فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 46 (تابستان 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • مهرداد صدقی، حبیب الله آیت اللهی، مصطفی گودرزی صفحه 5
    هنرمندان از عناصر مختلفی برای نمایش فکر یا ایده های خود استفاده می کنند و چگونگی کاربرد این عناصر، گویایی یا گنگی پیامشان را درپی دارد. کار پژوهشی گسترده ای روی برخی از این عناصر انجام شده؛ اما عواملی مانند «زاویه دید»، «فاصله» و «قاب بندی» نیمه ی تاریک و چالش برانگیز این مجموعه هستند که کمتر به آنها پرداخته شده. عامل زاویه دید در کیفیت احساسی و بصری تصویر نقش به سزایی دارد. ممکن است از یک زاویه، عناصر داخل کادر بهم فشرده و نامشخص به نظر برسند و از زاویه دیگر، واضح و مشخص دیده شوند. همان قدر که انتخاب صحیح زاویه می تواند مشوق و راهنمای مخاطب باشد، زاویه غلط هم می تواند او را سر درگم و گمراه کند. بنابراین انتخاب زاویه باید با در نظر گرفتن عوامل زیبایی، فنی و احساسی باشد تا به بهترین وجه موضوع تصویر را به بیننده ارائه دهد. در این پژوهش به شیوه تحقیق «توسعه ای» و روش «تحلیلی-توصیفی» مفاهیم از منابع نظری گوناگون برداشت، تحلیل و در طبقه بندی جدیدی قرار گرفته اند تا نسبت به نمونه های مطالعاتی قبلی مفهوم پردازی «زاویه دید» کامل تر ارائه شده باشد. زاویه دید کیفیت فضا و موضوع تصویر را دگرگون می کند و قابلیت القا معانی گوناگونی را نظیر: تجسم منطقی فضا/تجسم غیر ممکن و آزادانه، اغراق و مبالغه/سادگی، سکون/تحرک، خودی/بیگانگی، مرموز/ قابل اعتماد، پیچیدگی/وضوح دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: زاویه دید، معنای ضمنی، تصویر، اطلاعات، کیفیت های بصری
  • امیر فرید صفحه 15
    در نزد مردمانی که ذوق و سلیقه ی آنان در بیان احساسهایشان به شعر می انجامد، بی شک در خامه ی هنرمندانی که از آن فرهنگ نمو یافته اند، به رانش و رقصی پرحس، در طرح و خط هایشان نیز می نشیند. حال اگر قومی بر سر کلمه ای و خواستگاهی در طول قرن ها وفادار بماند، می تواند پیوندهای نزدیک و علایق مشترکی را در نمود ترسیمی خود با آن احساس ها، در طول دوره ها دنبال کند، که از یک روح مشترک حاصل آمده باشد. بروز این علاقه نسبت به نوع طرح خطی و چگونگی ترسیم خاص آن در بستر تاریخ است، که، به نماد و مشخصه ی قومی می رسد تا شناسنامه و پایه کلی و اساسی طرح های ایرانی گردد. در طرح ها و نقش های ایرانی گونه ای «رویش» و«حرکت» وجود دارد که به وسیله نوع خاصی از خط به بیننده القا می شود، تا نقوش را برای مخاطب «فرازمانی» بنمایاند. انتخاب و بررسی این خط اساسی، که در بستر قوس و منحنی شکل گرفته است می تواند نشان دهنده ی سلیقه خاص قومی و تباری یک سرزمین باشد. این پژوهش خواهان آن است که به پرسش های زیر پاسخ دهد. 1- آیا خط و طرحی ثابت که مناسب با سلیقه فردی و تباری ایرانیان باشد وجود دارد؟ 2- این طرح و فرم خطی از چه اجزایی تشکیل یافته و چه مفهومی را دربر دارد؟
