فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical Research - Volume:11 Issue: 2, 2012
  • Volume:11 Issue: 2, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/04/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 34
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  • Fanak Fahimi Page 383
    my job to figure out what a physician's price is. For some it's dinner at the finest restaurants, for others it's enough convincing data to let them prescribe confidently and for others it's my attention and friendship...but at the most basic level, everything is for sale and everything is an exchange. —Shahram Ahari The statement above is only a quotation and I am not debating if it is true or false. I leave it for the readers to think and judge. In any setting, the process of selling involves getting in touch with potential customers, recognizing their requests, convincing them that your products or services are more pleasant than those of competitors and can best please the customer. Pharmaceutical marketing is a specialized field where medical representatives form the skeleton of it. In 2000, drug companies spent more than 15.7 billion dollars on promoting prescription drugs in the United States. Medical representatives aim to influence prescription pattern of doctors in favor of their brands. Medical representatives (“medreps” or “drug reps” or “reps”) act by arranging appointments with prescribers, pharmacists and other hospital medical teams. Drug reps increase drug sales by influencing physicians, and they do so with finely titrated doses of friendship. They sometimes deliver lectures in medical work places or at a hotel or conference venue.
    Keywords: Medical Representatives, Prescribers Behavior, Prescription, medreps, drug reps, reps
  • Hamid Reza Rahimi, Mohammad Arastoo, Seyed Nasser Ostad Page 385
    Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and vital enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSDs) and serine protease (SP). Furthermore, they can stimulate cell differentiation and possess anti-mutagenic effects. Pg can also interfere with several signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, Bcl-X, Bax, Bad, MAPK, ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and caspase. However, the exact mechanisms for its pharmacological and toxicological properties remain to be unclear and need further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest a wide range use of Pg for clinical applications. This review will discuss the areas for which Pg has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms.
    Keywords: Punica granatum, Chemical components, Toxicological properties, Signaling pathway, Clinical applications
  • Rezvan Zendehdel, Ali Masoudi-Nejad, Farshad H. Shirazi H. Shirazi Page 401
    Drug resistance enables cancer cells to break away from cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs. Identification of resistant phenotype is very important because it can lead to effective treatment plan. There is an interest in developing classifying models of resistance phenotype based on the multivariate data. We have investigated a vibrational spectroscopic approach in order to characterize a sensitive human ovarian cell line, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant derivative, A2780-cp. In this study FTIR method have been evaluated via the use of principal components analysis (PCA), ANN (artificial neuronal network) and LDA (linear discriminate analysis). FTIR spectroscopy on these cells in the range of 400-4000 cm-1 showed alteration in the secondary structure of proteins and a CH stretching vibration. We have found that the ANN models correctly classified more than 95% of the cell lines, while the LDA models with the same data sets could classify 85% of cases. In the process of different ranges of spectra, the best classification of data set in the range of 1000-2000 cm-1 was done using ANN model, while the data set between 2500-3000 cm-1 was more correctly classified with the LDA model. PCA of the spectral data also provide a good separation for representing the variety of cell line spectra. Our work supports the promise of ANN analysis of FTIR spectrum as a supervised powerful approach and PCA as unsupervised modeling for the development of automated methods to determine the resistant phenotype of cancer classification.
    Keywords: Drug resistant, Fourier transform infrared, Principle component analysis, Artificial neuronal network, Linear discriminate analysis, Pattern recognition
  • Shaya Mokhtari, Mahmoud Mosaddegh, Maryam Hamzeloo Moghadam, Zohreh Soleymani, Saeideh Ghafari, Farzad Kobarfard Page 411
    The assessment of the degree or rate of cellular proliferation and cell viability is critical for the assessment of the effects of drugs on both normal and malignant cell populations. In the present study, a few novel 3-substituted derivatives of 2-indolinones were synthesized by condensation of substituted oxindole or isatin derivatives with appropriate aldehydes or primary aromatic amines respectively. The synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxicity against HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) cells using short term cytotoxicity MTT assay protocol. A few derivatives with IC50 < 10 µM were identified among them. the compound bearing 5-bromo substitution was the most potent derivative. Global physicochemical properties for compounds IVa-e and Va-h were calculated and the two most active compounds (IVa and IVb) showed similar CLogP values.
    Keywords: 3, substituted derivatives of 2, indolinones, Indole derivatives, cytotoxicity, Colon, breast cancer, MTT assay
  • Cheong-Weon Cho, Deok-Bae Kim, Sang-Chul Shin Page 423
    Topical drug dosage forms such as ointments and creams can be easily removed through wetting, movement and contact. The new bioadhesive formulations with enhanced local anesthetic effects are needed for topical administration. The adhesive capacity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was determined by measuring the maximum detachment force and the adhesion work with an auto peeling tester. The release of drug from a HPMC gel was studied according to the drug concentration. Permeation study through the rat skin was performed at 37°C using phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.4) as a receptor medium. To increase the skin permeation of bupivacaine from the HPMC gels, penetration enhancer such as the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the pyrrolidones, the propylene glycol derivatives, the glycerides, and the non-ionic surfactants were incorporated in the bupivacaine-HPMC gels. The local anesthetic effect of the formulated gel preparation was examined using a tail-flick analgesimeter. As the concentration of HPMC increased, the bioadhesive force and viscosity were increased. The rate of drug release was increased with increasing the drug concentration. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether showed the most enhancing effects on drug permeation through the skin. In the rat tail flick test, the area under the efficacy curve of bupivacaine gel containing polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether and tetrahydrozoline showed a 2.36-fold increase in anesthetic activity compared to control gel without any additives. The bupivacaine gels containing both penetration enhancer and vasoconstrictor showed enhancement and prolonged efficacy compared to the control gel. To enhance the local anesthetic effects of bupivacaine, the transdermal bupivacaine gel formulation containing penetration enhancer and vasoconstrictor could be developed.
