فهرست مطالب

منظر - پیاپی 18 (بهار 1391)
  • پیاپی 18 (بهار 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/04/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
|
  • جستار
  • مهرداد سلطانی صفحه 6
    باغ سازی دوره اسلامی آندلس از یک سو امانت دار نگرش های حاکم بر فضا سازی به شیوه اسلامی و شرقی است و صور واضحی از رد پای باغ های ایرانی و معماری سرزمین های اسلامی را در خود به نمایش گذاشته و از سوی دیگر محلی برای تجلی تعامل شیوه های مختلف معماری غرب و شرق با مولفه های محیطی، بومی و شرایط اقلیمی است که در کل شخصیتی متمایز و منحصر را برای این شیوه ایجاد کرده است.
    به دنبال فراهم شدن برنامه سفر به اسپانیا، فرصت برای انجام یک کار پژوهشی در خصوص باغ و باغ سازی اسلامی آندلس بسیار مغتنم بود. لذا از آنجایی که یافتن اطلاعات در خصوص باغ سازی آندلس از طریق مراجعه به منابع مکتوب و اینترنت برای محققین و سایر علاقمندان امکان پذیر است، در این پژوهش جنبه های مختلف باغ سازی آندلس با رویکرد ادراک حضوری فضا مورد توجه قرار می گیرد.
    یافته های پژوهش، ناظر بر بررسی شکل و ساختار باغ آندلسی است که نوشته حاضر عمده ترین ویژگی های هندسی و ساختاری باغ سازی آندلس را در قالب فرضیه های ذیل ارائه کرده و به اثبات آنها می پردازد.
    در این پژوهش دو فرضیه مطرح است؛ فرضیه اول به عدم وجود هندسه ای منظم و تاثیرپذیری شکل باغ از زمینه می پردازد و در فرضیه دوم مهم ترین ویژگی باغ سازی آندلس که آن را از نمونه های مشابه متمایز می کند، مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. پژوهش حاضر این ویژگی را «ساختار خرد فضایی» می نامد. فضای باغ در مجموعه باغ های آندلسی به صورت ترکیبی منسجم از فضاهای خرد و نسبتا مستقلی است که ضمن آنکه توسط نظام بزرگتر تمامیت مجموعه باغ در بر گرفته شده اند، هر کدام دارای ویژگی های بصری خاص خود هستند. در نهایت اگرچه بررسی چرایی و دلایل شکل گیری چنین نظام خرد فضایی در باغ سازی آندلس هدف اصلی این مقاله نبوده است، لیکن پنج فرضیه در راستای توضیح عوامل احتمالی موثر در شکل گیری این نظام به بحث گذاشته می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: باغ سازی، آندلس، باغ ایرانی، نظام خرد فضایی، منظره سازی
  • جیمز ایچ موف، نایجل دونت صفحه 14
    پارک المپیک در شهر لندن برای میزبانی بازی های المپیک 2012 طراحی شد. رویکرد این پروژه بر اساس کاشت اکولوژیکی پایدار، استفاده از گیاهان بومی و غیر بومی است؛ گیاهانی که با محیط سازگار بوده و متجاوز نباشند. پارک المپیک بر خاک پساصنعتی بسیار آلوده ای شامل نخاله های ساختمانی و فضولات سبز تبدیل شده به کود، ساخته شد. دو قسمت اصلی این مجموعه، پارک شمالی و جنوبی است. در پارک شمالی هدف، ایجاد تنوع زیستی مانند تالاب های بومی و چمنزارهاست و پارک جنوبی با رویکرد فرهنگی ساخته شد. برای طراحی این قسمت از پارک از چهار منطقه جهان شامل اروپای غربی، آمریکای شمالی، نیمکره جنوبی و به خصوص آفریقا و آسیای میانه و چین گیاهانی آورده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: پارک المپیک لندن، طراحی کاشت اکولوژیک، گیاهان بومی، گیاهان غیر بومی
  • ترجمه: _ساشا ریاحی مقدم_ صفحه 20
    در دوران معاصر گسترش شهرهای جدید بسیاری از کشورها در پیرامون شهرهای تاریخی، یکی از معضلات ساکنین و مدیران شهری به شمار می رود. در اغلب موارد این رشد و توسعه شهرسازی نوین در صورت عدم کنترل صحیح و مدیریت مطلوب از سوی مسئولین به عنوان عاملی که ارزش های میراثی شهرهای تاریخی را تهدید می کند، چالش برانگیز خواهد بود. بیست و هفتمین نشست کمیته میراث جهانی در شهر وین، بر موضوع گسترش شهرها در دوران معاصرتاکید می کند که منظر شهرهای تاریخی را همواره تحت تاثیر قرار می دهند. در این تفاهم نامه پیشنهاد هایی برای مدیریت حفاظت از مناظر شهری تاریخی و راهکارهایی نیز مرتبط با معاصر سازی در این محدوده ها ارایه شده است. بر این اساس با توجه به رشد و توسعه کالبدی شهرهای کشور به خصوص در پیرامون هسته تاریخی و مناظر ارزشمند آن، توجه به رویکرد های بیان شده در بندهای این کنفرانس ضروری به نظر می رسد.
    کلیدواژگان: بیانیه وین، میراث جهانی، یونسکو، معماری معاصر، منظر شهری تاریخی
  • بازتاب
  • آیدا آل هاشمی صفحه 24
  • محمد صالح شکوهی بیدهندی، سیده پروانه غضنفری صفحه 28
  • پرونده
  • امیر ردایی، سارا ردایی صفحه 37
    معماران به معماری به عنوان شی و به منظر به عنوان زمینه می نگرد که صرفا شی روی آن قرار می گیرد و کارکردی جز پس زمینه بودن ندارد می نگرند و در فرایند ساخت و ساز جایی که معماری تمام می شود را شروع منظر می دانند. برخلاف اکثر هنرها که شاهد دور شدن از جسمیت هستیم، در معماری شی گرایی را می بینیم. امروز این نوع نگرش در حال تغییر است و توجه به ارجحیت فضا و مکان بر توده منجر شده است تا بسیاری از معماران به منظر و رویکرد منظرین روی آورند. منظر به ایده های مرتبط به فضا نظم می دهد.