    کلیدواژگان: منحنی، نقش های ایرانی، ناخودآگاه قومی، حرکت
  • بررسی نقش خورشید بر سفالینه های ایران
    میترا ذاکرین صفحه 23
    سفال به عنوان نخستین کتاب مصور بشر، از دیرباز بستری بوده برای نمایش احساس و بیان اندیشه های انسان. پایداری و ماندگاری فرهنگی این نقوش دیرپا بر بستر سفالینه هایی از هزاره های پیشین تا روزگاران پس از اسلام نمادی است از امتداد فرهنگ قوم ایرانی و ره آوردی برای هنرمندان امروز که آرمانشان ماندگاری واحیای آن تاثیرات مثبت و کارآیی است که درگذشته بدان رسیده اند. از میان این نقوش آنچه بیش از همه به چشم می خورد، نقش خورشید وچلیپا است، که به باور بسیاری از پژوهشگران ریشه در آیین ها و سنت های باستانی و اساطیر کهن این سرزمین دارد. این نقش با وجود سادگی، از تنوع و بدعت فراوانی برخوردار است. مقاله حاضر پس از شرح کوتاهی از خورشید در اساطیر ایران و رابطه آن با چلیپا، به بررسی نقش خورشید، چلیپا، سواستیکا یا گردونه مهر بر سفالینه های ایران پرداخته و تداوم این نقش را تا به امروز نشان می دهد، سپس در قالب جداولی بر اساس موقعیت زمانی، مکانی وآنالیز نقش خورشید و چلیپا به همراه نمونه های تصویری، تنوع بصری آن را نیز در کنار ترکیب بندی متنوع نشان می دهد که نتیجه آن، بیان روند شکل گیری و آشکار نمودن بهتر تاثیر پذیری و شباهت های تصویری این نقش می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: آیین پرستش خورشید، میترا، چلیپا، اسطوره، نقش خورشید، سفالینه های ایران قبل و بعد از اسلام
  • سیر تحول، بررسی تاریخی و طبقه بندی کاشی های زیرلعابی در ایران
    مسلم میش مست، محمد مرتضوی صفحه 35
    کاشی و کاشیکاری هنری است که که در تمدن اسلامی با پشتوانه ی هنر ایرانی پیش از اسلام به اوج خود رسید و بناهای معمارانه ی این تمدن را از اسپانیا تا آسیای میانه گوهرپوش کرد. در بین کشورهای مختلف اسلامی در این زمینه، ایران از مرکزیتی خاص برخوردار بوده و آثار متنوع کاشیکاری باقی مانده در گوشه و کنار این سرزمین پهناور شاهدی بر این مدعاست. در بین انواع کاشی ها با بدنه ها و لعاب های متفاوت و متنوع که هر یک همچون فن و هنری در زمان های مختلف، مکان های گونه گون این مرز و بوم را می آراسته اند به گروهی از کاشی ها بر می خوریم که با نام زیرلعابی یا زیرنقشی شناخته می شوند. این پژوهش با هدف معرفی ارزش های آشکار و پنهان در نقوش و تکنیک اجرای این بخش گرانبها از کاشیکاری اسلامی - ایرانی، به معرفی و بازخوانی تکنیک اجرایی این کاشی ها در متن تاریخی عرایس الجواهر (کاشانی، قرن 8 ه.ق) پرداخته و بر این اساس پس از پژوهش و گردآوری نمونه های بازمانده از این تکنیک در بناهای تاریخی، سیر تحول و تکامل آنها را تا اواخر دوره ی قاجار در ایران بررسی می کند و با ذکر نمونه های شاخص از هر دوره به طبقه بندی این کاشی ها می پردازد.
