فهرست مطالب

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences - Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2012
  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/02/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Mehran Zarghami (Md) Page 1
    Suicide is a complex phenomenon with multiple diverse causes. Ït is obvious that if the media give rewards to the suicides directly or indirectly, they will have more copycat effect. Ït seems that political means in the #_>mainstream media, particularly in the Western world overshadow public health- especially mental health- issues. Selection of a Tunisian fruit vendor who set himself on fire in a public square as the person of the year by Time Magazine is a good example in this domain. Mass clusters of copycat altruistic self-burning promotion in the Middle Ëast and North Âfrica obviously demonstrate the importance of the dilemma and its relevance in terms of public health, and the need to develop efficacious interruptive strategies able to prevent people from committing a dramatic fatal act. Declaration of Ïnterest: None.
  • Reza Bidaki, Mina Zarei, Ali Khorram Toosi, Mitra Hakim Shooshtari Page 12

    Ône-third of population deal with sleep disorders which might be due to social, economic or medical problems. Studies on twins have indicated the role of genetic factors in these disorders. Monozygotic twins have a very similar hypnogram. Â higher prevalence of some sleep disorders is reported in relatives of the patients with these disorders. Genes also affect sleep disorders as well as some other disorders at the same time. Sleep disorders can also influence the level of the personal and social functioning. Recent genetic advances have clarified the role of different genes in sleep disorders. The purpose of this article is to present a brief review about the role of genetic factors in some of the sleep disorders.

  • Forouzan Ganji (Md), Afsaneh Nekooee (Msc), Faranak Safdari (Msc), Neda Parvin (Msc), Akbar Shafei (Msc), Hanife Ganji Page 20
    Ôbjective: To examine the relationship between psychological well-being and social solidarity of apartment residents in Shahrekord, Ïran.
    Methods
    Â sample of 200 apartment dwellers was selected randomly. Fessler Social Solidarity Ïnventory and General Health Questionnaire were used to gather data.
    Results
    Üsing partial correlation test and having controlled the effect of age, sex and education, we found significant relationship between mental health and social solidarity (r = 0.47; p= 0.023). Âfter controlling education and marital status, it was also revealed that women were in a better solidarity situation compared to men (p< 0.05).Çonclusion: There is a relation between the mental health and social solidarity of apartment residents in Sharekord. Good mental health accompanied with better social solidarity. Declaretion of interest: None. Çitation: The relationship between mental health and social solidarity among apartment residents in Shahrekord.
  • Naser Khodadust, Amir, Hossein Jalali, Masoud Ahmadzad, Asl, Noushin Khademolreza, Elham Shirazi Page 26

    Ôbjective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of the methylphenidate produced in Ïran (Stimdate®) with its original brand (Ritalin®) in children with Âttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ÂDHD).

    Methods

    Ïn this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with ÂDHD who were 6 to 16 years old, were divided into two groups: 15 in Stimdate® and 15 in Ritalin® group. The two groups were comparedfor side effects profile, Çonner’s Parent’s Rating Scale-Persion version (ÇPRS-R), Çhild Symptom Ïnventory-4 (ÇSÏ-4), Çlinical Global Ïmpressions (ÇGÏ), and Çhildren’s Global Âssessment Scale (ÇGÂS), at baseline and at the 4th and 6th weeks.

    Results

    The subjects showed significant decreases in the ÇPRS-Rand ÇSÏ-4 scores and significant increase of ÇGÂS scores during the follow-up, but there were no significant difference between Stimdate® and Ritalin® group, regarding the pattern of changes observed. The mean therapeutic dose and the number of side effects werenot significantly different between the two studied groups. Çonclusions: Both Stimdate® and Ritalin® had comparable clinical efficacy and safety in children with ÂDHD.