    در این میان مانوئل پالرم، معمار و نظریه پردازی است که در گستره فراتر از معماری ساختمان، با تآکید بر ساخت منظر، پیچیدگی های دنیای امروز را تعریف می کند. وی در بستر منظر برای معماری معنا قایل است و در منظر نه به دنبال کالبد، بلکه ارتباط آن با انسان است. پالرم تعریف جدیدی از فضا و مفهوم آن ارایه می کند و از آن به عنوان پیامد تحولات خاص یاد کرده که نیاز به ابزارهای ویژه تجزیه تحلیل و چارچوب های ادراکی جدید دارد و پارامترهای جدیدی را فراتر از پارامترهای اقلیدوسی و دکارتی برای فهم آن بیان می کند.
    وی تجربیات متفاوتی در زمینه های معماری، برنامه ریزی شهری، منطقه ای و منظر داشته و بر موضوع ساخت منظر به عنوان سنتزی از اقدامات مجزای حفاظت و دگرگونی سرزمینی تمرکز کرده است. اکثر کارهای مطالعاتی و اجرایی او در جزایر قناری است. وی معتقد است پیچیدگی های اجتماعی، انسان شناختی، فرهنگی و طبیعی خاصی در این جزایر نهفته که فعالیت در آن را برای او جذاب می سازد. نتیجه تمرکز او بر چیزی که او «پدیده فرهنگی» این جزایر می داند، وی را به دستاوردهای متفاوتی قیاس با سایر نظریه پردازان رسانده است. سکوت و بعد از سکوت، عدم قطعیت، فضا، رابطه دوسویه انسان و طبیعت مهمترین رویکردها و دیدگاه های پالرم هستند که در این پژوهش به آنها پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: خوان مانوئل پالرم سالازار، جزایر قناری، سکوت، عدم قطعیت، درک منظر، ماتریس
  • ژیلا رجبی، سحر اردانه صفحه 44
    انسانی که روزی خود را در دامن طبیعت می دید، امروز رابطه اش با طبیعت به سلطه تبدیل شده است. از این رو به دلیل شکاف عمیق بین انسان و طبیعت، حضور طبیعت و یا تقویت آن در شهر از عوامل ضروری در طراحی منظر شهری امروز محسوب می شود که باید بین شهر به عنوان یک جزء و طبیعت به عنوان یک کل، رابطه ای مطلوب برقرار کرد. «خوان مانوئل پالرم»، معمار منظر اسپانیایی، طبیعت را عاملی مهم در طراحی منظر و فراتر از یک نگرش سطحی می داند. وی با بیان اینکه معرفی مفهوم منظر از طریق تحقیق پیرامون اصل هویت است، سعی دارد از طریق ایجاد فضاهای جمعی با استفاده از بازسازی طبیعت تاریخی شهر، محیطی آشنا را برای شهروندان به عنوان یک نقطه شاخص شهری در دل شهر فراهم کند. پالرم در بازسازی دو پروژه «جاده سانتوس» و «پارک گارسیا سانابریا» در شهر سانتاکروز، توانست ایده هایش را به منظور استفاده از طبیعت در طراحی منظر به نمایش بگذارد و وارد فضای شهری کند. در نظریات پالرم، منظر به عنوان ابزاری، که می توان به وسیله آن فراتر از فردیت خود در جستجوی یک توافق جمعی باشیم، تعریف شده که محدودیتی برای آن وجود ندارد؛ در این راستا او ارتقای ابعاد فرهنگی منظر را در پی توجه به ساختار هویت جمعی می داند که از طریق آن هم زیستی بین تنوع فرهنگی و اعتقادات مربوط به جامعه معاصر برجسته می شود. در این نوشتار تلاش می شود با تحلیل دو پروژه، رویکردهای مختلف پالرم در پیوند طبیعت با بافت شهر مورد بررسی قرارگیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: طبیعت، انسان، احیای منظر شهر، زیرساخت های شهری، هویت، پالرم
  • سارا گلستانی، مونا مسچی صفحه 50
    بشر رابطه دوسویه با طبیعت و بستر زمین دارد. کره خاکی هم منبع الهام و هم منبع ارتزاق انسان است. برداشت بشر از بستر زمین از دوران اولیه حضور بشر بر روی زمین شروع شد و همچنان نیز ادامه دارد. بدین ترتیب انسان در مسیر رشد و تکامل خود تا امروز، در مناظر بکر و طبیعی فراوانی دخل و تصرف کرده و در واقع مناظر طبیعی را به مناظر فرهنگی، معدنی، صنعتی و... مبدل کرده است.
    منظر حاصل از فعالیت های استخراجی و معدنی، برخلاف منظر کشاورزی، در اغلب نمونه ها یک بخش پایدار جغرافیایی و اقتصادی آن نیست و مدت زمان فعالیت های معدن کاری بازه زمانی کوتاهی دارد. در نتیجه منظر معدنی به سرعت متروک و به منظر پسامعدنی بی مصرف تبدیل می شود. سایت هایی که نشان از تعامل یک سویه بشر با بستر زیست دارد.
    این نوشتار در پی پاسخ به این سوال است که مناظر به جای مانده از فعالیت های معدنی، چگونه می توانند در برنامه ریزی و طراحی به مناظر مطلوب تبدیل شوند؟ در این میان تلاش می شود پس از مرور بر رویکردهای مختلف به مناظر معدنی و پسامعدنی در دهه های اخیر، رویکرد ویژه مانوئل پالرم، معمار اسپانیایی، در پرداختن به این مناظر مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار بگیرد. در واقع پالرم با رویکردی منظرین و با استفاده از ابزاری به نام ماتریس روشی نوین در این زمینه را معرفی می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: مانوئل پالرم، منظر معدنی، منظر پسامعدنی، منظر طبیعی، ماتریس
  • خوان مانوئل پالرم ترجمه: _نفیسه سیده_ صفحه 56
    این مقاله قصد دارد با تکیه بر مفهوم فضا در برابر مفهوم منظر معضل برآمده از مبانی و اصول پیشتازان هنر و معماری مدرنیسم قرن بیستم و ابزار عملی آنها در پروژه های معماری را نشان دهد. از این نقطه نظر، بررسی این مفهوم از فضا در معماری امروز نقش تعیین کننده ای را بازی می کند و مستلزم تجدید نظر است. به بیان بهتر و به قول برجزیان (Borgesian)1 «تعریف دوباره فضا از طریق مفهوم منظر به عنوان یک مکانیسم، قادر است سامانه ای از روابط با محیط را بیان و ارایه کند که در آن پروژه معماری و منظر به عنوان یک قیاس در نظر گرفته می شود».