    کلیدواژگان: تزئینات معماری، کاشیکاری، کاشی زیرلعابی، معماری اسلامی
  • بررسی تصویر انسان در ابریشمینه های آل بویه و سلجوقی
    فریده طالب پور، سوسن خطایی صفحه 47
    کاربرد نقوش جاندار مانند انسان در منسوجات دوره اسلامی موضوعی درخور توجه است. پارچه های بویهی و سلجوقی رواج این نقوش را در این دوره آشکار می سازند. این نوع نگاره ها منبع مناسبی برای دست یابی به ویژگی های منسوجات آن زمان هستند. برای بررسی، تعدادی از پارچه هایی که در آنها تصویر آدمیان موضوع اصلی طراحی پارچه قرار گرفته است، از منابع مختلف جمع آوری گردید. سپس با مقایسه نگاره ها سعی شد تا برخی از ویژگی های مهم و هم نشینی عناصر در طرح ها با یکدیگر مشخص گردد. هنرمندان دوران مذکور منسوجات ارزشمندی تولید کرده اند که نقش مایه های تزیینی آنها در مقایسه با سایر آثار هنری ایران شگفت انگیز است. توجه به تصویر انسان در تعدادی از قطعات پارچه در کنار عناصر و دیگر نقوشی که مفاهیمی نمادین دارند، روشنگر این نکته است که هنرمندان این عصر نه تنها از مهارت بالایی در پارچه بافی برخوردار بوده اند، بلکه از مفاهیم آرایه های تزیینی نمادین نیز مطلع بوده و با دقت و مهارت، عناصر گوناگونی را در بیان هدفی خاص دنبال نموده اند. علاوه بر ارائه شیوه های جدید، تاثیر سنت های هنری دوره های قبل نیز در این آثار قابل شناسایی است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقوش نمادین، نقش مایه ها، ترکیبات نقوش، ساختار، ابریشمینه
  • مهدی حق شناس صفحه 55
    سنگ نگاره های ساسانی که تعدادشان نزدیک به سی می رسد، اهمیت بسزایی در شناخت سیر هنر تصویری ایران دارند. هدف این پژوهش، گسترش مطالعات بصری، با غور در این آثار و با تاکید بر سنگ نگاره اردشیر بابکان در نقش رستم می باشد. مقاله حاضر به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوه کتابخانه ای و میدانی صورت پذیرفته است. ابتدا عناصر مشهود سنگ نگاره مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته، سپس با تجزیه و تحلیل بصری؛ به بررسی ساختار و ترکیب بندی اثر می پردازد. این موارد با جست و جو در اساطیر ایرانی و متن های تصویری متقدم، در پی شناخت بنما یه ها و مفاهیم پنهان موجود در نگاره، همراه گشته است. نتایج حاصل بر آن است که سنگ نگاره اردشیر، با بهره گیری از زمینه های تاریخی- اساطیری ایران و استفاده از تمهیدات و پیام های تجسمی، شمایلی و زبانی ارائه شده است. حضور ایزد وای(تجسمی از فضا) و همراهی دو ایزد میترا و باد با مظهر اهورا مزدا، اسطوره و تاریخ را درمی آمیزد. توجه به هماهنگی سنگ نگاره با مجموعه نقش رستم، با استفاده آگاهانه از نور، جهت های باز و بسته در کادر و حذف شکل آتشدان از ترکیب اثر، نشان می دهد که سنگ نگاره با فضا در تعامل است. در پی این موارد، ضمن ادامه سنت دیوارنگاری، ویژگی ها و محتوای تبلیغاتی آشکاری ضمیمه مضمون اثر شده است که می توان آن را از موارد مهم در بررسی پیشینه تبلیغ محیطی در ایران دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: زمینه های تاریخی، اساطیری، سنگ نگاره اردشیر بابکان، نقش رستم، فضای اثر
  • وحید چوپانکاره، علیرضا اژدری، زینب همتی صفحه 67
    هدف از این مقاله، کاربردی سازی بنیادهای نظری طراحی احساس گرا برای طراحان و به ویژه طراحان صنعت است. امروزه در دنیای طراحی، رویکرد طراحی احساسگرا به عنوان پلی میان دانش طراحی و سایر حوزه های مرتبط با این دانش مطرح گردیده است و به مثابه ابزاری نیرومند برای تضمین موفقیت محصول و جلب خوشنودی کاربران به کار برده می شود. در پژوهش حاضر با توجه به نظریه های مطرح شده در این حیطه، سعی بر این بوده است تا چگونگی کاربرد این شیوه طراحی به مخاطب معرفی گردد. در این راستا ابتدا به شرح عناصر پایه طراحی احساسگرا و بررسی عوامل موثر در این رویکرد پرداخته شده و سپس سطوح سه گانه فرایند ادراک محصول از دیدگاه دونالد نورمن و جایگاه آن در فرایند طراحی ذکر گردیده است. به علاوه از آنجایی که در طراحی محصول، احترام به انسان به عنوان یک غایت بایستی نقطه شروع طراحی باشد، در این مقاله سعی شده است تا چگونگی برانگیخته شدن احساسات کاربر توسط محصول بررسی گردد. در این راستا حالت های مختلف عملکرد محصول در رابطه با تحریک مهارت های انسانی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در پایان با بهره گیری از روش آنالیز پدیدار شناسی و طراحی بر مبنای سناریو، به طراحی وسیله سرگرمی و معرفی چگونگی تاثیر به کارگیری این نگرش در طراحی محصول سرگرمی به عنوان یکی از حوزه های بالقوه در این زمینه پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی وسیله سرگرمی، طراحی بر مبنای سناریو، طراحی احساسگرا، آنالیز پدیدار شناسی
  • تاثیر طراحی با دست آزاد (اسکچ) در فرایند طراحی
    ناصر کلینی ممقانی، سمانه عظیمی صفحه 75
