فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/04/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mostafa Delavar, Mehdi Abdollahi, Atefeh Navabi, Masoudeh Sadeghi, Shokoufeh Hadavand, Ali Mansouri Page 630
    Background
    Milk is regarded as a unique source of food for all ages. When milk is exposed to various contaminants, including lead and cadmium, it is considered a risk to humans. The presence of some metal pollutants, especially Cd and Pb, facilitates their entry into the food chain and thus increases the possibility of their toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, we decided to check lead and cadmium levels in incoming raw milk in milk production factories in Arak city, Iran.
    Methods
    In this study, 48 samples of milk were obtained from 28 industrial and 20 traditional farms. After the digestion process, at first, the metals were extracted with complexing agents, APDC, and MIBK solvent. Then atomic absorption method with graphite furnace was applied.
    Results
    The results were analyzed by analytical tests such as Npar, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and t-test using SPSS software and it was specified that the means of lead and cadmium were equal to 16.0456 and 20.09 ppb in raw milk. P-values equal to 0.009 and 0.002 ppb were considered significant for lead and cadmium, respectively. The standard levels for lead and cadmium in milk were 1000 and 100 ppb, respectively. In all milk samples, lead and cadmium pollution were less than the standard limit.
    Conclusion
    The amounts of toxic metals (lead and cadmium) in raw milk produced in traditional and industrial farms in all seasons were lower than the standard limits. Also, the mean amounts of lead and cadmium in all milk samples were less than the standard limits for milk.
  • Mohammadreza Farsinejad, Nahid Kazemzadeh, Mohammadali Emamhadi, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Sanaei, Zadeh Page 635
    Introduction
    In some intoxicated patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is examined due to the prolonged loss of consciousness, focal neurologic findings, and fever of unknown origin. We aimed to evaluate the probable relationship between the different toxicity causes and the CSF indices in poisoned patients and determine if they could predict the patients’ outcome.
    Methods
    All patients who had been admitted to the toxicology intensive care unit of Loghman-Hakim hospital between March 2006 and March 2011 and had undergone lumbar puncture (LP) were included into this retrospective study. The patients’ demographic data and results of CSF evaluation (level of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, and white blood cells in CSF fluid) were evaluated. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 17.
    Results
    A total of 111 patients were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 37±15 years. Thirteen (11.7%) had deceased. No relation was found between the cause of poisoning (medication involved) and the changes in CSF indices. A statistically significant difference was found between the survivors and non-survivors in terms of CSF protein, LDH, and WBC. However, such a difference was not detected between these two groups regarding CSF glucose.
    Conclusion
    In intoxicated patients with prolonged decreased level of consciousness or prolonged fever, early evaluation of CSF can help early diagnosis of complications such as meningitis and prompt treatment. Also, high level of protein, LDH, and WBC in the CSF can predict higher mortality rates in these patients.
  • Mohammadreza Farsinejad, Hossein Sanaei, Zadeh Page 638
    Background
    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh) to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients.
    Methods
    In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation.
    Results
    A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups) were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05).
    Conclusion
    In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.
  • Seyed Mahdi Mortazavi, Yahya Haaji, Ahmad Khonche, Hamidreza Jamilian Page 642
    Background
    Poisoning is a serious health problem in the world. In the intentional type, the person may attempt suicide by self-poisoning or may be poisoned by others in a criminal act. The present study was designed to investigate the causes and the frequency of poisoning cases referring to Loqman Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during summer 2010.
    Methods
    In this descriptive-analytical study, age, gender, educational level, daily sleep duration, history of physical illness, and type of substance used for poisoning were analyzed by SPSS software.
    Results
    Of the 200 poisoned patients, 51% were male and 49% female. 60% of the patients were single. The patients’mean of age was 26.82 years. Minimum age was 14 years and maximum age was 77 years. Most of the patients were graduated from high school and 95.5% of them were living in large cities. Their parents were alive in most cases (92.2%) and 70.5% of them were the first to third child of their family. The person in charge of them was their parents in most cases. The mean daily sleep duration was 7 hours and 72% of the subjects did not have any physical illnesss. Also, 42% of the patients had history of cigarette smoking. Overall, 57% of the patients were poisoned by antidepressant drugs, 31% by narcotic compounds, and remaining 12% by unknown substances.
    Conclusion
    Most poisoned cases by antidepressant drugs can be explained by a various of reasons such as availability of the drugs. The findings of this study necessitate more vigilance from physicians in prescribing drugs and community in educating people about drugs.
