فهرست مطالب

مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای - پیاپی 12 (بهار 1391)
  • پیاپی 12 (بهار 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • علی سلطانی، طیبه سقاپور، حسن ایزدی، عبدالرضا پاکشیر صفحات 1-16
    نحوه چیدمان کاربری ها و توزیع فعالیت ها در سطح شهر، از عوامل تاثیرگذار بر الگوهای حمل و نقل شهری است. تامین خدمات ساکنین به گونه ای که نیاز به طی مسافت های طولانی به حداقل برسد یکی از راهکارهای کاهش ترافیک در شهرها است. از آنجا که تقاضای سفر از پراکنش کاربری های عمده از جمله محل کار، مراکز آموزشی، مراکز تفریحی و یا مراکز خدماتی مشتق می شود، بخشی از کاهش حجم تقاضا از مجرای اعمال سیاست های ساماندهی کاربری زمین، قابل حصول است. در این تحقیق، نقش توزیع و تنوع کاربری ها در شکل گیری الگوهای ترافیکی به صورت تجربی بررسی شده است. به این منظور اطلاعات مربوط به رفتار ترافیکی و خصوصیات اجتماعی- اقتصادی 455 نفر از ساکنان چهار محدوده مسکونی شهر شیراز جمع آوری و رابطه بین عوامل مختلف با مقایسه تطبیقی به کمک روش های آماری تحلیل واریانس و همبستگی خطی تحلیل گردید. نتایج حاکی از آن است که تولید سفرهای درون شهری با متغیرهای اقتصادی- اجتماعی و تنوع کاربری ها رابطه دارد. با افزایش تنوع کاربری ها در سطح محلات مسکونی، نیاز ساکنین به مراجعه به حوزه فراتر از محدوده سکونتی خود کاهش می یابد. دسترسی به خدمات متنوع در سطوح محلی موجب کاهش حجم سفر در مسافت های طولانی می شود ولی حضور چنین خدماتی، خود مشوق افزایش حجم سفر در سطح محلی است. انتخاب مقصد سفر در درون یا بیرون محدوده سکونتی متاثر از ترکیب و ساختار خانوار است، به طوری که خانوارهای دارای افراد بزرگسال، حجم بیشتری از سفرهای برون حوزه ای را نسبت به خانوارهای دارای فرزندان خردسال یا دانش آموز تجربه می کنند. برخورداری خانوار از اتومبیل باعث افزایش حجم سفر در دو محدوده درون حوزه ای و برون حوزه ای است. مکان یابی فعالیت ها بر اساس سهولت دسترسی، توسعه کاربری ها مختلط و رعایت سلسله مراتب توزیع خدمات از جمله پیشنهادهای کاربردی این پژوهش است.
    کلیدواژگان: کاربری زمین، تولید سفر، دسترسی، خدمات شهری، شیراز
  • شهریور روستایی، محسن احدنژاد، اکبر اصغری زمانی، علیرضا زنگنه صفحات 17-40
    از ویژگی های شهرهای جهان سوم عدم تعادل و تمرکز شدید در شهرنشینی است. از این رو در این شهرها همواره تعداد محدودی از محلات در رفاه و آسایش بوده و در مقابل سایر ساکنان مناطق شهری از رفاه و آسایش قابل قبولی برخوردار نیستند. در این خصوص به منظور رفع نابرابری ها، اقدامات اساسی برای شناخت نارسایی ها و کمبودها باید انجام شود. با توجه به اهمیت تحلیل توزیع فضایی فقر در مناطق شهری، هدف این پژوهش تحلیل توزیع فضایی فقر شهری و نشان دادن نابرابری در سطح شهر کرمانشاه است. روش پژوهش کاربردی از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی و تطبیقی است که از روش تحلیل عاملی و نرم افزار Arc/Gis برای تحلیل یافته ها استفاده شده است. برای شناخت توزیع فضایی فقر شهری در شهر کرمانشاه از اطلاعات بلوک های آماری سال های 85-1375 و نیز از 33 شاخص که با روش های آماری به 4 عامل ترکیبی تبدیل و با بهره گیری از مدل تحلیل عاملی ارزیابی شده، استفاده گردیده است. نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از آن است که؛ در شهر کرمانشاه سال 1375، 461 بلوک یا 10% درصد خیلی فقیر، 64 بلوک یا 1% درصد فقیر، 3854 بلوک یا 80% درصد متوسط، 266 بلوک یا 6% درصد مرفه و 121 بلوک یا 3% درصد خیلی مرفه بوده اند. در سال 1385؛ 1687 بلوک یا 21% درصد خیلی فقیر، 1744 بلوک یا 22% درصد فقیر، 2392 بلوک یا 29% درصد متوسط، 1653 بلوک یا 20% درصد مرفه و 612 بلوک یا 8% درصد خیلی مرفه بوده است. نتایج نشان دهنده حرکت شهر به سمت دو قطبی شدن است. ذکر این نکته لازم است که یافته ها صرفا با تکیه بر شاخص های مورد استفاده در پژوهش است و در صورت عدم مشکلات آماری و به کار گیری شاخص های بیشتر از جمله شاخص های درآمدی این احتمال وجود دارد که نتایج تحت تاثیر قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل سازمان فضایی، فقر شهری، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی(GIS)، کرمانشاه