    طراحی روندی در حال تبدیل، ترجمه و تعامل ایده ها و نظرات درونی طراح به شکل اسکچ می باشد. اسکچ بخشی حیاتی در مرحله طراحی مفهومی توسعه محصول جدید بوده و در کمک به ذهن در انتقال اطلاعات گزاره ای توصیفی به اطلاعات نمایشی نقش موثری دارد. فرایند بیان تصویری، مکالمه ای با خود تلقی می شود که در آن سه عضو مغز، دست و چشم به همراه طرح به صورت اسکچ بر روی صفحه کاغذ در یک پروسه استدلال بصری با هم در ارتباط هستند. اسکچ ها ارزیابی و تفسیر یک تحلیل طراحی بدون حذف سایر گزینه ها را امکان پذیر ساخته و ضمن تسهیل حرکت از یک ایده به ایده دیگر، از تثبیت زودرس جلوگیری کرده و به حل مشکلات و استخراج ایده کمک می نمایند. اسکچ ها به تفکر دقیق درباره عملکردهای موجود و بازبینی آنها ادامه می دهند و روابط جدید فضایی را کشف و روابط قدیمی را بازبینی می کنند. استفاده از دفترچه اسکچ، روش مناسبی برای جمع آوری زبان تصویری و مشاهدات دقیق است، زیرا دیدن را نسبت به نگاه کردن برتری می بخشد. در این پژوهش به شناخت دقیق خصوصیات اسکچ، نقش، جایگاه و تاثیر آن به عنوان یک ابزار کارآمد در فرایند طراحی پرداخته، و در ادامه راهکارهای مناسبی در خصوص ارتقاء کیفیت فرایند طراحی ارائه خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرایند طراحی، ویژگی های اسکچ، تفکر طراحی، طراحی با دست آزاد، استدلال بصری
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  • Mehrdad Sedghi, Habibollah Ayatollahi, Mostafa Goodarzi Page 5
    Visual artists use pictorial elements to show their feelings or ideas in images, so it is important for them how to use these elements to convey the visual message clearly. Researchers have gained valuable result because of significant studies in some fundamental elements as: line, surface, texture, however, some factors like “point of view”, “distance” and “frame” have usually been ignored by them, yet these factors are impressive in visual communications. “Point of view” induces some effects on visual and perceptual quality of subjects in pictures. Wrong angles of view maybe make ambiguous figures, and mislead the seers, so confuse them to understand what they see in picture, in the other hand, correct angles can encourage and direct viewers to see the depicted people, objects and space in ways that image maker want they have been seen by spectator. Therefore choosing the “point of view” is a part of aesthetics, technical and perceptual aspect of image making that indicate actions, emotions, events and the meaning of picture. The approach in this study is “analytical-descriptive” and theories are chosen from different field as: Illustration, graphic design, photography, cinema and animation literatures. meanwhile the writers of this essay not only have influenced by recourses have provided visual trait of “point of view” but also utilized researches in field of anthropology and aesthetics, visual perception and history of art. We would like to claim in this study “Point of view” is conceptualized more completely rather than literal resources we mentioned before. Finally different level of meaning, visual trait and information aspect of “point of view” is put together in a simple category henceforth can be consider as an effective factor in image making. “point of view” can be consider as a significant device in moods of representation. The horizontal angle is a function of the relation between viewer and subject of picture as a frontal or an oblique point of view and there are degrees of obliqueness that these can consider as degrees of involvement of the viewer with the subject.The vertical angle is an impression of power and this is, again, a matter of degree. If the represented subject is seen from a high angle, then the relation between the seer and represented subject is depicted as one in which the represented subject is seen from the point of view of power. If the represented subject is seen from a low angle, then the relation between the seer and subject is seen that represented subject has power over the viewer. If, finally, the picture is at eye level, then the point of view is one of equality and there is no power difference involved. The point of view also excites concepts like: equilibrium/ mobility, exaggeration/ simplicity, ambiguity/ clarity, commotion/ unity. These connotative meanings attach to straight message of picture and can reveal the attitude of image maker. The most of the significant art work in visual communication take advantage by point of view to convey unconsciously the connotative meaning to the viewers.