    Keywords: Bupivacaine, Gels, Penetration enhancer, Transdermal, Local anesthetic action
  • Harjeet Singh, Betty Philip, Kamla Pathak Page 443
    The solubility enhancement of poorly soluble compounds is an important task in pharmaceutical technology as it leads to better bioavailability and a more efficient application. Fused dispersions (FDs) of simvastatin (SIM) using PEO-PPO block copolymer were prepared which paved the way for the formation of an amorphous product with enhanced dissolution and bioavailability. The accumulative solubility of simvastatin (SIM) from PEO-PPO block copolymer (Lutrol NF 127 prill surfactant) was found to be superior to the drug alone which may be due to the increased oxyethylene content that played the major role in solubility enhancement. A 32 full factorial approach was used for optimization wherein the temperature to which the melt-drug mixture cooled (X1) and the drug-to-polymer ratio (X2) were selected as the independent variables and the time required for 90% drug dissolution (t90%) was selected as the dependent variable. A low level of X1 and a high level of X2 were suitable for obtaining higher dissolution of SIM from SIM FDs. On increasing melt to cool drug temperature, t90% increased thus improving dissolution rate of FD2 batch with the maximum drug release (99.63%) in 120 min. The optimized FDs were characterized by saturation solubility study, drug content, in-vitro dissolution, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, 1HNMR spectroscopy and pharmacodynamic evaluation. Capsules containing optimized FDs were prepared and compared with marketed brand (SIMVOTIN®). Finally, it can be concluded that the optimized FDs of SIM ameliorate the solubility and dissolution of drug with improved pharmacodynamic activity.
    Keywords: Lutrol NF 127 prill surfactant, Inverse thermo sensitivity, %Crystallanity Index, Optimization, 32 Factorial design
  • Girish Tripathi, Satyawan Singh, Gopal Nath Page 447
    Oral pH sensitive drug delivery systems are of utmost importance as these systems deliver the drug at specific part of the gastrointestine (GI) as per the pH of GI, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. The pH range of fluids in various segments of the GI tract may provide environmental stimuli for drug release. The aim of this study was to design buoyant beads containing amoxicillin (Am) and to evaluate its potential for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The gel bead of gellan, wherein the oil was entrapped, was blended with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or Carbopol 934. Buoyant beads of gellan were prepared through ionotropic gellation technique to achieve the controlled and pH-sensitive drug release in stomach. The effects of processing variables such as particle size, buoyancy, percent encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro antimicrobial activity were evaluated. The scanning electron micrograph indicated that prepared beads were spherical in shape and all the beads showed satisfactory floating efficiency in the phthalate buffer solution. The diameter of the gel beads was increased through raising the gellan gum and calcium carbonate concentration. The formulation exhibited sustained release profile and was best fitted in the Peppas model with n < 0.45. Subsequent coating of microbeads exhibited zero-order sustained pattern of the drug release up to 8 h. In-vitro growth inhibition study showed complete eradication of the isolated H. pylori strain. These results provide evidence that the optimized formulation bearing antibiotics like amoxicillin should be useful in H. pylori treatment.
    Keywords: Amoxicillin, pH sensitive drug delivery system, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Gastric retention
  • Vijay Sharma, Himansu Chopra Page 457
    Aim of this research work was to develop mouth dissolving tablet that disintegrates rapidly in mouth by using tasteless complex of Levocetirizine and Tulsion-335. Effect of different parameters such as swelling time, resin activation, drug resin ratio as well as stirring time was optimized by taste and percentage drug loading. Formulated DRC (Drug Resin Complex) was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction pattern. Tablets were formulated by wet granulation with PVP as binder, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) and Crospovidone as super disintegrants. In these batches optimum hardness was achieved but disintegration time was found to be very high as ≥ 70 second, so further trials were planned by using different superdisintegrants such as Croscarmellose sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) as well as Crospovidone by wet granulation method. Tablets formulated with 7.5% crospovidone showed comparatively low disintegration time (25 sec), wetting time (20 sec) and friability (0.60 %) than the other batches. In present study we optimized the conditions required for maximum drug loading of Levocetirizine with Tulsion-335. Among different superdisintergants, crospovidone was found suitable with drug-resin complex to get the low disintegration time, wetting time and friability of tablets.
    Keywords: Levocetirizine, Tulsion, 335, Drug, resin complex, Superdisintegrant
  • R. Thiruganesh, Umadevi Subbaih Khandasamy, Shanmugam Suresh, Ruttala Himabindhu Page 465
    The aim of the present study was to develop a single unit, site-specific matrix tablets of aceclofenac allowing targeted drug release in the colon with a microbially degradable polymeric carrier, chondroitin suphate (CS) and to coat the optimized batches with a pH dependent polymeric. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using starch mucilage as a binding agent and HPMC K-100 as a swellable polymer. Chondroitin Sulphate and drug and physical mixture were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The tablets were tested for their
    Keywords: Aceclofenac, Chondroitin sulphate, HPMC K100, Eudragit coating, Colon targeting, In, vitro dissolution
  • N. Vishal Gupta, H.G. Shivakumar Page 481
    The objective of the present study is to develop and investigate the swelling behavior of pH-sensitive Superporous Hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC). A novel superporous hydrogel containing poly (methacrylic acid-co-acrylamide) was synthesized from methacrylic acid and acrylamide through the aqueous solution polymerization, using N,N-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. SPHCs were made in the same way, except for the using of Ac-Di-Sol as a stabilizer. The synthesized SPH and SPHC were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling kinetics, porosity, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy. The swelling of SPH and SPHC was sensitive towards the pH, ionic strength, and temperature stimuli. The study of the surface morphology of SPH using scanning electron microscopy showed a highly porous structure. SPH polymers showed higher swelling ratio but less mechanical stability compared to SPHC polymers, which showed lower swelling ratio but a higher mechanical stability. With a change in pH from acidic to basic, a considerable increase in swelling was observed. Since the prepared SPH and SPHC swell only in the basic pH, it may be concluded that SPH and SPHC can be used as the pH-sensitive drug delivery system.