  • مسعود تقوایی، میرنجف موسوی*، شمس الله کاظمی زاد، حکیمه قنبری صفحات 41-60

    امروزه جمع آوری و دفع پسماندها به طریقی مناسب که باعث کاهش خطرات مربوط به سلامتی انسان ها و آسیب های زیست- محیط گردد؛ حائز اهمیت است. هدف از این پژوهش ارائه سیمایی از وضعیت پسماندهای جامد شهری از نظر میزان تولید، سرانه، ترکیب فیزیکی و انواع روش های دفع در شهر زنجان است. داده ها با استفاده از روش میدانی و آنالیز وزنی - حجمی نمونه هایی از مواد زاید جامد، در فاصله زمانی پاییز 1387 تا تابستان 1388 از طریق روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایتصادفی جمع آوری شده است. یافته ها حاکی است شهروندان زنجانی روزانه حدود 270 تن مواد زاید جامد تولید می کنند سرانه هر نفر 77/0 کیلوگرم است که 13/0 کیلوگرم از متوسط سرانه در ایران بیشتر است. بخش عمده پسماندهای شهر زنجان را مواد آلی (حدود 73 درصد) تشکیل می دهد و سهم پسماندهای خشک نسبت به کل پسماند تولیدی در حال افزایش است. راهکارهای اجرایی برای مدیریت پسماندهای جامد شهر زنجان عبارتند از: جداسازی و تفکیک پسماندها در مبدا به دلیل سهولت، نیاز به وقت و هزینه کمتر، آلوده نشدن و تخریب کمتر مواد قابل بازیافت به مراتب از جداسازی در سایر مراحل مدیریت مواد جامد مطلوب تر، کارآمدتر و عملی تر است. ارزش قابل توجه تفکیک پسماند خشک در مبدا و پسماندهای خشک از کل پسماند تولیدی نیز به تولید انرژی از پسماند، به لحاظ زیست محیطی، بهداشتی و اقتصادی از یک سو و لزوم دفن صحیح و بهداشتی و همگامی با سایر کشورهای جهان از سوی دیگر، اتخاذ استراتژی مناسب و برنامه های اجرایی متناسب را برای شهر زنجان تجویز می نماید. بر این اساس دو استراتژی تفکیک و جداسازی پسماندهای جامد در مبدا و استراتژی افزایش میزان پسماند پردازش شده، پیشنهاد می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: پسماندهای جامد شهری، مدیریت پسماندها، بازیافت، توسعه پایدار، شهر زنجان
  • علی اکبر عنابستانی، جعفر جوان، سحر احمدزاده صفحات 61-78
    روند تحول مشارکت زنان روستایی ایران در طول دهه های اخیر با فراز و نشیب هایی همراه بوده است. تصور بر این است که ویژگی های فردی زنان روستایی نقش بارزی در مشارکت یا عدم مشارکت زنان روستایی در فرایند توسعه ایفا می نماید. در این مقاله تلاش شده تا میزان ارتباط ویژگی های فردی و مشارکت زنان در فرایند توسعه نواحی روستایی بررسی گردد. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی و همبستگی است که بخش عمده ای از داده های آن بر اساس مطالعات میدانی و با روش نمونه گیری (کوکران) از سطح 250 خانوار نمونه منطقه جمع آوری شده است. یافته های مطالعه بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از آزمون های همبستگی پیرسون نشان می دهد که ارتباط معنی داری بین ویژگی های فردی و مشارکت پذیری زنان روستایی وجود ندارد، اما بر اساس آزمون ویلکاکسون رابطه معنی داری بین سن، درآمد ماهیانه و انواع مشارکت زنان روستایی در منطقه مورد مطالعه وجود دارد. در توزیع فضایی رابطه بین عوامل فردی متاثر از دیدگاه زنان روستایی و مشارکت در چهار روستا همبستگی مستقیم و نسبتا کاملی وجود دارد. با توجه یافته ها، راهکارهایی شامل تجهیز و سرمایه گذاری در امور اقتصادی روستاها، آموزش زنان و دختران روستایی، تشکیل بانک اطلاعاتی برای شناسایی قابلیت های زنان روستایی، ارتقای آگاهی های آنان نسبت به حقوق، توانمندی ها و استعدادهای خود و مزایای مشارکت در جامعه از طریق آموزش و رسانه های گروهی و غیره پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی، اعتماد به نفس، تفکر توسعه، مشارکت سیاسی، مشارکت اقتصادی، مشارکت مدنی