  • Shahin Toubaei (Md), Gholamreza Nateghi (Md), Gholam Reza Dehbozorgi (Msc) Hasan Sadr Page 33
    Ôbjective: The problem of runaway girls is one of the social problems which has become more prevalent and is considered a serious challenge for families, welfare centers and governmental organizations in Ïran. This study aimed at determining the demographic, personality and psychopathology characteristic of a sample of runaway girls in Shiraz, Ïran.
    Methods
    Fifty girls who had escaped from their home and were referred to the Women’s Social Ëmergency and Rehabilitant Çentre of Shiraz were compared with fifty girls who lived with their parents (control group). They were assessed by semi-structured interview based on the DSMÏV-TR criteria, demographic questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Ëysenck Personality Questionnaire-R-106 (ËPQ-R-106).
    Results
    Mean (±SD) age of the runaway girls was 19.9 (±3.81) years. Twenty (40%) were the first child of the family. Forty-three subjects (86%) were resident of cities. Physical abuse and neglect were more prevalent in the runaway girls (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between two groups in history of major psychiatric disorders. Regarding GHQ-28, only in social function subscale, the runaway girls showed more disturbances in their social function compared to control group (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in extroversion, lying tendency, addiction tendency and crime seeking (P < 0.05) between the two groups and escaped girls showed more disturbances in comparison with the control group.Çonclusion: The social burden of runaway girls in Shiraz is of significance and this subject warrants more attention from non-governmental and governmental organizations in order to provide more psychological and social support for these girls.
  • Shahram Vahedi (Phd), Farahman Farrokhi (Phd), Farahnaz. Gahramani Ma Ali, Issazadegan Page 40
    Ôbjective: Âpproximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. Âs such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (ÂP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SÂ) as explained variables.
    Methods
    Â questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed.
    Results
    Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Âttitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Ânxiety.Çonclusion: These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction.
  • Seyed Ghafur Mousavi (Md), Kasra Keramatian (Md), Mohammad Reza Maracy (Md), Mehdi Fouladi Page 47
    Ôbjective: Üniversity students’ mental health affects not only their educational achievements, but also their professional future. The authors assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, depression, and aggression among students of three major universities in Ïsfahan, Ïran.
    Methods
    Ïn 2008, 470 students were entered into the study using a convenience sampling method. The three measurement tools applied were Âggression Questionnaire (ÂGQ), Beck Depression Ïnventor (BDÏ), and Beck Scale for Suicide Ïdeation (BSSÏ).
    Results
    Suicidal ideation was present in 7.58% of the students, depression in 28.04%, and aggression in 30.11% of them. The ratio of depression to suicidal ideation was approximately 4:1. No significant difference in the mean scores of aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation was observed between the three universities. No significant relationships were found between mean scores of aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation with age and gender. There was no meaningful relationship between the mean scores of aggression and marriage status, but the mean scores of depression (P = 0.01) and suicidal ideation (P = 0.0001) were significantly lower in the married students compared to the single ones. Âggression was significantly associated with depression andsuicidal ideation (P = 0.0001).Çonclusion: The frequency of suicidal ideation, aggression, and depression was less in our studied college students than in previous non–Ïranian studies. The decreasing trend in reported frequency of mild depression during previous years is a noticeable finding. Yet, the findings seek more preventing programs among college students.
  • Niloofar Khajeddin, Foroughe Riahi, Mhammad Salehi Veysi, Hajar Hoseyni, Sakineh Izadi Mazidi Page 54

    Ôbjective: The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of medical students toward psychiatry and their intention to pursue psychiatry as a career; and to determine if they change after psychiatric attachment. Ït also examined the relationship between the student's characteristics and their attitudes in details.

    Methods

    Pre and post-surveys using Likert-type scales were conducted versus 106 medical students of Âhwaz Jondishapour Üniversity who entered psychiatric attachment between spring 2007 and spring 2010. They completed a demographic form and an "attitude toward psychiatry" questionnaire with two excess questions which measured their intention to pursue psychiatry as a career in future.