  • Morteza Rahbar Taromsar, Ali Reza Badsar, Choubineh Mah Manzar, Morteza Fallah Karkan Page 649
    Background
    Naltrexone is a competitive opioid receptor antagonist blocking the euphoric effects of exogenous opioids. When used concomitantly with opioids, naltrexone causes severe withdrawal symptoms.The main aim of the study is to determine the symptomatology and outcome of patients who consumed naltrexone in conjunction with an opioid substance.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed on the patients hospitalized with history of naltrexone usage coincided with opioid substances at Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran. The collected data were demographic information, abuse information, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and therapeutic measures taken. Data analysis was performed by descriptive tests using SPSS software version 16.
    Results
    The mean age of the patients was 33.7±10.2. The majority of the cases were male (95.6%) and urban (96.7%). The main cause of withdrawal symptoms in 91.1% of the patients was inappropriate naltrexone usage.The main poisoning agent in 80% of the cases was consumed naltrexone alone. The route of consumption in 90.1% of the cases was oral and in 9.9% the cases was IV injection. The major clinical features were nausea, vomiting, and agitation.The main therapeutic measures were supportive intravenous fluids (94.8%) and opioid administration in the form of methadone. The mean hospitalization period was 21.8±18 hours.
    Conclusion
    Severity, clinical course, and outcome of opioid withdrawal by accidental or intentional naltrexone abuse varies greatly among patients and is unpredictable. Common findings upon presentation were gastrointestinal symptoms and agitation and the main therapeutic measures for these patients were support with intravenous fluids and anti-nausea drugs administration as plasil and opioid administration as methadone.
  • Zahra Salemi, Samaneh Kamali Pooya Page 655
    Background
    Margarine contain trans fatty acids as major sources of dietary free radicals, and oxidative stress. Effect of oral administration of margarine on hepatic enzyme was investigated in Wistar rats.
    Methods
    Thirty six (36) adult Wistar rats were uniformly divided into three groups of control, margarine 15% and 20%, twelve rats in each groups (6males & 6 females). Margarine was added to the second and third groups chow as 15% and 20% (w/w) respectively. After four months, their blood samples were obtained and the serum levels of Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) were measured.
    Results
    Serum levels of AST and ALT in margarine groups were higher than control groups, but it was not significant. Treatment of rats with margarine were not significantly alter the serum levels of liver enzymes in all groups.
    Conclusion
    This result suggests that consumption of margarine may not be toxic at the doses investigated.
  • Reza Tajik, Hassan Asilian, Ali Khavanin, Ahmad Jonidi, Babak Eshrati, Ardalan Soleimanian Page 660
    Background
    Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) are the groups of organic chemical material and toxic, persistent, bio accumulate and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. PCB compounds are caused the different health effects in human depending of age, sex, route of entry, intensity and frequency exposure. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, TiO2 catalyst and ethanol on the Decomposition of PCBS.
    Methods
    In this experiment used a MW oven, Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume), Pyrex tube connector and condensing system. A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers used in 540، 720 and 900w. The PCB were analyzed by GC-ECD
    Results
    The degradation of total PCBS in terms of 540, 720 and 900W was 85. 03%, 90. 32% and 96. 87% respectively. The degradation of total PCB in terms of ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 1:1، 2:1 and 3:1 was 53. 97، 78. 98 and 95. 13 respectively. The degradation of total PCBs in terms of not using of H2O2/ TiO2 and using 20% of H2O2 and 0. 05, 0. 1, 0. 15 and 0. 2 g TiO2 was 68. 78%, 93. 97%, 95. 13, 96. 18% and 96. 87 % respectively.
    Conclusion
    The Microwave thermal reaction was applied for the dechlorination of PCBs and high efficiencies were obtained. Microwave power and amounts of reactants added are important factors influencing dechlorination efficiency.
  • Zohreh Yazdi, Khosro Sadeghniiat, Haghighi, Omid Aminian Page 668
    Background
    Occupational exposure studies indicate that formaldehyde exposure causes temporary and consistent effects on industrial workers exposed to formalin. Case: The case was a 36-year-old man who had developed intravascular hemolytic anemia caused by formalin after inhalation exposure. Formalin is a clear solution of 37% formaldehyde in water. The primary route of exposure to formaldehyde is inhalation. The case was presented with severe Coomb's negative hemolytic anemia with hemoglobinuria and was treated successfully with therapeutic red cell transfusion and exposure removal.
    Conclusion
    All employers must provide a safe and healthy workplace for prevention of harmful effects of formalin. Elimination of formalin from workplace, implementation of local and general ventilation, and using proper protective equipments are the most effective methods in the workplace.