  • تقی طاوسی، محمد اسکندری ثانی، محمود حسین زاده کرمانی صفحات 79-100
    با عنایت به تفاوت چشمگیر توسعه یافتگی میان استان های شرقی و غربی کشور، طرح توسعه محور شرق قرینه محور غرب یعنی خوزستان- آذربایجان به منظور توسعه مناطق حاشیه ای و همچنین بهره برداری از موقعیت سوق الجیشی ایران در سال 1367 تهیه و ارایه گردید. با توجه به گذشت نزدیک به دو دهه از تهیه این طرح و تحولات بسیار زیاد منطقه و کمتر قابل پیش بینی در طی این مدت، این مقاله در پی آن است با استفاده از برنامه ریزی راهبردی که روشی نظام یافته برای اخذ تصمیمات و اجرای فعالیت ها در خصوص شکل دهی و رهنمود یک سیاست محسوب می شود، به تاثیر اجرای این سیاست بر توسعه شرق کشور به ویژه استان سیستان و بلوچستان با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و با استفاده از مدل تحلیلی SWOT بپردازد. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد که در بعد عوامل درونی، موقعیت سوق الجیشی چابهار به عنوان مهم ترین نقطه قوت با میانگین وزنی 1/4 و ضعف شبکه های زیربنایی شامل حمل و نقل، تامین و توزیع انرژی به عنوان مهم ترین نقطه ضعف با میانگین وزنی 8/4 محسوب می شود. از سویی در بعد عوامل خارجی وجود بندر چابهار به عنوان دروازه مبادلات با میانگین وزنی 6/3 به عنوان مهم ترین فرصت و قرار گرفتن در مسیر بین المللی مواد مخدر و قاچاق کالا با میانگین وزنی 6/3 مهم ترین تهدید در توسعه محور شرق محسوب می شود. از این رو اتخاذ و اجرای این سیاست به افزایش نقش و سهم کشور در ترانزیت کالا و حمل و نقل بین المللی، تقویت پیوندهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و امنیتی با کشورهای همجوار شرق و شمال شرقی، ارتقاء سطح متوسط درآمد و شاخص های توسعه در نواحی شرق کشور، کاهش فعالیت های غیررسمی اقتصادی و جلوگیری از قاچاق کالا و مواد مخدر، افزایش سهم چابهار در بازرگانی داخلی و خارجی و ترانزیت کالا و غیره کمک شایانی می نماید و در غیر این صورت، رونق گرفتن بندر گواتر پاکستان و از دست دادن فرصت ها، زمینه شکست این طرح را به همراه خواهد داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی راهبردی، توسعه محور شرق، پایداری منطقه ای، SWOT
  • یعقوب زنگنه، داود سمیعی پور صفحات 101-118
    امروزه موضوع تحرک سکونتی در نواحی مختلف شهر به دلیل رابطه علت و معلولی آن با ساختار اجتماعی فضایی شهر، در مطالعات شهری به ویژه در جغرافیای اجتماعی شهرها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. هدف اصلی این تحقیق یافتن پاسخی منطقی و مستدل به این سوال اساسی است که مهاجرین روستایی وارد شده به شهر سبزوار در بدو ورود در چه مناطقی از شهر اقامت گزیده و در مراحل بعدی چگونه محل سکونت خود را تغییر داده اند و چه عوامل و متغیر هایی در فرایند اقامت اولیه و تحرکات سکونتی بعدی آن ها موثر بوده است؟ روش تحقیق توصیفی – تحلیلی بوده و داده های به روش پیمایشی (پرسشنامه و مصاحبه) گردآوری شده و با استفاده از روش های آماری تجزیه و تحلیل شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که مهاجرین وارد شده به شهر سبزوار در بدو ورود عمدتا در مناطق حاشیه ای و بافت قدیم و از نظر سطح درآمدی، در مناظق کم درآمد شهر اقامت گزیده اند. تحرک سکونتی مهاجرین در مراحل بعد از اقامت اولیه، عمدتا در داخل مناطق درآمدی متوسط و کم درآمد و از نظر کالبدی در حاشیه شهر صورت گرفته است. جابجایی ها همواره در جهت مثبت و از مناطق کم درآمد به سمت مناطق با درآمد بالاتر نبوده است؛ بلکه حرکت های معکوس به سوی مناطق درآمدی پایین نیز جریان داشته است. همچنین نتایج این پژوهش نشان دهنده وجود رابطه معناداری بین متغیرهایی همچون میزان درآمد، سطح تحصیلات و سابقه مهاجرت خانواده های مهاجر با چگونگی و جهت جابجایی های درون شهری آن ها است.