    Keywords: Superporous hydrogels, Composites, Radical polymerization, Swelling, Electron microscopy
  • Bahram Daraei, Jalal Pourahmad, Neda Hamidi-Pour, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Fatemeh Shaki, Masoud Soleimani Page 495
    Cytotoxicity of depleted uranium, as a byproduct of military has been came to spotlight in recent decades. DU is known as a chemical rather than radioactive hazard and efforts to illustrating its mechanism is undergo, but the precise complete molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recent studies showed that uranium induces biological changes in many different target tissues, such as the kidney, brain and skin. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of depleted uranium exposure at the cellular level in the human dermal fibroblast primary cells. The human dermal fibroblast primary cells incubated with different concentration (250-750 μM) of depleted uranium. Cytotoxicity and mitochondrial function in this cell lines were determined with the LDH leakage assay and the MTT test respectively. MDA levels were measured for determination of Lipid peroxidation in DU treated cells. Besides glutathione depletion and apoptosis phenotype detection were also assessed to complete the mechanistic screening. Results showed that the cell viability ameliorates in concentration and time dependent manners following in 24, 48 and 72 h incubation with DU. Moreover the significant increase in lipid peroxidation and significant decrease in cellular GSH recorded in DU treated human dermal fibroblast primary cells suggesting the preoxidant effect of uranyl ions. Cytoprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dramatic decrease of cell viability in buthionin sulfoxamid (BSO) pretreated cells indicated the possibility of a critical role for glutathione system in DU detoxification. Death pattern, in fibroblast cells following DU treatment was varied from apoptosis to necrosis while the time and concentration increased. Since ROS formation is the initiation step for cell apoptosis, the present studies suggest Uranyl-induced toxicity in the human dermal fibroblast primary cells originated from oxidative stress and lead to occurrence of programmed cell death.
    Keywords: Uranium, Fibroblast, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress
  • Prabhakar Panzade, Ashish Heda, Prashant Puranik, Mayur Patni, Vipul Mogal Page 503
    purpose of the present study was to explore the passive and electrically assisted transdermal transport of Granisetron hydrochloride (GRA) in solution and gel formulation through iontophoresis and also the feasibility of delivering therapeutic amounts of drug for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. In this study, iontophoretic permeation of GRA through guinea pig skin using silver-silver chloride electrode was performed and the effects of different variables on this phenomenon were evaluated. Preliminary in-vitro studies using aqueous GRA formulations investigating the effect of drug concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg mL-1) on passive permeation, current density (0.2, 0.4 and 0.5 mA cm-2), mode of current application, penetration enhancers and effect of application duration were performed. As expected, GRA delivery was found to be increased with the elevation in drug concentration and current density. Anodal continuous current delivery was more effective in the permeation of GRA than the pulsed current method. Penetration enhancers were ineffective to show synergistic effect in conjunction with iontophoresis. It was evident that reservoir in the skin was not formed during the iontophoretic delivery. The results confirm that GRA is an excellent candidate for iontophoresis. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of GRA transdermal transport through the Lutrol F-127 gel by iontophoresis. Further in-vivo studies will be required to support in-vitro conclusions and develop in-vitro, in-vivo correlations.
    Keywords: Granisetron, Iontophoresis, Penetration enhancer, Poloxamer, Transdermal
  • Mohamed Hassan Dehghan, Mohan Girase Page 513
    Prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is important for the enhancing intranasal drug delivery. The objective of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive in-situ gelling nasal insert which would enable the reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of metoclopramide hydrochloride. Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a potent antiemetic and effective for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy, migraine, pregnancy and gastroparesis. It undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism and both the absolute bioavailability and the plasma concentrations are subjected to wide inter-individual variation showing values between 32% and 98%. Oral antiemetic often gets vomited out before the systemic absorption compelling parenteral administration which results in low patient compliance. Adverse effect of metoclopramide HCL on CNS caused by high plasma peaks can be avoided through sustained formulation.A novel combination of xanthan gum and guar gum was used to prepare the nasal inserts and the effect of blend ratio of xanthan gum and guar gum on drug release from in-situ gelling nasal inserts and on other insert properties such as bioadhesion potential and water uptake was studied. PXRD was used to determine the effect of freeze-drying on crystalline nature of formulation.The viscosities of xanthan gum in combination with guar gum were observed to be higher than that of single polymer solutions. This is because of the synergistic rheological interaction between xanthan and guar gum. There is a substantial loss in crystalline nature of the formulation after freeze-drying. The best nasal inserts formulation containing xanthan gum and guar gum ratio 1:5, showed good release (91.83%) as well as bioadhesion which may result in an increase in the nasal residence time.