  • Amir Farid Page 15
    There is no doubt that we can observe a full of sense and exiting dance of line in the works of those artists who have been educated in a land in which there is the culture and people whose taste in expressing their feelings and their pure and theosophical inside thoughts lead to poem. If a nation is loyal to a word or ambition within centuries, we can follow close ties and common interests when these come into drawing and appearance, these are the result of a common spirit. There is interest in the kind of line and way of drawing it within history which has become the symbol and trait of a nation in order to become the identity and basis of Iranian patterns. There is a special kind of "grow" and "movement" in Iranian patterns and models which are inspired to the viewer through a special kind of line. This makes the patterns independent to time for the addressee. A curve is related to man nature and because of its smoothness makes people feel calm and comfort. The joint shape in most of the Iranian arts over the centuries is the main point in this investigation. Smoothness and curve is revealed in most aspect of Iranian arts for example bas-relief of Takhte Jamshid and figures gesture in the book of Shahname Shahtamasbi. Among all kind of curve, one of them is more popular and common in Iranian arts for example wrinkle of clothes in the paintings and on mosques tiles. The basic shape of it somehow looks like a tear, which is also revealed in Iranian calligraphy. What makes Iranian calligraphy distinct from other ones is its tendency of curve and movement in spite of assertion. Choosing and investigating this basic line which has been formed in the bed of curve and arch can present the special national taste of the people of a land and it has emotional and mental response within people spirit. The line basic movement of has been rooted in the Iranian mind in all of the centuries. With regards to this matter, this research studies history of curve in the nature of people and its use in Iranian art. Here by Iranian art we dont mean a specific art and technique but we mean to achieve a generalization and a clear curve which exists in the spirit of Iranian patterns and forms. The line element is one of the most important visual and eternal aspect of the Iranian art. This element as an joint sprite associated Iranian arts in spite of many evolutions over centuries. This research aims to answer below questions: 1-Is there fix line and pattern which are in conformity with individual and national taste of Iranians? 2-What elements have line and form been made from and what concept do they have? 3-What is the place (status) of line in Iranian patterns and when and how it is used?
  • The Study of Sun Image on Iranian Ceramic Dishes
    Mitra Zakerin Page 23
    ceramic as a first illustrative book of man was the best place for showing humen's senses and attitudes from the very beginigs of human's life. The cultural persistence and permanence of such long-lasting images on ceramic dishes from the ancient millennium to after-Islam periods is a symbol of the direction of Iranian culture and a gift for today’s artists whose ideals are to survive and revive such positive and efficient influences achieved by those images in the past. What is more noticeable among such images is the image of Sun and also the image of Cross which according to most investigators, has a deep root in ancient traditions and old legends. In spite of the simplicity and monotony of the image’s structure, its shape and form is so diverse that the investigation and display of which can be pioneer to those artists who care images and image-making and are loyal to traditional images. After a brief explanation of Sun in Iranian legends and its relation to cross, this essay will investigate the image of Sun, Cross and Savastika or the Love Carriage on Iranian ceramic and show the permanence of the image up to now then in the seprated fram but according to positions, time and the analyse of Cross and sign of the sun in the plottery with imaginary examples and the diffrences in faces of them express the way of forming and clearing effects and similaritties of this sign. from what we recall and compare the following tables refer to the fact that every pattern of artifacts related to everyday life. The body of historical Iranian pottery of the ancient Silk and even today closed repeatedly the image that we call it a cross or crucifix, Connect the subject and background as well as the expression of thousands of years in this pattern and its relationship with the Iranians and the religious beliefs and traditional rituals, makes it clear that not only cross, but all designs and The rituals and symbols associated with ancient beliefs and ethnic that in the history and formation of the new regulations even after the invasion, migration and etc. we received them oral today and it causes to formation and survival and diversity of form and its meaning, and all of them was served the spiritual and material life of human. According to studying of the changing process of the sun’s pattern of pottery in Iran we find that role of this motif have coordination structure in different regions of Iran and in their various historical periods has influenced of their past. This article was an attempt to classify the comparison of time and place between the sources of the ceramic samples in Iran and shows briefly the processing of its formations, studying and showing them can guide those artists who are concern about patterns and creating them and who are devoted to the to the motifs and traditional patterns.