    کلیدواژگان: سبزوار، مهاجرت، تحرک سکونتی، مهاجرت های درون شهری
  • عیسی پیری، نادر زالی، علی اکبر تقیلو صفحات 119-134
    حاشیه نشینی و یا به تعبیر امروزی اسکان غیر رسمی، پیامد شهرنشینی سریع و انتقال به پارادایم اقتصادی اجتماعی صنعتی شدن است که شهرنشینی، شکل فضایی غالب و موازی انتقال اجتماعی اقتصادی این پارادایم است. این پدیده در دهه های اخیر با پیدایش جامعه اطلاعاتی همچنان گسترش یافته و گویی تعهدی برای بقا و بازتولید آن وجو دارد. از دهه 1980 رهیافت توانمندسازی با ابتکار عمل بانک جهانی به منظور ساماندهی سکونتگاه های غیر رسمی، افراد ساکن در این نوع سکونتگاه ها را نه به عنوان معضل، بلکه به عنوان دارایی می نگرد و ارتقای وضعیت اجتماعی- اقتصادی آنها را با نقش تسهیل گر دولت بر عهده خود آنان می گذارد تا تعهد و توانمند سازی را جایگزین فرهنگ استحقاق و فرهنگ فقر نماید. مشهد در مقام اولین کلان شهر مذهبی جهان و دومین کلان شهر ایران مقصد نهایی مهاجرت های گسترده شرق کشور و حتی کل کشور است که این موضوع باعث شکل گیری سکونتگاه های غیر رسمی با وسعت 200 کیلومتر مربع و جمعیت بیش از 70 هزار نفری شده است. گلشهر در شمال شرق مشهد با جمعیتی در حدود 34650 نفر (1385)، که اکثرا هم افغانی بوده اند، یکی از مناطق حاشیه نشین شهر مشهد است که با وجود قرار گرفتن در محدوده طرح جامع شهری از سال 1372، شاخص های اجتماعی اقتصادی و کالبدی آن در وضعیت نامناسبی قرار دارد. این مقاله با استفاده از روش SWOT به ارائه رهیافت توانمندسازی در ساماندهی ناحیه شهری فوق می پردازد. نتایج نشان می دهد که این رهیافت با تاکید بر قابلیت ها و توانایی های ساکنان، ضمن حفظ کرامت انسانی حاشیه نشینان بهتر از سایر راهبردها در بهسازی و ساماندهی محیطی اثرگذار است.
    کلیدواژگان: اسکان غیر رسمی، توانمند سازی، تکنیک SWOT، گلشهر مشهد، حاشیه نشینی
|
  • A. Soltani, T. Saghapoor, H. Izadi, A. Pakshir Pages 1-16
    Introduction
    This paper attempts to discover the differences existing among case study areas in terms of trip generation despite the varied physical attributes among them. The research hypotheses include: first, there is a significan difference in trip generation per capita (inter-zonal and intra-zonal trips) among the case study areas. Secondly, there is a linear correlation between land use diversity and trip generation. Thirdly, socio-economic charactristics are associated with trip genertation. Travel diary data of four urban districts of Shiraz metropolitan-were collected through questionnaire survey of totally 455 individuals - to examine the link between trip generation and land use patterns at a community level. The research focused on the potential role of socio economic, spatial and traffic factors in reducing extra-zonal trips. The case study areas included two urban districts located whithin Region 1 (Molasadra and Ferdousi), and two of Region 4 (Ghodousi and Ghadamgah). Regions 1 and 4 are important parts of Shiraz Metropolitan which are located on north and west of Shiraz respectively. These districts were selected based on the differences existed in socio-economic and physical attrributes. For this reason, two indices including median household income level and land use mix entropy were applied. Theoretical bases: The location of activities and distribution of land uses may have a great influence on travel behavior. In this way, land use mixing policy may be used as a practical solution in order to reducing traffic congestion. Since travel demand is derived from the distribution of main land uses and activities including job location, educational centers, recreational sites or public service areas, thus reducing travel demand through applying land use policies are recommended.
    Discussion
    Trip generation at local level is affected by household charactristics; however, its inter-zonal and intra-zonal patterns are different. Trip destination choosing is influenced by household requirements. Households with greater number of adults and students try to choose their travel destination out of zone area, while thoes households with more school students and children are intersted to achieve their daily needs whithin the zone. In the other words, facilities whithin zone border are supportive for some limited requirements. On the other hand, having a vehicle available encourages higher trip generation. It was found no significant correlation between trip generation and some social factors such as individual income, household’s head income, education and number of employees. The number of inter-zonal and intra-zonal trips is affected by the presence of non-residential activities as well as land use diversity. The higher the share of non-residential activities, the higher the inter-zonal trip generation is. In fact, having accessibility to varied local services and facilities can discourage making long trips, while local trips are expected to increase.
    Conclusion
    A comparative description and the results of statistical analysis including analysis of variance and bivariate linear correlation indicated that there is a functional relationship between land use diversity and the volume of urban travel as either intra-zonal or extra-zonal. Therefore, an appropriate distribution of urban services can be useful in reducing extra-zonal trips leading to a considerable decline in traffic volume. Local facility providing may encourage residents to travel more. Trip generation is also associated with household type. Households with adults make more external trips than those comprising children. In addition, owning a car increases the probability of making trips. Suggestions: Some of the applied suggestions of this study could be summarized activity allocation basing on accessibility to transport networks and facilities as well as mixed development at local scale. Furthermore, if local services are distributed according to a hierarchical structure, then commuting to diversified parts of the metropolitan would decrease significantly.
    Keywords: Land Use, Trip Generation, Accessibility, Urban Facilities, Shiraz
  • Sh. Roustaei, M. Ahadnezhad, A. Asghari Zamani, A. Zangene Pages 17-40
    Introduction
    Cities are usually associated with economic growth and development, because the consequences of social inequality, poverty, rising crime and corruption, environmental crises, inequality and class differences, lack of social security, early childhood and maternal mortality, poor housing and homelness, informal settlements, ete. .. can be noted in this format. Income countries and international financial institutions. Decreasing poverty is a global concern, and in fact one of the main goals of low-Poverty comes from the mechanisms governing the complex urban system, these mechanisms instead of reduce inequalities in Third World countries, have intensified it. The issue is very important in making social policy. Studies show our conntry has been Ineffective in eliminating poverty and solving this issue and is facing many challenges. Lack of policy decisions, hasty, high volume and speed of urbanization has brought poverty to the position of passivity, in Iran and especially the city of Kermanshah. Theoretical bases: Different definition, approaches, researches and various studies were provided about poverty in different aspects. Defining poverty and especially poverty, is not only a scientific subject, but also a political one. Political economy, structuralism and social approaches are among the approaches used to evaluate the extent of poverty in urban communities.