    Keywords: Xanthan gum, Guar gum, Metoclopramide hydrochloride, Nasal Inserts, Bioadhesion, In, vitro drug release
  • Amir Reza Jalilian, Hassan Yousefnia, Kamaleddin Shafaii, Aytak Novinrouz, Amir Abbas Rajamand Page 523
    Various radiometal complexes have been developed for tumor imaging, especially Ga-68 tracer. In the present study, the development of a radiogallium bis-thiosemicarbazone complex has been reported. [67Ga] acetylacetonate bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex ([67Ga] AATS) was prepared starting [67Ga]Gallium acetate and freshly prepared acetylacetonate bis (thiosemicarbazone) (AATS) in 30 min at 90°C. The partition co-efficient and the stability of the tracer were determined in final solution (25°C) and the presence of human serum (37°C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type and fibrosarcoma-bearing rodents were determined up to 72 h. The radiolabled Ga complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 97%, HPLC) followed by initial biodistribution data with the significant tumor accumulation of the tracer in 2 h which is far higher than free Ga-67 cation while the compound wash-out is significantly faster. Above-mentioned pharmacokinetic properties suggest an interesting radiogallium complex while prepared by the PET Ga radioisotope, 68Ga, in accordance with the physical half life, for use in fibrosarcoma tumors, and possibly other malignancies.
    Keywords: Gallium, 67, Acetyl acetone bis, thiosemicarbazonate, Biodistribution, Fibrosarcoma
  • Marjan Ajami, Shahriar Eghtesadi, Rouhollah Habibey, Jalaledin Mirzay Razaz, Habibollah Peyrovi, Mohammadreza Zarrindast, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi Page 533
    Two omega-3 fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the physiologic function of neuronal cell membrane. Normal function of neuronal cell membrane requires appropriate composition of fatty in its structure. Present study was designed to compare the effect of short-term and long-term pretreatment with omega-3 fatty acids on scopolamine-induced amnesia and possible involvement of apoptotic or oxidative pathways. Male Wistar rats were gavaged by omega-3 fatty acids [60 mg/Kg (DHA + EPA)] or saline for 2 weeks (short-term model) or 8 weeks (Long-term model), then received intra-CA1 scopolamine (2 µg/rat). Finally, the avoidance response was examined and hippocampus tissue was prepared. Intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine abolished the memory performance in rats. Short-term or long-term pretreatment with omega-3 fatty acids improved memory (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Pretreatment for 2 weeks had no effect on the tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents or SOD and CAT activity. In addition, pretreatment for 2 weeks with omega-3 fatty acids had no effects on tissue Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Conversely, long-term pretreatment with omega-3 fatty acids decreased tissue MDA contents (p < 0.01), SOD activity (p < 0.05) and increased CAT activity (p < 0.01). Long-term pretreatment with omega-3 fatty acids also decreased Bax protein expression (p < 0.05) with no effect on the expression of Bcl-2 protein. In conclusion, long-term exposure to omega-3 fatty acids inhibited the scopolamine-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and amnesia while the effect of short-term treatment was restricted to the improved memory without significant effect on apoptosis or oxidative stress. Therefore, long-term treatment with low doses of omega-3 fatty acids suggested a suitable treatment for amnesia.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Hippocampus, Memory, Omega, 3 fatty acids, Scopolamine
  • Fatemeh Nahidi, Elham Zare, Faraz Mojab, Hamid Alavi-Majd Page 541
    Vasomotor hot flash is the most common and distressful complication of menopausal women. Its treatment is the most frequent clinical challenge. As a result, an effective and harmless therapy is needed. This double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of licorice roots on the relief and recurrence of hot flash in menopausal women referring to the healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti Medical University in 2010. Ninety menopausal women complaining of hot flash were selected by reviewing their records in healthcare centers and randomly divided into 2 licorices (3 capsules daily containing 330 mg licorice abstract) and placebo (3 capsules daily containing 330 mg starch) groups over the 8 weeks of intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up. Two weeks prior to the intervention, the severity as well as frequency of hot flashes and the foods taken were asked and documented with questionnaires and data sheets. Data within and between the groups were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurements and t-test respectively. Means of age and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects in licorice and placebo groups were 53 ± 3.2, 52.69 ± 2.8, 24.71 ± 3.2 and 23.61 ± 3.3, respectively. The groups were similar in terms of intervening variables. The frequency of hot flash decreased significantly in the experimental (than the placebo group) and this lasted for 2 weeks after the administration of the capsules. The severity of hot flash decreased in the licorice group as well. This decrease was also seen in the placebo group in the first week of the intervention. Decreased hot flash in the placebo group was only significant after the 1st week of intervention compared to the previous period. Recurrence of frequency and severity of hot flashes occurred 2 weeks after the termination of therapy. The significant decrease in the placebo group after the 1st week of the intervention may be attributed to the psychological effects of placebo. Licorice roots decreased the frequency and severity of hot flashes. The administration of this harmless, inexpensive herb well accepted by the menopausal women together with the appropriate and continuous physical activities and consumption of dairy products are recommended for relieving this complication.
