arsenic in the samples ranged from 0.246 to 0.293 μg.g- Minimum and maximum lead levels were 0.254 and 3.022 μg.g-, respectively. With regard to cadmium, the lowest and highest values obtained were 0.031 μg.g- and 0.144 μg.g-, respectively.
    Conclusion
    High level of aluminum concentrations can be associated with aluminum factory located 25km far from the cultivation area.
  • Ali Reza Ebadollahi Natanzi, Shima Mahmoudian, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Moslem Mohammadpour Page 488
    Background
    This study investigated the effects of some important meteorological parameters and filler type compounds on phytotoxicity of captain in peach trees in the north of Iran. Captain is a phthalimide fungicide which has frequently been used in northern regions of Iran to control certain plant diseases. This fungicide has caused intense phytotoxicity in peach trees which was first observed in the northern districts of Iran in 2005. Since early research has only reported that some changes in the climate could be associated with this phytotoxic effect and little is known on phytotoxicity of filler in the formulation, therefore, we studied the role of filler in this toxic effect and also its interaction with this phytotoxicity.
    Methods
    Filler (calcium carbonate) and climatic parameters, including minimum and maximum temperatures, relative humidity, daily precipitation, and sunshine hour, were analyzed.
    Results
    The means of calcium carbonate concentrations measured by atomic absorption and EDTA analyses were 17.41± 0.4 and 20.93 ± 1.25 µg /ml, respectively. The final ranges of calcium carbonate in formulation were found to be 42-43.5%. pH values were measured from 8.55 to 8.75. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between meteorological parameters in the year 2005 in comparison with previous year (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    The high amounts of calcium carbonate in the formulation of captain, resulting in alkaline hydrolysis followed by the increasing uptake of thiophosgen in peach trees and consequently interacting with meteorological parameters, have caused a broad spectrum of phytotoxicity in northern areas of Iran.
  • Sameena Farrukh, Ayesha S. Ali Page 495
    Background
    The indispensable use of agrochemicals has created serious threats for earthworms abundance and their population; therefore, several earthworm protocols have gained acceptance for use in tests to assess the effects of soil chemicals on soil organisms. Dichlorovos, an organophosphorus pesticide, is one of the widely used pesticides in agricultural fields of M.P., Central India. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effects of the dichlorovos on growth, reproduction, and avoidance behavior of an earthworm, Eisenia foetida.
    Methods
    After evaluating LC50, artificial soil substrate was prepared using an evenly blended mixture of 68% mesh silica sand, 20% kaolin clay, and 10% sphagnum peat. Different concentrations after LC50 probit analysis of the pesticides were prepared in 1000ml of distilled water and mixed with 1 kg of the soil to expose the earthworms in a dose-dependent manner.
    Results
    A decrease was observed in the weight of earthworms at all concentrations of the pesticide used, whereas reproduction and avoidance behavior which are sensitive parameters were found to be significantly affected by all three doses of dichlorovos.
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that growth, reproduction, and avoidance behavior can be taken as useful indicators for assessing the sub-lethal effects of pesticides on non-target soil organisms such as earthworms.
  • Abdolhosein Moghbel, Ahmad Farjzadeh, Nasrin Aghel, Homayoon Agheli, Nafiseh Raisi Page 502
    Background
    Compounds present in both green and black teas have been shown to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with mouth infections. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of green tea leaves extract on the aerobic mouth bacterial load.
    Methods
    A total of 25 volunteer female students, aged 20-25 years, were selected and then evaluated by green tea extract and mouthwashes containing 0.2, 0.5, and 1% tannin, as the most effective antibacterial complex in green tea. Then a comparative study was conducted on a green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin with 10% ethanol, a alcohol free mouthwash, and a green tea herbal mouthwash with a chlorhexidine 0.2% sample, as and chemical brand.
    Results
    Green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin was more effective than other concentrations (P<0.05). There were no meaningful differences between the green tea mouthwashes containing 10% alcohol and alcohol free, as well as the herbal and chemical chlorhexidine 0.2% (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    The herbal green tea mouthwash could reduce the aerobic mouth bacterial load and may prevent plaque formation on teeth and come over halitosis due to infection of the bacteria. Also, it is a safe and nontoxic mouthwash especially for children and pregnant women.