    Discussion
    In Comparison analysis of poverty spatial distribution of Kermanshah in 2006 with 1996 it is shown shows that in 1996 the most important factor in poverty measuring was related to economic, cultural, physical and social factors while in 2006 the most important factors were to economic, cultural, physical and social ones. The difference indicates the poverty growth in city blocks because of this factors. In another view in 1996 121 blocks very well (3%), 266 blocks was affluent(6%), 3854 blocks were Middle (80%), 64 blocks were poor (1%) and 461 blocks were very poor (10%), but in 2006, 612 blocks were very well (8%), 1653 blocks affluent(20%), 2392 blocks Middle (29%),1744 blocks poor (22 %), 1687 blocks very poor (21%), so many changes can be seen. In the other words in very well group there had been 5% increase and in affluent class 16% growth but Middle class was decreasd by 49% in 2006 and finally poor group that was only 1% in 1996 increased to 21% and very poor class also had 11% growth in 2006. The results indicated that in Khermanshah city from 1996 to 2006 very poor class has been increased to from 10% 21%, Middle class from 80% to 29% and affluent class from 6% to 20%. According to diagrams decreasing of middle class and increasing in poor and affluent class indicate wrong policy during the study era.
    Conclusion
    The comparative study of urban regions and assessment of systems and sub-systems such as comparatives assessment of urban blocks regarding spatial analysis of poverty can help planner and policymakers in making decisions and implementation of appropriate programs for reducing inequality and increasing social justice in the society. Based on the results of this study which is done for the purpose of poverty spatial measurement in the Kermanshah city based on the information from statistical blocks in 1996-2006, in 1996 among poverty measurement factors the socio- economic cultural factor is identified as the most important one that has the maximum difference comparing with other factors indicating extreme inequality in this city. On the other hand the minimum difference is devoted to economic- physical - cultural factor. But the results for 2006 show that socio- economic- cultural- physical factor is the most important factor and highest difference is related to economic - physical factor indicating the formation of inequality in Kermanshah city. The Analysis of the spatial distribution of poverty suggests that inequality is increasing on and on, social separation is happening and the city goes toward polarity it indicates that border cities have been deprived from investment on infrastructures. The results of comparative analysis of spatial organization of urban poverty in Kermanshah during 1996-2006 indicate significant changes in society and poverty growth reflects to weak operations in this region. Suggestions: In order to overcome the current problems of poverty, according to the present conditions these strategies are recommended: Forming local associations to manage mechanisms solve the problems of citizens. Forming municipal offices urban areas, in which implement appropriate mechanisms in joint management with local communities. Changes in the public sector to provide unilateral public services in order to facilitate the sharing of other sectors Widespread culture making, especially in the public sector with regards to poverty. Doing appropriate research with regard to poverty with proper guidance and support from the government poverty. Having comprehensive approach to take actions and integrate physical- social- economic and cultural findings. Raising culture of the city residents and officials to correct the negative approach to the issue of poverty in order to achieve the conditions for the poor to access facilities and opportunities.
    Keywords: Spatial organization, Urban Poverty, GIS, Kermanshah
  • M. Taghvaei, M.N. Mousavi, Sh. Kazemizad, H. Ghanbari Pages 41-60
    Introduction

    During the past two decades, municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become one of the major concerns. In municipal solid waste management, different ways of disposal exists. Hence, collection and proper disposal of waste in order to reduce health risks and damage to flora and fauna and the environment is very important. Although buriae is the best and most common method for disposal of solid wastes. But lack or loss of traditional waste disposal sites, environmental control monitoring solid waste disposal, increasment of its size and weight,especially in industrialized countries and major cities, have a significant contribution in increasing services and disposal costs. Because waste disposal services vary from economical aspect, hence, recycling waste and increasingly becomes cost-effective. The fact that urban waste management system of Iran has critical and undesirable conditions. Cannot be ignored. In Zanjan city municipal waste is not separated because there is no seperate transportation vehicles, there is no knowledge a boul physical properties of the waste produced in this city. Therefore determining the potential for recycling or disposal methods and machinery required for management is related to with is data. Lack of awareness of social obligations and urbanization, especially about health matter and environmental protection and the misconception of most citizens of waste management as getting rid of it personally of waste from the, lead to lack of success of the implementation of solid waste management programs. Therefore, a study in Zanjan about the understanding of solid waste physical components, capabilities and potential of each of the recyclable components, and also the necessity of public participation of practitioners and citizens in cleaning the city become necessary. Theoretical bases: The purpose of this study is show municipal solid waste situation in terms of production, per capita, physical composition and various methods of disposal in Zanjan. Using weighted analysis and field studies - cases of solid waste were collected in the period of the autumn of 2008 to the summer of 2009 through the truck-load sampling based on random cluster sampling. As such, in the middle of each season, the weight of each garbage truck has been measured for seven days and each day, the load of just one truck were separated manually for determining the physical components of the waste constituents. So that the solid waste was analyzed. Generalizing the findings to other days of each season, information relating to municipal solid waste of each season was gaind. Also in this study, Zanjan's citizen participation in the implementation of waste separation at source has been investigated. Public surveys wereconducted by classifying the city into four clusters and completing 400 questionnaires through interview method by 0.4 percent of households living ineach clusters.