    Keywords: Menopause, Menopausal women, Vasomotor hot flash, Post menopausal hot flash, Herbal medicine, Licorice
  • Tajmah Mombeini, Mohammad Reza Zahedpour Anaraki, Ahmad Reza Dehpour Page 549
    Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell stabilizing agent, provides an immediate protective effect against the exercise-induced bronchoconstriction while being used before the exercise. However, cromolyn is ineffective in reversing asthmatic bronchospasm; it is used as a maintenance therapy and has a prophylactic role in chronic asthma.The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of change in baseline lung function tests following a single dose of cromolyn sodium in adult asthmatics.Forty volunteers (33 women and 7 men) with moderate to severe persistent asthma were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg cromolyn, 40 mg cromolyn or cromolyn-placebo. The percent of improvement in lung function parameters was compared among the groups, during 1 h of inhalation.Low dose of cromolyn induced more improvement in most lung function parameters such as forced expiratory flow volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow compared with other groups. After 15 min, the improvement percentage of baseline forced expiratory flow volume in one second was 3.35 ± 1.5, for sodium cromoglycate-20 mg group compared with 0.98 ± 1.43 and - 0.68 ± 1.2 for sodium cromoglycate-placebo and sodium cromoglycate-40 mg, groups respectively. However, the differences between means were not significant. Furthermore, based on the definition of American Thoracic Society (ATS) for a”significant post-bronchodilator response” developed in a few patients 15 min after the inhalation of 20 mg cromolyn sodium.It is suggested that probably the inhalation of 20 mg of cromolyn sodium could immediately improve the lung function in few adults with asthma.
    Keywords: Cromolyn sodium, Lung function tests, Forced expiratory flow volume in one second, Bronchial asthma, Adults
  • Hossein Khalili, Rasool Soltani, Sorrosh Negahban, Alireza Abdollahi, Keirollah Gholami Page 559
    Disk diffusion test is the usual applicable method for assessing the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in most institutions and hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of resistant-reported results of disk diffusion test for 6 routinely used antibiotics against Gram-positive microorganisms of nosocomial origin, using E-test method.Over a 1-year period, clinical specimens (e.g. blood, tracheal secretions, wound secretions, urine, etc.) were obtained from hospitalized patients with defined nosocomial infection and were cultured. Isolated Gram-positive bacteria underwent disk diffusion test for cephalothin, oxacillin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, teicoplanin (only for Enterococci), and meropenem antibiotics. E-test method was performed for all isolates resistant or intermediately sensitive to the disks of any mentioned antibiotics.Data showed compatible results of disk diffusion test with the results of E-test method for cephalothin, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. None of ciprofloxacin- and vancomycin-resistant isolates in disk diffusion test showed sensitivity in E-test method. Significant differences between the results of disk diffusion and E-test methods were observed for clindamycin and meropenem against S.aureus (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) and Enterococcus spp (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively).In order to increase the reliability of antimicrobial susceptibility results, it is recommended to perform E-test for nosocomial Gram-positive microorganisms that show antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion test and it is more important for clindamycin and meropenem.
    Keywords: Gram, positive, Antimicrobial susceptibility test, Disk diffusion, E, test
  • Kheirollah Gholami, Golnaz Kamalinia, Mohammad Mahdi Ahmadian Attari, Jamshid Salamzadeh Page 565
    The effectiveness of any drug supply systems in providing a trustworthy supply of essential drugs is a critical issue. To evaluate this effectiveness, it is necessary to watch over the status of the essential medicines in any country impartially and continuously. Some countries and also the World Health Organization (WHO) have codified a list of minimum medicines needed for a basic health care system and published them in assortments as a list of essential medicines. The aim of this study was to give an evaluation of the shortages status in Iran and identify the strengths and weaknesses of policies made in Ministry of Health during the years 2005 to 2008 in providing the essential drugs based on the WHO list of essential medicines. The reports used in this retrospective study were collected from the central purchasing unit of one of the main chain drugstores in the country (13-Aban Pharmacy) every 2 to 3 weeks. In these reports, a drug is added to the list of shortages when the requested drug is not delivered. The reports were studied and the results were analyzed based on the WHO list of essential medicines and the national drug list of Iran. The shortages always included 20 to 40 medicines from the list of essential drugs compiled by WHO. Based on this finding, the Ministry of Health and particularly Food and Drug Organization can compile a National List of Essential Medicines and try to always supply them and prevent their shortage.
    Keywords: Drug shortages, WHO essential list of drugs, Iran, National drug list, Ministry of health
  • Abdolhossein Miri, Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Mohsen Amini, Yaghoub Amanzadeh, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Reza Hajiaghaee, Atefeh Ebrahimi Page 573
    The essential oils and aromatic water, known as Arak in traditional Iranian medicine, comes from the aerial part of Teucrium persicum Boiss., which is grown in Fars Province located in Iran. The samples were collected in summer and the oils and aromatic water were obtained through steam distillation. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using GC-MS. An analysis of the chemical profile of the isolated oils revealed the presence of more than 80 compounds, mainly oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The principal components of essential oil were α-cadinene (9.7%), 1,4-cadinadiene (9.2%) and α-terpinyl acetate (7.9%). The major constituents in the Arak were determined to be linalool (10.4%), α-cadinene (7.5%) and γ-terpineol (7.3%). Most of the compounds identified from different oils were similar, but their amounts differed. The oil revealed a higher content of total phenolics than the Arak (1.71 ± 0.12 mg GAE/g DW and 1.36 ± 0.11 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The antioxidant activity of the oils was calculated by using a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging activity, and a reducing power assay (RP). The FRAP value points to a considerably higher reducing power of essential oil (220 ± 7.2 µmol Fe2+/g DW) compared to that of Arak (113 ± 5.4 µmol Fe2+/g DW). Essential oil exhibited higher radical scavenging potential (IC50 = 0.29 mg/mL) than Arak (IC50 = 4.19 mg/mL). The reducing power of essential oil (51.7 ± 4.3 µg BHA/g DW) was higher than that of Arak (34.1 ± 2.7 µg BHA/g DW). The studied essential oils showed good antioxidant activities, which were higher than those of Arak.