    کلیدواژگان: ایده فضا، فضای جمعی، قلمرو به عنوان یک سامانه، منظر به عنوان ابزار، الگوی نگرش
  • یان نوسوم ترجمه: _النازسادات طیبی_ صفحه 60
  • ویژه نامه محله گرایی و محله پایدار
  • یعقوب موسوی صفحه 67
    به دنبال رشد وسیع فیزیکی شهرها و گسترده شدن دامنه مبادلات انسانی موضوع هویت یابی در محله های مسکونی و سازماندهی روابط ساکنین شهری با سکونتگاه های زیستی در شهر، واحد محله شهری به یکی از لوازم ضروری ساماندهی شهر تبدیل شده است. در دهه های اخیر محله، محیط اجتماعی و انسانی آن به ویژه در سطح روابط اجتماعی زمینه را برای برنامه ریزی بهتر بازسازی شهری فراهم کرده است. از لحاظ علمی و نظری موضوع محلات شهری به مسئله ای مهم در ادبیات شهری تحول یافته و توجه بسیاری را به خود جلب کرده است. مفهوم اجتماع (Community) در این بررسی به واحد کوچک محل در یک شهر نیز اطلاق می شود. مفهوم اجتماع طی دهه 60 تا مدت ها بر اساس مبانی مختلف از حوزه اطلاعات جامعه شناسی حذف شده بود. از این تاریخ به بعد این مفهوم تنها در رشته های مورد ارتباط با سیاست های اجتماعی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. در چند دهه اخیر نوعی علاقه فزاینده به احیای مفهوم و واقعیت قابل تحقق اجتماع در بین محققان شهری به ظهور رسیده است. محله واحد اجتماعی درون شهر تعریف می شود که ساکنین آن ممکن است بر حسب خصوصیات ویژه جمعیتی گرد هم آمده باشند. موقعیت اقتصادی از قبیل نوع شغل، شرایط عمومی اجتماعی مانند سطح برخورداری و رفاه اقتصادی و نیز تفاوت های فرهنگی و نژادی از جمله خصوصیاتی است که ممکن است محله نشینان را از یکدیگر متمایز کند. به علاوه افراد ساکن در یک محل به لحاظ فضای شهری و نوع تلقیات فرهنگی و شهروندی ممکن است در یک محیط مشترک زندگی و آرمان ها و ارزش های مشترکی را مورد هدف قرار دهند. محلات شهری، از لحاظ سازمان اجتماعی و نیز کارکرد و فعالیت ساکنین آنها از یکدیگر متمایزند. از جمله عوامل موثر در تغییر ساختار محلات شهری طرح ها و برنامه ریزی های کنترل شده شهرها در دوران جدید است که به گونه ای غیر مستقیم سازوکار طبیعی شبکه زندگی و فعالیت محله ای را دگرگون کرده است. دگرگونی فوق به دنبال خود تاثیرات فراوانی در شکل گیری ادراک، احساس و رفتار جدید در شهرنشینان همراه داشته است.
    بر اساس فرایند توسعه برنامه ریزی شهری، ایجاد شهر بر طبق تنظیم جغرافیایی جدید و یا دخالت در تقسیم بندی فضایی منجر به تجدید ساختار کالبدی شهرهای مدرن در شکل نواحی منفصل و بی ارتباط شهری شده است، در صورتی که محله های سنتی محصول انتخاب طبیعی ساکنین و خانوارها و برخوردار از رشد طبیعی بوده است. به طور کلی، محله های شهری پدیده های بنیادی در نظام تنظیم شهری در گذشته و نیز در حال حاضر در بسیاری از کلان شهرهای جهان از جمله کشور ما تلقی می شوند. با مطالعه سیر پیدایش و توسعه محله های شهری می توان دریافت که محله گزینی در بسیاری از شهرهای بزرگ در سطح کشورهای جهان در ارتباط مستقیم با کارکردهای اقتصادی و اجتماعی موجود در این شهرها قرار دارد. این نوشتار ضمن نقد اجتماعی ساختار فضایی و اجتماعی شهرها در دوران جدید به دلایل و نیز چگونگی بسط و توسعه مفهومی و تحلیلی محله گرایی جدید می پردازد.
    کلیدواژگان: محله شهری، توسعه محله ای، توسعه شهری، برنامه ریزی محله ای، هویت محله ای
  • مهرداد کریمی، صمد نگین تاجی صفحه 74
    پایداری، ابعاد گسترده ای داشته و دست یابی به آن بر اساس رویکردهای مختلف روش های متفاوتی دارد. دست یابی به پایداری در محلات نیز در ابعاد مختلف دارای پیچیدگی های زیادی است که پرداختن به همه آنها در نوشتاری کوتاه ممکن نیست، از این رو آنچه در این نوشتار به آن پرداخته می شود؛ بررسی الگوهای متفاوت دست یابی به محله پایدار با نگاه طراحی شهری و بر اساس تجارب صورت گرفته در سایر کشورها و شامل الگوی محله سنتی، الگوی توسعه مبتنی بر حمل و نقل عمومی، الگوی محله سرزنده، الگوی محدوده امن و الگوی رشد هوشمند است. همگی این الگوها بر اساس ویژگی های شاخص مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و در خاتمه نیز برخی از سیاست هایی که در اولویت اقدام جهت دست یابی به محله های پایدار در شهر تهران هستند در سه بعد برنامه ریزی، مشارکت مردم و اقدامات کنترلی و موردی اشاره شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: محله سنتی، محله سرزنده، محله با محوریت حمل و نقل، رشد هوشمند، محدوده امن
  • خلیل حاجی پور، عماد کتابچی، محمدحسین پور صفحه 81
    شهرها و واحدهای خردتر آن چون محلات، همچون ارگانیسمی زنده و پویا هستند که در بستر تغییر و تحولات بسیاری قرار می گیرند، لذا نظریات و راه کارهای متفاوتی برای هدایت این تغییرات پیش بینی می شود تا شهر و زندگی انسان ها در زمان حال و آینده با مشکل مواجه نشود. در دهه های اخیر رشد فزاینده برنامه های توسعه، منجر به هشدارهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی شد؛ لذا در پاسخ به بحران های ایجاد شده، رویکردها و مفاهیم جدیدی در حوزه های مختلف شهری مطرح می شود. امروزه توسعه پایدار به عنوان یکی از این رویکردها در تمامی ابعاد اجتماع مد نظر است. برای حرکت در این مسیر و نیل به اهداف آن، می بایست راه کارهایی اتخاذ شود. با توجه به اینکه در دهه های اخیر تاکید بر محلات و اجتماعات محله ای و شروع برنامه ریزی از این سطح، در شهرها مطرح است (رویکرد پایین به بالا)، به نظر می رسد که توجه به معیارهای پایداری در محلات و برنامه ریزی به منظور توسعه در سطح محله، راه کاری مناسب برای ارتقای کیفیت آنهاست. در ضمن به نظر می رسد که به دلیل برخورد با محیط کوچک تری از اجتماع، پیاده سازی این اصول به مراتب عینی تر و ملموس تر باشد.