    Discussion

    Results show that citizens of Zanjan produce about 270 tones of solid waste daily. Per capita 0.77 kg per capita this is 0.13 kg higher than the average per capita (0.64 kg) in Iran. The the maximum rate of 25623 tons of solid waste was produced in the autumn, i.e. 284.7 tons per day and the lowest rate of 24142.8 tons was produced in the spring, i.e. 259.6 tons per day. Also, by comparing values obtained for the density of solid waste in different seasons, it is found that the highest density was related to the autumn, which is averaged around 238.6 kg per cubic meter and lowest density of solid waste is in the spring with the average of about 219.2 kg per cubic meter. The high density of solid waste in the autumn can be due to the high amount of organic matter in the season with high humidity such as fruit and vegetable skins which compose the highest percentage of solid waste. Also in Zanjan city, hospital waste production rate is 3.3 tons and industrial waste is 2.5 tons per year. On the whole, 98531.5 tons of solid waste is produced annually in Zanjan. The results show that sepreration at source is more desirable, effiuient and plactical then separation at other stages due to the ease of separation requiring minimal time and cost, less contamination and destruction of recyclable materials. In this study citizen participation in recycling programs was also studied and evaluated and the results. Hopefully shows the positive view of citizens for cooperation in urban waste management in Zanjan in the future.

    Conclusion

    Based on the research about 73 percent of Zanjan waste is organic waste, so, there is a high potential for composting industry. On the other hand, the share of total dry waste production is growing slowly, that necessitates the use of recycling. Although the separation of recyclable can be done in transfer stations materials, in the central processing station or landfill occur but separation of recyclable materials in the production stage (in source separation). Is more desirable, effiuient and plactical then separation at other stages due to the ease of separation requiring minimal time and cost, less contamination and destruction of recyclable materials? Considerable value of source sepretion of dry waste and separation of dry waste from the total waste produced the need for producing energy material from waste as well as the need for proper and healthy and doing this burial along with other countries, prescribe appropriate strategy and implementation plan for Zanjan city. Accordingly, two strategies, of solid waste separation at source and increasing processed waste strategy has been proposed. Suggestions: According to the results and discussion of the research for municipal solid waste management in Zanjan city two strategies of separation and isolation of solid wastes produced in the source and increasing processed waste are recommended. Separation of wet and dry wastes can be done in two ways: separation during production or separation of waste from source and separation with processing waste during collection, transport, storage, burial or composting. To perform source separation hardware and software features are required. Success in this regard, needs multilateral cooperation of the executive team of solid waste management, people, official and commercial units operating in Zanjan city. In the other word, implementing such a plan demands legal requirements, proper planning, proper funding and its classification, hardware, software and structural requirements and private sector participation. And also to increases the processed waste, residual waste after the stage of separation at source, includs dry energic and mixed waste, processing units (including composting and energy production) and maximization of recycling minimization of burial of recyclable materials. Implementing this strategy, with participation of producers of this material (people) can become a successful activity. New health promotion movement needs the cooperation of all sectors of society and without their active participation it cannot be done or achievement of the objectives is very difficall. Therefore, solving today's problems of collecting, transportation and disposal of municipal solid waste, is not possible without people's cooperation with the authorities.

    Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, Waste Management, Recycling, Sustainable Development, Zanjan city
  • A.A. Anabestani, J. Javan, S. Ahmadzadeh Pages 61-78
    Introduction
    During recent decades, changes in rural women's participation in Iran have witnessed some ups and downs, and it is believed that individual characteristics of rural women play an important role in their participating or not participating in the rural development process. In this paper, it is tried to analyze the relationship between the individual characteristics of rural women and their effects on rural women’s participation in rural communities. Furthermore, this paper has also analyzed the spatial distribution of the relationship between these two variables in the study area so that one can use their results as a basis for further investigations, planning and policy making in rural areas especially in the study area namely Darzab District of Mashhad County. Theoretical bases: This study was carried out in a descriptive and correlational research method. Some parts of the data were collected by field studies, questionnaires and interviews, and some other parts of the data such as conceptual framework of theoretical research, documents and censuses have been obtained through library research. The study area included all the villages in the rural district that based on Cochran formula, 14 villages with a population of 1,315 households were surveyed. Sharp-Cochran sampling method with a confidence level of 95%, and 6% chance of error as a simple random sampling was used for estimating the number of samples. Accordingly, to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics and types of women participation in development process in rural areas, 250 women (18 year old women and older) have been questioned. After data collection and processing in SPSS, ArcGIS software environments, etc., data were analyzed. The main question in this study was: “Is there any relationship between individual characteristics of rural women and their different types of participation in the rural areas?” The following hypothesis was proposed: “There is a significant relationship between the individual characteristics of women and their participation in the process of rural development".