  • Evolution, Historical Study and Classification of Underglaze-Painted Tiles in Iran
    Moslem Mish Mast Nehi, Mohammad Mortazavi Page 35
    Tiles and tilework has developed in Islamic civilization based on pre-Islamic Iranian art and then spread out from Spain to Central Asia. Herein, Iran has played an individual role among different Islamic countries and remnants of various tileworks across this wide territory are clear evidences to this claim. Among different species of tiles and tile decorations, we face with specific types of tiles known as underglaze-painted tiles. This paper aimed to reveal obvious and inconspicuous values of this Islamic-Iranian tilework. Therefore, techniques used to make underglaze-painted tiles in old text of treatise of Abu’l-Qasim al-Kâshâni (Arayis al-jawahir wa nafayis al-atayib, 8th AH /14th AD) have been investigated and recognized. Based on Abu’l-Qasim's treatise, underglaze-painted tiles are technically divided into two types: white ground and green ground. These two groups of underglaze tiles were made up to Qajar period. Therefore in this paper this classification has been used besides historical investigation. Materials used to make these tiles were both clay and stone-paste. There was a tendency for the use of stone-paste rather than clay. According to old recipes and recent literatures, stone-paste was made of ground quartz mixed with glaze frit and fine white clay (bentonite). Colors, essentially metallic oxides, were painted on a thin quartz ground and then, based on the intended technique, were glazed with a transparent colorless or copper blue-green glaze. In second part of this paper, according to collected historical remained specimens and historic researches, evolution and development of this group of Islamic tiles have been investigated. In 3th-4th AH centuries, underglaze painting technique was used to make vessels in eastern Iran which is known as Nishapur wares. These vessels were made of buff and red earthenware and its decorations were painted on a ground slip under a transparent colorless glaze. Although underglaze painting is found on some vessels, the technique did not come into its own on tiles until the 7th-8th centuries. It was by Mongol that underglaze-painted tiles were developed. In this case, appearance of small and sparse underglaze tiles between monochrome tiles facades might be seen. Hence, underglaze tiles according to important identified instances from different parts of Iran have been classified. Based on comprehensive research and individual characterizations, underglaze tiles in three different periods can be investigated: pre-Safavid (from the appearance of first instances up to Safavid), Safavid period, and post-Safavid up to end of Qajar period. Materials and methods used to make body, ground, design and form, colors, type of transparent glaze, location of tiles in building and application have been studied and specified for each period. For each case, different instances in Iran have been exemplified with details. Before Safavid, places and locations which use underglaze tiles are not specified. However in Safavid and Qajar periods, predominant use of underglaze tiles was on wall plinth (ezâreh) of shrines and public baths. Although the material used to make tiles in pre-Safavid and Safavid periods was stone-paste, after that, both clay and stone-paste were used. While both white and green ground were used up to safavid period, in Qajar period white ground is predominant.