  • Mahboubeh Nozari, Abbas Esmaili-Sari, Alireza Riyahi-Bakhtiyari, Jaber Aazami Page 516
    Background
    Mercury (Hg) is a major environmental contaminant due to its global ubiquity, tendency to bioaccumulate, and toxicity in wildlife. Mercury accumulation in wetlands threatens critical breeding and foraging habitats of many fish and wildlife species. In this study, mercury concentrations were detected in different tissues of pike.
    Methods
    To achieve these purposes, 58 pikes (Esox lucius) were hunted from Anzali wetland. Mercury concentration was analyzed by Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Leco, AMA 254). T-test was used to determine any significant differences between muscle and liver samples.
    Results
    The results revealed a significant difference (t = 0.85) in mercury concentrations between the tissues, whereas no significant differences were found in mercury concentrations between pikes of different sexes.
    Conclusion
    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility assessment to recognize bioindicatory index usage and to determine restricted standards to human consumption. Our data can contribute to the development of management programs for understanding the ecotoxicological status of Anzali wetland and can help determine restricted standards for human consumption.
  • Siamak Pourabdian, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Parastoo Golshiri, Fatemeh Amini Page 521
    Background
    Hematological effects and digestive and neuro-psychological signs and symptoms are some manifestations of lead toxicity. However, there are conflicting reports of their prevalence among lead exposed workers and their relationship with blood lead levels (BLL). This case- control study assessed the relationship between BLL and hematological indexes and digestive (abdominal colic, iron taste), neural (tinnitus, anosmia, paresthesia, weakness, dizziness, headache), and psychological (fatigue, sleep disturbance, forgetfulness) findings in battery-manufacturing workers.
    Methods
    Cases and controls were a sub-sample of lead exposed and non-exposed workers in battery-manufacturing industry. BLL concentrations, hematological indexes, and clinical manifestations were evaluated in the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software.
    Results
    There were no significant differences in age and years of work between the two groups. BLL (mean ±SD) was significantly higher in the lead exposed group than in the controls (36.54 ± 4.34µg⁄dl and 8.82 ± 3.96 µg⁄dl, respectively) (P<0.001). There was a significant relationship between BLL and headache, fatigue, paresthesia, weakness, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance, iron taste, anemia, and eosinophil level. However, there was not a significant relationship between anosmia and BLL.
    Conclusion
    BLLs correlated with some clinical and para-clinical findings. Therefore, preventive measures towards exposure to lead at work places, and routine hematological investigations should be included in bio-monitoring the health status of lead workers.
  • Mahmoud Amini, Ali Ahmadabadi, Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, Hassan Solhi, Yahya Jand Page 527
    Background
    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency of the childhood. Its diagnosis is really challenging. A constellation of through history taking, physical examination, radiographic investigations, and laboratory analysis should be used to balance the risk of delayed operative intervention against the removal of a normal appendix. Here a case with misdiagnosis of acute appendicitis instead of Amanita Phalloides intoxication was presented. Case: A 6-years-girl was referred with history of constant, not-colicky lower quadrant and periumblical abdominal pain from 24 hours ago; associated with nausea and vomiting. In physical examination generalized tenderness particularly in lower quadrants was found. leukocytosis (WBC=22000) with a shift to left (PMN=91%) and hypoglycemia was found too. Alvarado score for diagnosis of acute appendicitis was 7 out of 10. In laparotomy, the appendix appeared normal. Blood study revealed INR>7 during operation which was partially corrected with FFP infusion. The patient developed decreased levels of consciousness and was transferred to ICU. Further history taken from her family by the clinical toxicologist revealed that she had eaten wild mushrooms. After examination of the remaining mushrooms by an experienced biologist, the diagnosis of Amanita Phalloides intoxication was established. The patient died tomorrow regardless of appropriate interventions.
    Conclusion
    Mushroom poisoning should be taken into account in evaluation of the patients suspected to have acute appendicitis. If diagnosis of mushroom poisoning was made earlier by proper history taking and a high index of suspicion, the patient would receive the available treatment modalities earlier and her chance of survival would increase.