    Discussion
    Using Kruskal-Wallis, the study results show that there are significant differences between participation in different age groups which of course seems to be reasonable. The participation rate for women in the age groups under 40 was low; for they were usually busy doing homemaking activities, or taking care of kids. However, the participation rate for women over 60 years of age was also low for they were dealing with aging problems. Nevertheless, there was not any significant relationship between the level of participation and education and marital status. The participation rate among employed women, considering their monthly income, was not significantly different, but the participation rate for women of different age groups considering their household’s income was significantly different. For example, 13 percent of households had a monthly income of less than 100 dollars, 36 percent of households gained less than 200 dollars a month and so on. Anyway, this statistical conclusion seems logical, because economic weakness and problems in low-income households are so immense that rarely provide them with any opportunity for participating in different activities. Polling among the rural women of the study area shows that there is a significant and positive correlation between individual characteristics affecting rural women's participation and various civic, community, non-formal activities among rural women. In other types of participation, namely political, religious, and economic ones, the value of significant coefficient is greater than 0.05; therefore, in this part, there is no a significant relationship between individual characteristics and participation. The level of correlation between individual characteristics and civic and local participation of rural women in the society is partially direct. In other words, the higher the level of individual factors affecting the participation of rural women, the greater the chance of women's participation in various social and economic activities.
    Conclusion
    Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between women's participation in rural development process and their individual characteristics (age, education, marital status, duration of marriages, number of children, knowledge, level of self-confidence, development thinking and level of health) based on data collected from the surveys. Overall results show that there is not a strong correlation between women's participation of the study area and their characteristics, but generally it could be stated that there is a significant relationship between some individual characteristics and some types of participation in the study area. Besides, based on the results obtained from the perspective of rural women and their actual individual characteristics, there was not a significant relationship between individual characteristics of women and their level of participation (excluding local, civic and non-formal participation) in the study area. Suggestions: The most important strategies proposed to improve rural and social capital include:Providing training opportunities for women and girls in rural communities plays an important role in development of various kinds of participations. The training is useful not only for rural women, but also has a great impact on the overall health of their families and makes them ready to take advantage of future opportunities. By training, we do not mean just formal education. To set up databases for identification of individual characteristics, and economic, and cultural potentials of rural women and evaluate their participation. To hold a proper authority responsible for management of rural areas and addressing the issues of rural women in villages. To strengthen the social capital of rural women by increasing their level of social trust, raising their awareness of their rights, talents, capabilities and benefits of participating in the society through education, mass media, and providing opportunities for people to set up none governmental and civic organizations in the villages.
    Keywords: Knowledge, Self, confidence, Development thinking, Political participation, Economic participation, Civic participation
  • T. Tavoosi, M. Eskandari Sani, M. Hosseinzade Kermani Pages 79-100
    Introduction
    Based on center- periphery development model, South East region of Iran is one of the areas that is located peripheral and has been far away from development process. In this regard for the homogeneous development of Iran as well as taking advantage of Iran's strategic location “East Corridor Development Plan” were presented for the first time in 1988. The most important objectives of this plan are: increasing the role and share of Iran in transit and international transportation, strengthening the economic, social, cultural and security ties with neighboring countries of East and Northeast, Raising the level of income and development indicators in the eastern region, Reducing informal economic activities and preventing smuggling and drug trafficking, promoting the share of Chabahar in domestic and foreign trade as well as transit of goods, etc. due to many changes in Middle East and displacement and change of different variables caused by passing this plan, identifying the capabilities, weaknesses, strengths and threats in the current situation is crucial. For example, at the beginning of the project, there aren’t variables such as presence of Talban, Chinese and Arab investments in Pakistani port of Goiter and other factors which this research tried to consider and analyze. Theoretical bases: Spatial planning means rational and efficient use of space in order to realize the value of effective economic and social functions. In this type of planning, it is essential to identify the areas of territory, because it is known as the basis of the planning. The history of spatial planning- as an advanced method and complementary in planning- dates back to before the World War II and Christaller’s theory- Spatial distribution of towns and town as a geographical and political unit, le Corbusier’s theory- distribution of functions across a territory- industrial and services location in the market economy specially Izard, Poire, Allen Scott and others. Spatial planning in Iran began in late 1965 and was inspired by French experience and theories of French economist -Francois Peru- on Growth poles which was compatible with the situation in Iran, by chance.
    Discussion
    Data analysis results show that: the most important opportunity in the East corridor development is Chabahar port as a gateway for exchange and on the other side, its location on the way of international drug trafficking is considered a major threat. Moreover the main strength is Chabahar’s strategic location relative to other ports of Iran and on the other side, lack of network infrastructure including transport; energy and geographical isolation are the main domestic weaknesses. Based on previous results, the most important Competitive/ Offensive strategies focusing on the internal strengths and external opportunities include Chabahar Port’s ability to be converting to a mega port for expansion of its capability for importing and exporting goods and significant consumer markets in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Diversification strategies, i.e. internal strengths and external threats, are optimal use of strategic position of Chabahar in all fields including energy, transport and goods, helping to stabilize and secure Afghanistan. Review strategies -emphasising on internal weaknesses, trying to take advantage of external opportunities to overcome weaknesses faced- include development of road lines, revision of the growth pole policy and development planning based on the spatial theory. Finally, Defensive strategies are Closure of way of international drug and goods smuggling development of regional cooperation such as ASEAN and Advice for overcoming ethnic and tribal conflicts in some area of east corridor.