    در این میان شهرسازی نوین به عنوان رویکردی جدید در شهرسازی، طیفی کامل از برنامه ریزی و طراحی شهری تا معماری را در نظر می گیرد که در پاسخ به محلات ناپایدار به وجود آمده، شکل گرفت. اهمیت بررسی و تحلیل این الگو، به دلیل تاثیر گذاری آن بر برنامه ریزی در تمامی سطوح، و در نظر گرفتن مسایل اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی است. ضمن آنکه اصول ارایه شده این نظریه، در توسعه شهری، توسعه های جدید، توسعه های درون زای بافت و به خصوص در برنامه ریزی محلات شهری، اهمیت قابل توجهی دارد. به نظر می رسد که اصول مطرح شده در این رویکرد، رابطه تنگاتنگی با معیارهای پایداری داشته باشد.
    روش پژوهش در این مقاله، توصیفی تحلیلی است. جمع آوری اطلاعات، بر پایه مطالعات کتابخانه ای است و به تفسیر معیارهای پایداری در محلات، و اصول نوشهرسازی و نهایتا مقایسه تطبیقی آنها با یکدیگر می پردازد. نتیجه آنکه بکارگیری اصول شهرسازی نوین در محلات، راهکاری به سوی پایداری آنهاست.
    کلیدواژگان: محله، پایداری، شهرسازی نوین، توسعه پایدار
  • محله و حمل و نقل عمومی / کارایی سیستم حمل ونقل در محلات مدائن و هفت حوض تهران
    احمد پوراحمد، آرزو حاجی شریفی، کیوان کیانفر صفحه 89
    با افزایش جمعیت، تقاضا برای سفر نیز افزایش پیدا می کند. شهر تهران یکی از پرجمعیت ترین شهرها در جهان و همچنین پرجمعیت ترین شهر ایران با حجم انبوهی از تقاضای سفر رو به رو است. انجام سفرهای بیشتر با اتومبیل های شخصی، باعث افزایش بیشتر ترافیک و آلودگی نیز می شود. حمل و نقل عمومی یکی از مهم ترین راه کارها برای حل این مشکل است. در این تحقیق قصد داریم به بررسی کارایی سیستم حمل و نقل عمومی در دو محله پایدار هفت حوض و مدائن بپردازیم. با استفاده از پرسشنامه، میزان رضایت مندی مسافران مورد سوال قرار گرفته است. نتیجه تحقیق نشان می دهد که بیش از 80 درصد پرسش شوندگان میزان رضایت مندی از سیستم حمل و نقل عمومی در این دو محله را زیاد و بسیار زیاد ذکر کرده اند که این خود حاکی از بالا بودن میزان رضایت از سیستم حمل و نقل عمومی در منطقه است و این سیستم توانسته به خوبی جایگاه خود را به عنوان یکی از شیوه های مناسب حمل و نقل در مقایسه با حمل و نقل شخصی پیدا کند. این تحقیق از حیث ماهیت، کاربردی و از حیث روش، تحلیلی توصیفی است.
    کلیدواژگان: حمل و نقل عمومی، محله مدائن، محله هفت حوض
|
  • Mehrdad Soltani Page 6
    Andalusian gardening in the Islamic era owes its existence to Islamic and eastern prevailing attitudes and practices as well as Iranian gardens and Islamic architectural style. These gardens showcase the mutual interaction of eastern and western style countering natural, indigenous and climatic parameters in a way that they are known as a distinct and unique style. Following the travel programs to Spain, an opportunity of researching on garden and Islamic Andalusian gardens was quite pleasurable. Since the information about different aspects of this style of gardening is provided in written documents and also on the internet, this research is aimed to discuss different aspects of Andalusian gardening considering the approach of perception of personal space. The effective factors in the structure of Andalusian gardens includes a wide range of information considers the main structure and the whole geometry and the Andalusian garden spaces in a holistic view as well as geometric components and garden morphology on the other hand. The collected information will provide an overall view to the concept of structures and forms in the Andalusian gardening in the Islamic period Although the result of this research in which the written documents are not used directly may include some drawbacks, it can provide different aspects of the art of space organization in Andalusian gardens and be used along other written documents for architects and designers. This paper aims to discuss the form and structures of Andalusian gardens and introduces the geometrical and structural factors of this type of gardening as a hypothesis and tries to prove them in the proceeding. This research claims that Andalusian gardens generally do not obey an orderly geometry, they are affected by their contexts; this contextual totality is formed by geometrical parts which have created compelete geometrical space. The significant factors of Andalusian gardens which make them unique among their peers are discussed in the following. This research refers to these factors as “micro space structure”. The garden space is a coherent combination of small and dependent spaces which are set in the larger integrated system while having their own charachteristic. Thus the whole structure of the garden is created through the combination of small and dependent parts which is in full adaption to the totality of the garden. These spaces include the court and their adjacent spaces which obey rectangular and geometrical rules. Although discussing the quiddity and the factors of micro space system formation was not the main goal of the research, five hypotheses are discussed along describing the effective factors in Andalusian gardens
    Keywords: Gardening, Andalusia, Iranian garden, Micro space system, Landscaping
  • James Hitchmough, Nigel Dunnett Page 14
    The London Olympic park is, at 250ha, the largest new urban park in Britain since the C19th, and has road tested the most sustainable approaches possible to the design, not just of the infrastructure necessary to host an Olympic games, but also future urban green space, both in Britain and internationally. A Master plan for the project was originally developed by a project team headed by EDAW. From 2008 on, a revised landscape Master plan was developed by the project team of the North American based Hargreaves and Associates and British based LDA (Landscape Design Associates). Our involvement was based on the growing reputation of our work (research and practice) into how to design, construct and manage more sustainable forms of urban green space, and in particular green space vegetation, that is potentially rich and meaningful to urban citizens, but at the same time provides valuable habitat for native biodiversity. Our work is essentially unique, in that it combines a strong philosophical underpinning that deals with aesthetic theory and the nature of beauty with cutting edge ecological science to unpick and understand how communities of plants can be designed, successfully created and then managed sustainably into perpetuity. Our approach to landscape and vegetation design differs significantly from some currently fashionable approaches, such as for example, landscape urbanism, in that whilst we see much meaning and beauty in nature, we recognize that in urban environments in particular, it is necessary, for ordinary people to fully appreciate nature, to integrate cultural with ecological notions. Since the Olympic park was based on heavily contaminated post-industrial soil, that had to be extensively treated to remove-nullify organic and inorganic toxins, there was no conventional soil on site to use. Originally we had anticipated that the soil would be a mix of crushed building and composted green waste, to utilize the very large amounts of waste crushed building from site clearance. The Olympic park is comprised of a number of component parts of which the North Park and South Park are the two largest, and most distinctive. A critical factor in gaining planning permission for the London Olympics (in Britain, government projects are subject to the same planning permission process as are all other developments) was the principle of increasing onsite native biodiversity. Much of this biodiversity based planting was located in the North Park. South park is the more cultural hub of the park and as such contains fewer areas of meadow and very large areas of concourse. There are however some areas of native wildflower meadow, plus large areas of annual wildflower meadows wrapping around the stadium, interspersed with close-planted clumps of birch trees to provide extraordinarily vivid experiences during the Games period. Olympic park combines dramatic topography with large areas of dramatic ecologically founded vegetation. We hope that the world’s media, visitors and television viewers will be as enthusiastic about it as the teams who have collaborated to bring this landscape into being.