    Keywords: Teucrium persicum Boiss, Antioxidant properties, Arraq, essential oils, Aromatic water
  • Mehdi Nateghpour, Leila Farivar, Effat Souri, Homa Hajjaran, Mehdi Mohebali, Afsane Motevalli Haghi Page 583
    Malaria is one of the worldwide parasitic diseases which threaten the life of hundreds of millions of people at the malarious areas each year. The emergence of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in most of the malarious areas has encountered the relevant countries with some difficulties about treating the acute cases of the disease particulary if the monotherapy regimen has been used. Because of many advantages for the combination therapy, the effectiveness of chloroquine (CQ) and Otostegia persica (OP), a medicinal plant in combination form, was tested against the chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium berghei in sourian mouse using in-vivo adapted fixed ratios method in this study. At the first step, ED50s (50% effective dose) of chloroquine and O. persica against both CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains of P. berghei were calculated using in-vivo test in the mice. Ratios of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and100% from each ED50 were prepared and contrarily combined together to make the following fixed ratios of 0/100, 10/90, 30/70, 50/50, 70/30, 90/10, and 100/0 of CQ/OP and the parasites were exposed to the combined ratios. Determination of ED50s showed 1.1 mg/Kg and 2.4 mg/Kg of mouse body weight for chloroquine in CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains respectively and 450 mg/Kg for O. persica in both strains. The results also showed that the combinations of “50% CQ + 50% OP”, “30% CQ + 70% O.P” and “70% CQ + 30% OP” were more effective than other combinations against CQ-sensitive strain. The fixed ratio combinations of chloroquine and O. persica showed an additive in CQ-resistant strain. Toxicity consideration showed no toxic effect of the combinations on the mice. Otostegia persica potentiated the effectiveness of chloroquine against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of P. berghei but not on chloroquine-resistant P. berghei. Moreover, the greatly modified fixed ratios method in this study can be considered as useful methods for in-vivo combination tests in murine malaria parasites.
    Keywords: Otostegia persica, Plasmodium berghei, Drug combination, Fixed ratios, Chloroquine
  • Mahnaz Khanavi, Azadeh Manayi, Mahnaz Lotfi, Rofeyde Abbasi, Maryam Majdzade, Seyed Naser Ostad Page 589
    The aerial parts of Stachys laxa Boiss. and Buhse. from Siah-bishe in Mazandaran province, Stachys trinervis Aitch. and Hemsl. from Karaj in Alborz province, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F. and Stachys turcomanica Trautv. from Golestan province have been collected in May 2008. Total extracts were obtained through MeOH/H2O (80/20) and then partitioned between CHCl3, EtOAc and MeOH. These fractions and total extracts have been investigated for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against the colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D) and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines using MTT assay (3-(4,5-di methyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide). At each cell line, doses of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL in 1% (v/v) DMSO of all samples were tested. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys laxa against proliferation of T47D and HT-29 cell lines and chloroform fraction of Stachys subaphylla and Stachys subaphylla ethyl acetate fraction toward T47D cell line exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 50 µg/mL). Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys turcomanica against HT-29 cell line, except methanol fraction of Stachys subaphylla, the other extrcts on T47D cell line, represented moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 70 µg/mL). All fractions of S. trinervis demonstrated no effective cytotoxic activity. IC50 values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of HT-29 and T47D cells were most affected by chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Stachys laxa and Stachys turcomanica due to their nonpolar compounds.
    Keywords: Cytotoxic activity, Stachys laxa Boiss., Buhse, Stachys turcomanica Trautv, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F, Stachys trinervis Aitch., Hemsl, MTT assay
  • Razieh Pourahmad Jaktaji, Rayhaneh Ebadi, Marzieh Karimi Page 595
    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most widely used antibiotics for the treatment of several infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, like E. coli. Changes in gyrA, encoding GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase, cause the resistance to ciprofloxacin. Some ciprofloxacin resistant gyrA mutants acquired constitutive expression of marRAB operon due to the gaining mutations in marR, a repressor of this operon. This leads to the expression of a multidrug resistance phenotype and high organic solvent tolerance. Thus, this study was aimed to provide more information on extra mechanisms of resistance in gyrA mutants with different ciprofloxacin MICs. For this purpose, the tolerance of organic solvent, resistance to tetracycline and presence of possible mutation in marOR were investigated in 10 gyrA mutants. Results showed that most of gyrA mutants behaved like MG1655, control strain, but 3 out of 10 were slightly more resistant to tetracycline than MG1655 and had better growth on hexane. Among three mutants, two possess a mutation in marOR. In conclusion, the generation of mutation in marOR is not enough by itself to produce the multidrug resistance phenotype and complete activation of AcrAB-TolC.
    Keywords: GyrA mutants, Organic solvent tolerance, Tetracycline resistant mutants, MarR mutation
  • Zhang Jingze, Wenyuan Gao*, Shuo Yan, Yaxin Zhao Page 601
    Licorice, the oldest Chinese traditional medicine, is widely used in the treatment of human diseases. Due to the deficiency of wild resource, selecting and breeding becomes a key issue to expanding the supply of licorice. Spaceflight technology will become a new method for medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the components and anti-inflammatory activity in licorice. After flowing on a recoverable satellite for 18 days, licorice seeds were germinated and grown to maturity and the parallel ground-based seeds were also planted under the same conditions. The main components in licorice root were analyzed through HPLC. The contents of two components in spaceflight groups were higher than that of the ground control ones. Three acute inflammatory models including xylene-induced auricular edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability were utilized to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of licorice pre and post spaceflight. The licorice extract showed the significant anti-inflammation activity. After the spaceflight, the pharmacological activity of licorice got higher than that of the ground control one. All of the models gained the tendency that the spaceflight group of species Hangjinqi had the strongest activity than other groups. The research provided the scientific data for a new breeding of medicinal plant through the spaceflight and indicated that the technology of space flight may be a new effective method for the breeding and cultivation of licorice.