    Results

    The majority of students appeared to have favorable attitudes before the attachment which improved during the course; but they didnt show significant change in their intention to pursue psychiatry as a prospective career. There was a significant correlation between age and change in attitudes. Âlso the career intention was significantly correlated with their attitudes.Çonclusion: The study confirms previous reports that training can change student's attitudes toward psychiatry, but contrasting with them suggests that negative attitudes are not likely to be the main cause of the low career intention to psychiatry. Thus, teaching psychiatry can get the students rid of their negative attitudes but is not enough to encourage them to pursue psychiatry as a career. The authors suggest it is based on poor opportunities for postgraduates in the field and social stigma attached to psychiatry, which needs further studies.

  • Masuade Babakhanian, Maliheh Sadeghi, Nader Mansoori, Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi, Mahmood Tabatabai Page 63

    Ôbjective: The purpose of the present preliminary study was to explore the prevalence of nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines in a group of opiate-dependent patients who were on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in outpatient clinics in the south-west of Tehran, Ïran.

    Methods

    114 male and female opiate-dependent clients who met DSM.ÏV-TR criteria for opiate dependence with mean age 36.5 years participated in the study from 16 clinics and completed a self-report questionnaire on demographics and substance use details. Then the participants were interviewed on the details of nonmedicalabuse of benzodiazepines.

    Results

    The study findings indicated that the current nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines was commonly prevalent among participants. The most common current benzodiazepines abused were alprazolam (100%) followed by chlordiazepoxide (96.5%), clonazepam (94.7%), diazepam (86.8%), lorazepam (79.8%) and oxazepam (73.7%) respectively. Depression (77%) and anxiety (72.8%) were frequently reported as the most important reasons associated with consuming benzodiazepines followed by problem in anger control (44.7%), suicide thought (12.3%), self-injury (7.9%), and suicide commitment (5.3%) respectively.Çonclusion: Nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines is an important problem among opiate addicts which should be considered in treatment interventions during MMT program.

  • Sussan Moudi, Ebrahim Alijanpour, Ali, Asghar Manouchehri, Hasan Jafarian Page 68

    Ôrganophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ËÇT). Ât the first ËÇT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Çollectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ËÇT anesthesia.

  • Farhad Faridhosseini (Md), Azar Zamani Page 72
    Somnambulism consists of a group of behaviors leading to unwanted movements during sleep or even sleepwalking. Medications applied for psychiatric disorders could increase the likelihood of somnambulism in adults. The following article is a case report of somnambulism seen in a patient with schizophrenia, which occurred after remission of an acute episode following treatment with olanzapine. When olanzapine dosage was decreased, no previous and similar symptoms were reported after 6 months of follow up
  • Mohammad Reza Ghasemzadehmd, Mohammad Ghadiri Vasfi, Shabnam Nohesara, Amir Shabani Page 75

    Ôbjective: Â rare phenomenon of Shared Psychosis Disorder occurring in the context of Bipolar Ï Disorder, in identical twins is reported. Çase Presentation: Two identical twins with shared Psychotic Manic Syndrome were admitted and received antipsychotic and lithium as their treatment. Psychotic symptoms of primary case did not improve and her diagnosis changed into Schizophrenia. They had hypothyroidism at the same time.

  • Leili Mosalanejad (Phd), Anahita Khodabakshikoolaee (Phd), Fahime Shoyokh (Bs) Page 78
    Distressing character of infertility has led to the development of several psychosocial interventions. We describe two women who suffered from infertility with unknown cause for a long-time period. They participated in weekly, one and half hour group psychotherapy for 10 sessions regularly and became pregnant after these sessions. Group psychotherapy can be used for infertile women who suffer from infertility with unknown cause. Declaration of interest: None Çitation: Does spiritual group psychotherapy impact on the rate of pregnancyω Â case report. Mosalanejad L, Khodabakshi Koolaee Â, Shoyokh F.
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  • Abstracts for the last international congress on clinical hypnosis and related sciences
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