    Keywords: London Olympic Park, Ecologic Planting Design, Non, Native Plants, Native Plants
  • Page 20
    The city development and growth around historic cities of many countries have been a major problem or the residents and city managers in the contemporary era. This rapid development can become a difficult challenge for city managers since it can be considered a threat to heritage values in case they are not controlled and managed properly. The 27th session of World Heritage Committee in Vienna, the emphasis on the issue of urban sprawl in contemporary era, will affect the landscape of historic cities for ever. In this contract management proposals for conservation of historic urban landscapes and solutions associated with modernization were offered. Therefore, regarding the rapid growth and development of cities especially around the historic and valuable core of the city, considering the proposed approaches of the conference is essential. This article is extracted from Vienna memorandum which is available on the website below: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2005/whc05- 15ga-inf7e.pdf
    Keywords: Vienna Memorandum, World Heritage, UNESCO, Contemporary Architecture, Historic Urban Landscape
  • Ayda Alehashemi Page 24
    Nowadays, both professors and students believe in insufficiency of unilateral approach in academic educating. A method which is not responder for multidimensional human knowledge needs any more. These days, academic courses with this unilateral approach especially in visionary-practical sciences not only don’t create enthusiasm for acquisition of science in students but also help to Separation of knowledge from the audiences and the environment. This separation is a consequence of a ridged view to knowledge in last century which has critiqued last years. In recent decades, has tried to replace educating method based on questioning by traditional rigid ones, thus a question to be discussed at the beginning of class and this question will be involved with the student's mind then professor with the issue from different angles has tried to answer that question. Today, the problem of lack of response of this unilateral approach in educating has the highest possible degree in landscape architecture. Landscape is an objective-subjective phenomenon of interaction of human, history and nature. In educating landscape architecture major part is depend on student`s perception and her\his interpretation of environment and landscape. Thus, educating in the field of landscape architecture seeks a complex process within the student has to read and interpret landscape and then discover the relationship ofthis interpretation with society, human and history formation and finally responding to the role of this formation in the state of guidance and management of goal`s achievement. In this process student`s mind, as an interpreter, is one of the main players in educating and gain landscaping knowledge and viewpoint. In thismethod students make questions and searching for responses in different phenomena by themselves. Journey is the best context in the face of landscapes and phenomena to forming questions and discovering for responses. With such an approach, journey is a school without walls which professors let students being free in exploring nature book and natural, cultural, urban and heritage landscapes to educate, interpret and discover knowledge and not just study. Maybe, the most important purpose of journey in discovery based educating is training students with a questioning mind.The Landscape Association of Research Journeys has proceeded with this goal in holding long term journeys to foreign countries. India journey, in 2012 spring, was a new experience in planning and holding this educating process. India is a prepared context for mind training and based on discovery educating, A country with varied cultural, ritual and human landscapes and phenomena together that at first glance bringing thousands of questions in mind. In order to prepare the mind to explore and interpret the landscape and the phenomena and finally forming of exploring and discovering based educating and searching in India we planned two parts of perceptions; first one are immediate explores and perceives and second is the planned perceive in order to compilation of research Papers. The consequence of this journey was three short viewpoints and a research hypothesis for each member. In return, research hypothesis approved by library Studies and exploring based educating completed and ended with discovering based researching.
  • Mohammad Saleh Shokouhi Bidhendi, Seyedeh Parvaneh Ghazanfari Page 28
    A journey to the country of colors, legends and mythical parrots To India, the country of thousand religions, temporal Gods and holy faiths The land of contrast…. poverty and wealth, dessert and forest, deist and idolatry, the land of crowded cities, abundant in pollution and population with convinced people who are free from worldly demands having numerous moral beliefs. This journey generated a unique experience of a sequence of phenomenal scenes which brought a major sense of satisfactory to the eyes of the travelers as they approached the people landscape. Despite offering a sense of novelty and contrast, this land was familiar to us culturally and traditionally where a Persian poem embellished a historic building and when we heard common words of Indian and Persian language. Having held five foreign trips by landscape research trip committee provided an experience of accurate planning for the recent trip to India. Getting acquainted with the civilization of Indian subcontinent which has been developed through thousand years of relations with Indus civilization and high level of interaction with Iranian culture were among the main goals of this trip. Visiting Delhi, Agra, Jaipour, Chandigarh, Ajmer, Udaipur, Pushkar, Ahmadabad, Mumbai, Aurangabad, Varanasi and Lucknow over 23 days by airplane, bus and train offered new experiences of social living and research meetings of other’s culture for the travelers. The achievements of this trip can be categorized in creation of new emotional bonds, meaningful friendship, new experiences of group life style and group activity as well as obtaining 4 research plans including 40 scientific articles and a trip paper which was resulted from brief interpretations of traveling companions and published in www.manzaronline.ir as well.