    Keywords: Licorice, Space flight, HPLC, Anti, inflammatory effect
  • Otari Kishor Vasant, Bhalsing Gaurav Vijay, Shete Rajkumar Virbhadrappa*, Nandgude Tanaji Dilip, Mali Vishal Ramahari, Bodhankar Subhash Laxamanrao Page 621
    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.
    Keywords: Colocasia esculenta Linn, Antihypertensive, Diuretic, Noradrenaline, Flavonoids, Renal artery, occluded hypertension
  • Rupali Patil, Kiran Dhawale, Hanmant Gound, Rajendra Gadakh Page 635
    may have great potential in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesia.L. (Rutaceae), commonly known as curry leaf tree, closely associated with south India where the word “curry” originates from the Tamil “kari” for spiced sauces. Curry leaves are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids which possess various biological activities such as antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Curry leaf has a potential role in the treatment of diabetes. Reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats is an animal model of tardive dyskinesia that has been linked with free radical generation and oxidative stress. In this study, neuroprotective potential and in-vivo antioxidant status of methanol extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (MEMK) in reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia are investigated. Reserpine was used to induce orofacial dyskinesia. The effect of MEMK on locomotion and catalepsy was studied using Open-field apparatus and Bar-test, respectively. The effect of MEMK on the levels of protective anti-oxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) and inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in forebrain region were investigated in reserpine-treated animals. Results demonstrated that the MEMK significantly inhibited the reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusion (TP), orofacial burst (OB) and catalepsy. MEMK significantly increased the number of squares traversed and rearing in open field apparatus. Treatment with MEMK significantly restored the levels of protective anti-oxidant enzymes i.e. SOD, CAT, GSH and inhibited LPO in forebrain region when compared with reserpine. It also inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The present study concludes that the oxidative stress might play an important role in reserpine-induced abnormal oral movements, and Murraya koenigii.
    Keywords: Vacuous chewing movements, Tongue protrusions, Free radicals, Murraya koenigii
  • Farzad Shidfar, Shima Seyed Ebrahimi, Sharieh Hosseini, Iraj Heydari, Shahrzad Shidfar, Giti Hajhassani Page 643
    Type 2 diabetes is a well-known endocrine and metabolic disorder which has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and represents a serious public health concern. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are two major abnormalities which are major cardiovascular risk factors. Berberine is a major alkaloid in Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BVFE) which have important role in regulation of serum glucose and fat metabolism in-vivo and in-vitro but its role in type 2 diabetes have not been extensively examined.The aim of this study was the effect of BVFE on serum lipoproteins, apoB, apoA-I, homocysteine, glycemic control and total antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetic patients. In a double-blind randomised clinical trial, 31 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to 3 g/d BVFE or placebo for 3 months. Serum glucose, lipoproteins, apoB, apoA-I, insulin, homocysteine and HbA1c were measured at the baseline and also at the end of the 3rd month.At the beginning and end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd months, a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire about each patients was completed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.There were significant decreases in serum TG, TC, LDL-c, apo B, glucose, and insulin and also a significant increase in TAC at the end of the study in BVFE group compared to the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.01 and p = 0.0001 respectively).There were significant differences in serum TG (p = 0.0001), TC (p = 0.001), LDL-c (p = 0.001), apoB (p = 0.001), glucose (p = 0.002), insulin (p = 0.01), TAC (p = 0.005), and insulin resistance (p = 0.01) between the two groups at the end of the study; but homocysteine, HbA1c and HDL-c showed no significant changes between the two groups at the end of study.The intake of 3 g/d BVFE for 3 months may have benefical effects on lipoproteins, apoproteins, glycemic control and TAC in type 2 diabetic patients.
    Keywords: Berberis vulgaris, Diabetes, ApoB, ApoA, I, Antioxidant, Lipoproteins
  • Seyed Ali Ziai, Omid Gholami, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Amir Hasan Zarnani, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani Page 653
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines.In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V–FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs).Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin.The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate.
    Keywords: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Umbelliprenin, Apoptosis, Interleukin 4 (IL, 4), Flowcytometry
  • Soheila Babanejad, Nasser Naghdi, Seyyed Ali Haeri Rohani Page 661
    CA1 region of hippocampus has an important role in learning and memory. Previous reports have shown that androgens like testosterone and its metabolites are present in high concentration in CA1 region of hippocampus. Androgen receptors have also high density in this region. Therefore, it is suggested that neurohormones in CA1 have an important role in learning and memory. It is likely that testosterone exerts its effect via its metabolites, especially dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a 5α-reduced androgen. In this research, we conducted an experiment to assess the path of testosterone›s effectiveness on spatial learning and memory. Adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and, bilaterally, cannulated into CA1 region of hippocampus. One week after the surgery, animals received DMSO 0.5 μL as a control group and different doses of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/0.5 μL/side) 25-30 min before the training in spatial version of Morris Water Maze task. Training session contained two blocks which animals had to learn the position of hidden platform in 4 trials. On the test session (next day), rats performed a one-trial probe test and then a visible platform one. The results showed that escape latency and traveled distance were decreased significantly in DHT-treated (0.5 µg/0.5 μL/side) rats. This finding suggested that DHT may have improved the effect on acquisition of spatial learning and memory.