  • THE HUMANE FIGURES ON THE BOUID's & SALJUK's SILK FABRICS
    Farideh Talebpour, Susan Khataei Page 47
    Application of human figures on brocades is valuable for studying. The existence of these motifs on the Bouid’s & Saljuk’s brocades indicates the popularity of them at this era in Persia. These are very important sources for studying the weaving techniques. The production of silk fabrics made a magnificent period for Persian textile industry. In this research work samples of fabrics with human pictures were collected from different sources. Then, studying these samples in comparison with other art crafts was made to reveal the common aspects among fabrics. In this method, some important visions of pictures with the associated elements were enhanced. It is obvious that artists in these eras had produced valuable and precious fabrics with the fine decorative designs comparable with other art works at the same period. In some fabrics by concentration on human motif, besides other symbolic pictures, one can reach into two points: first, the weavers and designers were fully skilled with high creativeness, and the second, fabric producers were aware of symbolic meaning of these motifs and followed different steps to introduce their meaning. In this way, the artists could be able to create unique fabrics that now can be found in the art collections in the world. Certainly, in addition to offering new methods, they applied previous artistic traditions that can be recognized in these fabrics now. It is clear that Persian artists use more human pictures than the other artists in the Islamic countries. They use these pictures to discuss an especial meaning. In these fabrics notice to the ancient believes is valuable for studying. In common case, the usage of living creatures such as human and animals in Persian work was only for decorative meanings and hence these were surrounded by circles or geometrical designs in single or face to face or back to back forms. Actually, this type of shaping was existed before Sassanid era and had been continued until Safavid era as well. The application of human designs on the fabrics needs excellent skills. This motif was accompanied with other designs such as animals- flowers - trees- geometrical designs- mythical animals and calligraphy. Some basic specifications of these fabrics can be defined as follows:- Application of different forms: Many forms in these silk fabrics are based on geometrical shapes- oval or circle. This is a result of Sassanid traditional designing. The geometrical forms were repeated on two directions on fabric surface. -Symmetry: Symmetrical motifs in silk fabrics are used and the design was woven symmetrically. -Repeated motifs: The repeat of main motif can be seen in these fabrics. The repeat is regular with a specific pattern. -Proportion and harmony among motifs: A type of harmony between motifs and background existed. The animals and plants fill the background of these fabrics. -Framed designs: Framing motifs in different types of frames were an influence of Sassanid arts. Rhythmic harmony existed among design’s elements. These brocade fabrics reveal that in pre-Islamic Persia the very old motifs had yet existed among people.
  • Mehdi Haghshenas Page 55
    Sassanid reliefs that have joined the ancient Iranian traditions are specifically distinguished from their contemporary arts. Approximately thirty reliefs of the Sassanid Empire age has survived all of which are available in Iran. Most of these works deal with two themes both developed by Ardashir Babakan; one is reception of king symbol from a divine authority, and the other is Sassanid king victory over his enemies. Both of these themes have been simultaneously used in Ardashir Babakan relief- the 3rd century in Gregorian calendar- in Naqsh-e Rustam. The relief’s inscriptions are the oldest governmental inscriptions in Middle Persian (Pahlavi Sassanid) language along with its Ashkani Pahlavi and Greek translations. Despite of the work’s significance in study of Iranian visual art history, most studies about the Sassanid reliefs has addressed and classified these reliefs as far as certain factors such as historical era, dynasty, and work theme are concerned. Purpose of this paper is to develop visual studies via a contemplative probe into Sassanid reliefs, trying to address Ardashir Babakan relief in Naqsh-e Rustam as its main focus. The present study uses descriptive-analytic methodology and includes library and field research. Evident elements of the image were first meticulously examined, and then their relationships underwent a formal analysis to identify the work’s structure, composition, and space. These have been accompanied by search in Iranian myths and pioneering visual scripts to discern themes and concepts behind the relief. The results indicate that, in Ardashir Babakan relief, Ardashir’s legitimacy is represented by means of plastic, iconic and linguistic messages and stratagems using Iranian historical- mythological contexts. Similarity between king (Ardashir) and God (Ahura Mazda) is emphasized via a balance created between two politic and religious victories against Ahriman and fifth Ardavan. The bridge created by the diadem i.e. sovereignty symbol connects two distinct worlds of God and human (king) symbolically. The emphasis on diadem (symbol of sovereignty) image is accompanied by a Sassanid special art method, motion feeling creation, and knot of the diadem over Ardashir‘s crown. Presence of Vayu god, space visualization, and Mithras and Wind gods along with Ahura Mazda symbol blend myth and history. The relief harmony with Naqsh-e Rustam monuments via conscious use of natural light, open and closed directions in the frame, and removal of firebox from of composition, indicates Ardashir relief’s interaction with the space. In other words, the pictorial area is deemed as the work’s space in this relief. Then, in the course of mural tradition, obvious advertising content and features have been attached to the work’s theme. In these reliefs; A) an advertising idea regarding a national event or a kingly action, B) such works’ outdoor presence, in people aggregations, and in their commuting paths, C) simultaneous presence of image and inscription, and D) taste of clients-mainly governmental centers-and its effect on production of these works, indicate an environmental advertising background in Iran. Nonetheless, we must be careful when comparing these works with environmental advertising in its contemporary sense.