  • Amir Radaei, Sara Radaei Page 37
    Juan Manuel Palerm Salazar is an architect and theorist who describes architecture beyond the constructional aspects and emphasizes on the landscape in the new complex world. He presents a new definition of space and also conceptual and physical dimensions and refers to it as a consequence of specific changes in the modern world which requires analysis tools and new conceptual frameworks. Alike his colleagues, He believes in new parameters beyond Euclidian and Cartesian ones and presents some cases. He has showcased his professional experience in different fields of architecture, urban planning and regional planning and has focused on landscape as a synthesis of separate measures, land conservation and land development. Since 1986 he has developed architecture, city planning and landscape projects in the Canary Islands and internationally in other countries. He declares that the social complexity of cultural and natural anthropology which is hidden in these islands encourages him to work and showcase his ideas in this region. Since 2006, cultural events such as biennials have been held by Palerm’s contribution. His focus on “cultural events” in these islands has resulted in different achievements from other theorists. The consequences of his studies are a simple look to landscape and how it can be defined as the environment which surrounds us as well as a focus on culture. He seeks for missing bonds in architecture while declaring his new theories. The world is an increasingly noisy place, of growing contrasts, where it is more and more difficult for man to relate to nature. He seeks for silence to hear the world and perceive land developments in the chaos of modern world. He defines landscape as our surrounding environment and tries to relate his landscape and architectural projects to the modern world. He describes the complexity of landscape as a multifaceted reality that one can only conceive an aspect of it depending on his position. He does not try to accept or reject previous landscape theories and congregates them to a new definition of landscape which is our surrounding environment. He believes that beauty lies in understanding the concept of mind enjoyment as well as experiencing it. That is the reason of including harmony and rhythm in the category of effective ideas in landscape design. Instead of discussing the definition and quiddity of landscape which is not commented or discussed anymore in the modern world, he looks for tracks of culture on the Canary Islands to answer land developments and its potentials. Palerm seeks for the quiddity of landscape beyond the human relations, effective relations in landscape creation and the relationship of landscape and the surrounding environment. This research tries to introduce Palerm, his professional career and experience and his theories and researches in this field. His approaches in perception of landscape, silence, culture and cultural events and the correlation of human and landscape, aesthetic quiddity and finally the consequence of approaches and theories are discussed as well.
    Keywords: Juan Manuel Palerm Salazar, Canary Islands, Silence, Uncertainty, Landscape perception, Matrix
  • Zhila Rajabi, Sahar Ardaneh Page 44
    Human manipulation in his habitat with the goal of achieving a place has consequently caused some changes in the pristine nature. It is obvious that people are away from their environment in formation of their cities and the relation and connection of people and nature has dwindled in built environment. Due to the formation of this big gap which is caused by human, amplifying the existence of nature in urban spaces is quite essential in urban landscape. An appropriate relation of nature as a whole and city as a compartment must be provided in urban spaces. Juan Manuel Palerm, a Spanish landscape architect, profoundly considers nature an important factor in landscape design. He tries to recreate the lost nature within the cities by the use of designing landscape in the city structure. He declares that the concept of landscape can be introduced through researching its identity. He believes that creating public spaces by renovating the historic nature of the city will provide a readable and distinctive place within the city. He has been able to showcase his ideas of using nature to the city structure in Santos road and the Garcia Sanabria Park renovation. Santa Cruz de Tenerife has drawn Palerm’s attention due to its historic background and having a natural valley which can be considered a focal point in relating human and nature. In his projects of renovating Santa Cruz spaces, his approach of providing a correlation between the city and the nature which enables both to penetrate through each other’s boundaries is prevailing. Renovating the historic fabric of the city by creating public spaces where the city and nature are combined and the green infrastructure enables a sustainable city and promotes the environmental quality are his main ideas behind his projects. Considering the approach of nature penetration into the city, Palerm had a significant role in renovating the Santos road landscape. This road is an ecological boundary which enables the environmental, social and ecological sustainability in the city as well as promoting the life quality within the city by adding essential functionalities to improve the quality of recreational places. In this way the amount of environmental destruction is reduced and the augmentation of the sense of security gives an identity and authenticity to the city. In the project of Garcia Sanabria Park which was designed by the idea of city penetrating into the densely surrounded nature, he has created a place for daily activities of the citizens by designing walking, reading and recreational places as well as omitting the barriers which separates the parks from the city. He designs various paths (intersective and curved ones) in his parks, in this way he features different experiences of spaces for the visitors. Indeed, he uses the landscape as a tool to achieve the goals in creating social and cultural spaces.
    Keywords: Nature, Human, Landscape renovation, Urban infrastructures, Identity, Manuel Palerm
  • Sara Golestani, Mona Meschi Page 50
    Human intervention in nature explains the reliance of human on earth and itsevolution. Benefiting from earth by extracting from nature started since the existence of man on earth and this kind of natural extraction still continues. As a result so many natural landscapes have turned into mining, industrial landscapes and etc. In contrary to agricultural sites, the mining sites are not sustainable geographical and economical sites. They are used temporarily and eventually become useless sites like post – industrial sites. It seems that mining is the constant and sustainable feature of post mining landscapes. The question is how these post mining and post industrial sites turn into potential landscapes in urban planning and design? How can they be managed and benefited from? This paper tries to research significant opinions in planning, design and reuse of mining sites with a landscape design approach. Meanwhile, a Spanish landscape architect, Juan Manuel Palerm, who uses matrixes to design and plan post mining sites, is introduced. Palerm emphasizes on relations and not absolute landscapes. His focus is on multi dimentional interrelations: of landscape and human, of people and etc. he believes that this interrelation must be identified and nature is the best guide in this process. Therefore he has a holistic approach to mining and post mining sites. Palerm considers matrixes a tool for decoding the complexities of the whole system (the whole world or landscape). He also uses them as a methodological tool for reading and interpreting mining landscape in these landscapes. The relevance between the keywords provides the codes for reading guiding projects. Matrixes help in finding the history of a place and introducing its future by answering all the questions about the place. He mentions that his goals in designing mining projects such as the Tarantino project (located in Italy) is to create a sense of satisfaction for the visitors because they don’t want to see the mines abandoned. Therefore, he designs these sites to achieve beauty. He believes to aspects of the site should simultaneously be taken into consideration in designing: the natural status of the site and the artificial elements which are added later. Homogenous design of mining and post mining landscape based on the defined matrix can impede the disorders caused by indiscriminative mining and human interventions and consequently create ecological identity for the region.