    Keywords: CA1, Spatial learning, memory, DHT, Androgen, Rat
  • Akbar Karimi, Farhad Ahmadi, Kazem Parivar, Mohammad Nabiuni, Saied Haghighi, Sohrab Imani, Hossein Afrouzi Page 671
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive and autoimmune neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This disease is recognized through symptoms like inflammation, demyelination and the destruction of neurological actions. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely accepted animal model for MS. EAE is created in animals by injecting the tissue of myelin basic protein (MBP), CNS, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) along with the adjuvant. EAE and MS are similar diseases. Honey Bee venom (Apis mellifera) contains a variety of low and high molecular weight peptides and proteins, including melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell degranulating peptide and phospholipase A2. Bee venom (BV) could exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects on the inflammatory reactions. The guinea pig spinal cord homogenate (GPSCH) is with the Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA), consisting of 1 mg/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was used for inducting EAE in Lewis rats for creating the MS model.The hematoxylin and eosin and luxol fast blue methods were used respectively in analyses of inflammation and detection of demyelination in the central nervous system. Furthermore, the ELISA and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for the assessment of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitrate in rats serum. In this study, we indicated that the treatment of EAE with Bee venom decreased the symptoms of clinical disorder, pathological changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, demyelination in the central nervous system, level of serum TNF-α, and the serum nitrates in rat EAE induced through GPSCH.
    Keywords: Bee venom, Multiple sclerosis, Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, TNF, α Serum nitrate
  • Abbas Ali Taherian, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Javad Ameri Page 679
    Our previous study showed that Coriandrum sativum (CS) has antinociceptive effects, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect are not clear. The present study was designed to test the role of opiate system in the antinociceptive effects of CS on acute and chronic pain in mice using Hot Plate (HP), Tail Flick (TF) and Formalin (FT) tests and also to compare its effect with dexamethasone (DEX) and stress (ST).Young adult male albino mice (25-30 g) in 33 groups (n = 8 in each group) were used in this study. CS (125 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg IP), DEX (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/Kg IP), vehicle (VEH) or swim stress were used 30 min before the pain evaluation tests. Acute and chronic pain was assessed by HP, TF and FT models. In addition, Naloxone (NAL, 2 mg/Kg, IP) was injected 15 min before the CS extract administration in order to assess the role of opiate system in the antinociception of CS.Results indicated that CS, DEX and ST have analgesic effects (p < 0.01) in comparison with the control group and higher dose of CS was more effective (p < 0.001). Besides, pretreatment of NAL modulates the antinociceptive effects of CS in all models (p < 0.001).The above findings showed that CS, DEX and ST have modulator effects on pain. These findings further indicate that the CS extract has more analgesic effects than DEX and ST and also provides the evidence for the existence of an interaction between antinociceptive effects of CS and opiate system.
    Keywords: Coriandrum sativum, Pain, Dexamethasone, Stress, Opiate system, Mice
  • Narges Aryanpour, Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi, Maryam Nakhjavan, Farshad H. Shirazi Page 689
    Three new Complexes of formula [pd(bpy)(R-NH-CSS)] Cl (where bpy is 2/2′- bipyridine, and R-NH-CSS is butylamine, hexylamine- and octyamine-dithiocabamate anion) have been synthesized by University of Sistan and Blachostan. These complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic methods such as ultraviolet-visible, infrared and 1H-NMR as well as conductivity measurements and chemical analysis. In these complexes, each of the dithiocarbamate ligands coordinates to Pd (II) center as bidentate with two sulfur atoms. We have found a 1:1 electrolyte in water conductivity test for the above mentioned compounds. To measure the biologic activity and potential anticancer efficacy of these compounds, they have been compared with cisplatin and its palladium analogue of [Pd (NH3)2 Cl2] on three different cell lines of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human ovarian carcinoma OV2008, and human lung adenocarcinoma A549. Clonogenic assay has shown LD50s in the range of 0.131±0.025 to 0.934 ± 0.194 for these compounds on above cell lines. In comparison, cisplatin has shown LD50s of 0.838 ± 0.074, 2.196 ± 0.220, and 2.799 ± 0.733 on OV2008, HepG2 and A549 cell lines, respectively. As a conclusion, above three new complexes have shown higher cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin on three different human cell lines. Based on biological tests, these compounds may potentially be considered as good anticancer candidates for further pharmacological studies.
    Keywords: Palladium complex, Dithiocarbamates, cytotoxicity, Liver cells
  • Mehdi Sayyah, Amir Siahpoosh, Hamidreza Khalili, Alireza Malayeri, Hamidreza Samaee Page 697
    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in combination with SSRIs in patients with General Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The study was an 8-week double-blind randomized clinical trial. Thirty-seven adult outpatients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD based on the structured clinical interview participated in the trial. In this study, patients were randomly assigned to receive the aqueous extract (500 mg) plus fluoxetine or fluoxetine (20 mg/day) plus placebo. The results showed significant difference between the two groups in the treatment of GAD. Moreover, there was not any significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects. E. amoenum is effective on anxiety disorder, especially in higher dosage, without any serious side effects.
    Keywords: Clinical trial, Echium amoenum, General anxiety disorder, Aqueous extract