  • Vahid Choopankareh, Alirez Ajdari, Zeinab Hemmatai Page 67
    The goal of this paper is application of Theoretical aspects of emotional design for designers and especially industrial designers. Nowadays a huge amount of resources for emotional design has been introduced globally; however the problem was that most of them have been based on psychological or philosophical approach and there were really few resources which would try to connect emotional based theories with design. Even those researches which carry the term emotional design, have very little to do with elements of design theory, which is based on Gestalt theory for design. We believe that this paper would be one of those pioneering steps, trying apply emotional design concepts for design. Not only this connection was tried to be conducted, but also an artifact was tried to be designed based on this approach, so the findings of the research could be evaluated by the reader. There are many reasons to work on emotional design. Nowadays in the contemporary world, emotional design approach can be considered as bridge which connects Design Science and other related fields of design; it is also considered as a powerful tool which guarantees product success and capturing the satisfaction of user. Based on this, we tried to introduce application of emotion based theories for designers. In order to reach this goal, the main elements of emotional design and the role of affecting design factors in this approach was considered and then three levels of product perception was studied based on Norman’s theory. Although we believe that Norman’s theory has a lot to do with design, however translating those three layers of emotion to Gestalt Elements is something really important, which has not been worked as an independent research program yet. We also tried to consider how the user’s emotions would be activated. The activation of user is important since the user is the final receiver of our message which could accept or deny the product designed. There were some methods introduced to see how users ‘emotions could be activated. Here we refer to two methods which was called Interpretative phenomenological analysis and scenario based design. In interpretative phenomenological analysis, the main goal was to put away any assumption which we had from outside world and then we try to interpret elements around us and we would see how surroundings have been interpreted. Findings would be useable for designers to design their own artifacts based on intuitions captured from this approach. Another method, scenario based design, is something which could offer designers possible solutions. In comparison to scientific methods, which reach one answer, scenario based design offers the designer a range of solutions. Based on this, the designer is free to choose between different solutions. Combination of these two methods would be very helpful for designers. In the end, based on those two methods, a sample of an amusement device has been designed, which offers a practical value for designers.
  • EFFECT OF SKETCH IN DESIGN PROCESS
    Nasser Koleini Mamaghani, Samane Azimi Page 75
    Design process consists of multiple coherent stages in which a lot of factors involve and their impact on each other is inseparable. Design is a process of transfer, translates, and interact the concepts and internal ideas of designer through sketches. Visual reasoning is the main factor in connecting designer's knowledge and experiences through sketch and continues till achieving a satisfactory result. This is a systematic way of using sketches to set up a new sub-goal that can then trigger a reasoning process through mediating sketches. Sketch is a vital part of conceptual design stage of a new production. Sketch has a special set of attributes that help the human mind in translating descriptive propositional information into depictive information. Sketch can be the key factor in stimulating and improving design creativity. Developing creativity and old ideas, reinterpreting ideas, simplifying idea retrieval and old information that emerge to simplify different visual ideas, are among the usage of sketch. The process of graphic representation can be defined as a conversation with oneself, in which we can communicate with sketch. This communication process is in relation with the image drawn on a paper, eye, brain and hand. In addition to making temporary decisions, sketch enables us to evaluate and interpret a design analysis without omitting other options. It has been shown that sketch illustrates how we think of problems, not what we think of them and therefore it is very important. Sketch produces knowledge and on the other hand knowledge is revealed via sketch. This shows the interrelation between design knowledge and sketch. It is more obvious that sketch describes objects faster than writing and it is a stimuli and linking tool that develops a relationship and interaction between all of the ideas and mentality. Illustration is a special crisis for a creative designer. He/she should depend on a plenteous collection of visual memory. The affluence of this collection depends on active and extended visual perception. Using sketch notebook is an appropriate way of collecting visual language and accurate observations, as it gives priority to seeing rather than watching. The importance of drawing in design process is that each signing action is an external depiction of part of the information. Most of design sketches enable the designer to have flexible thinking in different contexts. Creative designers expand their skill in effective free-hand sketches and use them while thinking. The designer uses sketch to think about current functions and revising them and find new spatial relationships and edits old spatial relationships. Conceptual sketches are produced fast, not only to adjust designer's primary ideas, but also is an effort to understand and introduce the problem. Free-hand sketches facilitate lateral transfers (movement from one idea to another with a little difference) and prevents early fixation and helps solving problems and extracting ideas. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the key role of sketch in design process and also suggest a proper method for reforming the efficiency of design process regarding the advantages of sketch.