    Keywords: Manuel Palerm, Mining landscape, Post, mining landscape, Natural landscape, Matrix
  • Juan Manuel Palerm Salazar Page 56
    The dilemma that we intend to reflect on the idea of space against the landscape is framed from the principles deriving from the artistic vanguards and modernism of the 20th century and their operational tools in the architectural project. From this perspective, the idea of space in architecture is presented as a paradigm and necessary argument of reflection, for which we propose a disjunction between the "concept of landscape" to the "idea of space" defined by the modern movement. A series of considerations concerning the concept of landscape, "Towards the landscape” as arguments and principles surrounding which arises the need to offer and to rethink a new sense of space as a landscape dimension. Review the idea of space from this point of view is determinant in the architecture and entails the need to rethink her, or better in the term Borgesian "Renegotiate her" through the concept of landscape as a mechanism able to articulate and propose a system of relations with the environment and the territory where the project of architecture and landscape acts as a device. Rethink the idea of space offering a new physical and conceptual dimension of the landscape itself according to our time. This search process required to renegotiate any code involving a brace of thought, action, obligation, or participation, and review, in turn, the concepts of representation of reality, paradigm of our convulsive, ephemeral and dynamic time. The territory and the city have come to become a copy of his representation of his maps and plans, including their imaginary. Their reality is in the cartographic representation as normative legal connection, thereby evading the presence of man. The landscape must be the result of the interaction between the coordination and social participation and the critical project. The relationship between systems of even heterogeneous elements among them, should be placed in sequence constitute a semantic unit. It is a fact that the landscape is changing in time, this is their main characteristics. The continual reinvention of landscapes is possible and necessary. The source or origins of our reinterpretation depend on our sensitivity to discover the working of the landscape colonizes or natural.
    Keywords: The Idea of Space, Public Space, Territory as System, Intangible, Project such as Innovation, Landscape as Device, Paradigm of the Gaze
  • Yann Nussaum Page 60
    Over the past centuries, the cities around the world have been growing as much as the geographical environment in which they have been constructed allowed. Several factors were usually involved in deciding where to establish a city besides the geographical specifications.They include the cultural aspect, the spatial characteristics and the size of the community for which the cities were built. From the second half of the 20thcentury, the spread of cities led to the growth of disorderly urban structures in the suburbs. Such structures were mostly constructed against the norms of urban development in terms of cultural and geographical considerations. Nevertheless, this has come into the attention of decision-makers over urban development over the past few decades.In fact, architecture experts believe that any new urban structure must be related to the original structures in one way or another. The development of Barranco de Santos path in Tenerife Island by Palrom and de Nava Arquitectos consulting engineers is a beautiful instance of such an approach. Barranco is a kind of ravine which crosses through San Cristóbal de La Laguna and continues until Santa Cruz bay. During heavy rain falls, the valley is filled or sometimes overflowed. This causes flooding in the historical parts of Santa Cruz. The approach that the organizers of the competition adopted was to create two channels with a large diameter to prevent floods and to fill parts of the valley to function as a bridge. However, Palrem team of designers adopted the approach of continuance and conducted a thorough analysis over the valley as well as the city and presented a solution different from the approach devised by the competition organizers. Instead of denying Barranco, the solution promoted displaying the historical part of the city where the underlying structures from Santa Cruz to Laguna are located. In order to connect the different urban structures with landscapes based on Barranco principles, the symbolic characteristics of the city together with the topographic and environmental features have been revived as well as indigenized in accordance with the disorderly modern structures of the city. The new path is a place for leisure more than being a transport route. Also, the path has been created in such a way that one could hardly notice it as it winds through the ups and down of the valley. The bridges are also no longer a means for passage. Rather, they signify the poetic spirit of Barranco in relation to the environment and are in full harmony with the landscape. The new structures and the pedestrian areas resemble the neighborhoods in a busy harbor city and the overall settings have been arranged in a way to create a classic image in the minds of the visitors. Undoubtedly, the Barranco project is not a proposal with a retrospective approach. Rather, it is to be treated as a contemporary interpretation of the new urban landscape
  • Seyed Yaghoub Mousavi Page 67
    Since the city growth has increased widely, human relationship have broadened to a great extent and identity is added to every human neighborhoods to organize human relations based on urban settlements, defining urban neighborhood is quite essential in organizing new cities. Recently, the neighborhood and its social environment, especially in social relations, have provided an appropriate basis for better urban renewal planning. Therefore, the current subject of urban neighborhoods has become a serious matter in urban contexts theoretically and scientifically as well. In this paper the “community” is referred to as a small unit in a city. The term community had been eliminated from the field of information society from 1960 to recent decades. Since then, this term had only been used in sciences that are related to social politics. There has emerged a growing interest among urban researchers in regenerating this concept and this realizable reality. A neighborhood is a social unit within the city where people of the same characteristics have come together. Economic position such as the type of job, general social conditions such as the level of benefiting from welfare services and the cultural and racial differences are among different features that makes every neighborhood distinctive from the other. In addition, the neighborhood residents can develop common goals due to the fact that they have common beliefs and cultures and live in the same environment. Urban neighborhoods are different in social organization, functions and resident actions. The latest urban designs and planning control that have transformed the natural mechanism of life indirectly are among the factors that have changed the structure of urban neighborhoods. The above changes had extensive effects on the formation of new perceptions, feelings and behavior in residents. According to urban planning and development process, city formation on the basis of new geographical planning or intervening spatial organization will lead to Physical restructuring of the modern cities in forms of separate and unrelated sectors in the city, while traditional neighborhoods have resulted from natural selection and the natural growth of inhabitants and households. Generally, urban neighborhoods are considered a fundamental matter in the past and present urban planning system in many metropolises of the world including our country. Studying the advent and development process of urban neighborhoods, one can conclude that the neighborhood selection in many large cities of the world is in relation with the available social and economic functions in these cities. This paper is a social critic of spatial and social structure of the cities and also discusses the reasons and how to develop new conceptual and analytical new neighborhoods.
    Keywords: Urban neighborhood, Neighborhood development, Urban development, Neighborhood planning, Neighborhood identity
  • Mehrdad Karimi Page 74
    There exist multiple dimensions of Sustainability that can be achieved differently based on its numerous methods. Achieving a sustainable neighborhood has also very complicated dimensions which cannot be described in a summarized paper. Designing and planning sustainable neighborhoods is highly related to special conditions of every neighborhood. Therefore taking these conditions into consideration and evaluating their potentials is the first step toward achieving a sustainable neighborhood. This paper tries to describe and discuss different standards of achieving sustainable neighborhood based on urban design experiences of other countries in traditional patterns, public transit-oriented patterns, lively neighborhood patterns, safe route patterns as well as smart growth principals. All of these patterns are discussed based on their special features and finally some of these strategies which are on top of all priorities in achieving sustainable neighborhoods in Tehran are described in different dimensions such as planning, people participation and controlling proceedings. The researches which are discussed in these paper showed that the most important planning strategies in achieving sustainable neighborhood are reducing private transportation and parking spaces in streets, preserving open spaces in neighborhoods, creating visual and identical signs in neighborhoods, extending pedestrian routes and green networks as well as building spaces and buildings that suits the neighborhood scale. The most significant strategy in public participation is forming a board and supervisory committee composed of neighborhood residents in supervising the planning and implementation of local projects. The most important controlling proceedings are providing check lists to assess and promote building and urban space qualities. Eventually, based on conducted surveys about helpful proceedings, Tehran city was selected as a case study. The common idea in all sustainable neighborhoods that must be taking into consideration for promoting Tehran urban spaces is providing pedestrian spaces in neighborhoods for easier access to service and welfare centers as well as public transportation stations. Moreover, creating green networks in pedestrian routes and reducing or controlling vehicles transportation and parking spaces in neighborhoods can result in great consequences in Tehran city.
    Keywords: Traditional neighborhood, Livable neighborhood, Transit, oriented neighborhood, Smart growth, Home zone
  • Emad Ketabchi, Khalil Hajipoor, Mohammad Hoseinpour Page 81
    Cities and their small units, communities, are like dynamic and alive organisms which are exposed to many changes. Thus different theories and opinions are proposed to lead these changes, so that the city and people will not face any problems at the present time nor in the future. In the recent decades, increasing growth of developmental planning, have resulted in economic, social and environmental problems. So in response to this crisis, new concepts and approaches have been formed for different parts of the city. Today sustainable development, as one of these approaches, is concerned with different parts of the society. In order to achieve the corresponding goals, we have to look for new solutions. Regarding to the considerations of the communities, neighborhoods and its people, starting the planning at this level in recent years, we have to select an appropriate approach for increasing the quality. In addition, it seems that in connection with the smaller units of the society, achieving the goals based on these principles is more objective and tangible. Meanwhile New Urbanism as a new approach in urban development considers a complete spectrum, from urban planning to urban design and architecture which was to answer the unsustainable communities. The importance of study and analysis of this pattern is due to its effects on planning in all levels and also considering economic, social and environmental matters. While the principles of new urbanism in urban and new developments, infill developments and especially in planning of urban communities and neighborhoods have a considerable importance. It seems these principles have a close connection with sustainability criteria. Today, new urbanists are somehow the leaders of postmodern urban planners and designers. They are looking for the enhancement of life quality and standards in cities and communities. The primary principles of this approach based on traditional principles of sustainable urbanism, refer to traditional community patterns for creating sustainable and efficient societies. This matter shows a comprehensive view in solving community problems. The research method of this article is descriptive- analytical. Data Gathering is based on librarian methods that explain sustainability criteria and New Urbanism principles in communities and finally the comparison of these two approaches. We conclude that applying New Urbanism principles is a way to create sustainable communities, as all the criterions of sustainable communities and New Urbanism are entangled together and all the principles of New Urbanism show the concepts of sustainability.
    Keywords: Community, Sustainability, New urbanism, Sustainable development
  • Ahmad Pour Ahmad, Arezou Haji Sharifi, Keivan Kianfar Page 89
    Following the population growth, the demand for the travel would increase as well. Tehran city, the most populas city of Iran and one of the most populous cities in the world, faces a massive amount of travel demands. Lately, the city of Tehran encounters an explosive amount of personal vehicles which have led to lengthening of the roads and the creation of the new roads have eventually resulted in the longer and speedier commutes on cars. As a consequence the increase of private transportation and multiplication of cars in the city have caused more traffic and pollution. The public transportation is one of the best solutions in solve this problem. In this research, we intend to study the efficiency rate of the public transportation systems in two neighborhoods of Mada’en and Haft Hoze. The research methodology of this study is descriptive-analytical. The required information has been gathered through the documentation method (to review the required research literature and the statistics and information from the municipality, statistics offices, etc.), and the field survey (visiting the two neighborhoods and distributing the questionnaire). For the data analysis, quantitative and qualitative methods have been used. The tools in use were SPSS software and maps of the region in question. The questionnaire is divided into three sections; the first section questions about the residence location, age, gender and education. The second section encompasses questions based on the trip pattern, trip purpose, trip distance, the time passed during the trip, and the number of the daily trips. And the third section includes the questions assessing the extent of satisfaction from the diversity and the number of the public transportation systems and the evaluation of the system performance in addressing the needs. The main findings of this research have been regulated in the two parts of descriptive and analytical analysis. In the descriptive section, personal characteristics of the respondents have been used, and in the analytical section, inferential analysis has mostly been used. The result of this research demonstrates that more than 80% of the people being questioned in these two neighborhoods have evaluated the performance of the public transportation as “High” and “Very high”. In fact, these findings indicate that the satisfaction level from the public transportation in this region is high. This statistics indicate that the public transport has somewhat found its proper place in this region. It seems that the authorities should pay more attention to the residents of this region’s needs to enhance the efficiency further and more favorably. The greatest reasons to choose the public transportation system to travel within the city in the statistical universe in question are respectively traffic problems and the high cost of personal transportation; given this fact, in case of the implementation of policies such as increasing the number of the service vehicles in public transportation, culture-building practices, and downplaying the attractions of using the personal vehicle through the alteration of the infrastructures and providing proper and adequate facilities for the use of all of the society classes, an appropriate context will be provided for the creation of a healthy community, consistent with international standards.
    Keywords: Public transportation, Madaen neighborhood, Haft Hoze neighborhood