    Conclusion
    It is necessary to balance development in Iran and considering the limited resources, capacities and position of east corridor, using the opportunists is essential. With the implementation of this project as soon as possible, more than 50 large and small cities will be involved in the process of businesse, jobs, services, etc and it creates extensive dynamisms in the region's economy and society. Moreover, it may be the best strategy for spatial equality in Iran which helps to improve suitable security in east province. Overall, this plan is an effective step the area’s development in unit 2025. Suggestion: Bed-making to local sustainable development by relying on local capital and increasing the role of area resident in the development process. Review the distribution of investments and attempts to eliminate social exclusion imposed by administrative and political system. Policy and diplomatic development between Iran and others countries Transit infrastructure development and East region to equip airline, rail and shipping to increasing Iran's share of the huge revenue of transit Especially railroads Chabahar – Mashhad Attracting foreign capital and technology to the region. Full implementation of comprehensive physical port of Chabahar Production and development of new energies, especially wind and solar energy in the region Development of coastal facilities such as a coastal beach, hotel, restaurant for use the beautiful beaches and pristine the Gulf of Oman in order to Attracting tourists and create new jobs for local people Promoting public cultural by development of training centers, university and etc. Activation of Border Market which across the external borders of the provinces in the East corridor.
    Keywords: Capabilities, Threats, East Corridor Development, Iran
  • Y. Zanganeh, D. Samiee Pour Pages 101-118
    Introduction
    Families’ movement from one neighborhood to others neighborhood inside the cities brings up obvious consequences on the formation and changing social domain inside the cities and generally on the social-spatial structure of the cities. In this regard, the entrance of settlers into the city, primary habitation and their movement in the later stages, affects the rate and direction of movements inside the cities to a great extent. Concerning the Iranian cities which are on the one hand still encountered with the wave of immigration from rural areas to urban areas and on the other hand, social-economic changes and lifestyles have made changes in the physical structure and residential patterns, studying why and how residential mobility happens is of particular importance, for accessing the rule of law governing them. Sabzevar is one of Iran intermediate cities and center of Sabzevar Township that located in the Razavi Khorasan Province, where rural migrants constitute about 40% of its population how have migrated to this city over recent decades. The main purpose of this study is to find a reasonable and documented reply to the following basic questions: "in what parts of the city did the rural migrants settle when they first entered this city? How have they changed their place of residence in the next stages? And what elements and variables have affected the process of primary settlement and residential mobility?" The research method is of descriptive and analytical nature and the required data have been gathered through surveying (questionnaire and interview). Theoretical bases: Residential mobility means: movement of the residents of one residential unit in a city to another unit or from a neighborhood to another one in the same city. The residential characteristics of one city or one urban neighborhood are generally developed through localizing behavior or individual decisions or family decisions. Intra -urban movement which covers a wide range of movements made by the family members in various countries can both be voluntar and involuntar. Factors forcing families to change their place of residence in the city, is subject to the desires, ambitions and expectations which in itself it is subject to the family status, education, income, lifestyle and the dweling condition of these families. In addition, physical quality, accessibility to the public services and infrastructure and social identity of various neighborhoods as the attracting and repelling factors play a significant role in the intra urban movements.
    Discussion
    Findings of this study indicate that the migrants, as they arrived at Sabzevar, majorly settled in the marginal regions and occupied the old texture and in terms of the level of income, they resided at the low income district of the city. High percentage of immigrants expresses their motivation to immigrate because of cheap accommodation, lands and rents (52.8 %) and the proximity to the friends and relatives (29.2%). The residential mobility of the migrants in the stages after the primary residence was chiefly in the low and medium income regions and physically it has taken place at the marginal areas of the city. Of course, these movements have usually been started in the positive direction and have not been from low income toward higher income regions but conversely movements to the regions with lower income have also happened. The correlation testes in this research indicate that there is a significant correlation between the variables such as income, education and the migration record of the migrant families and the direction of their intra-urban movements.
    Conclusion
    Social and physical structure of Sabzevar during the few past decades has been affected by a large number of rural immigrants to this city and the primary residence and their movement in the next stages in various areas of the city. Development of the quasi marginal areas in the city margins, spatial development of Tohid Shahr and affecting on the social structure, evacuation of some middle class and upper middle class families from the central texture of the city and their replacement by the rural immigrants can be referred to as the most important effect. The highest volume of inner city movement of the settlers in has been done the areas with medium and low income and the physical areas of the margin and the old texture. Suggestions: In order to control and manage the residential movement and social-spatial outcomes in Sabzevar and also responding to the demands resulting from these movements, particularly in the housing sector in this city, the following suggestions are presented: For determining and changing residential density in the various areas of the city, dominant processes of intra- urban movements, socio- economic- characteristics, motivations and needs of families interested in movement should be considered. In this regard, it is suggested that the density of the areas with middle class and lower middle class income which have the most residential mobility in them be increased, through observing other civil engineering criteria and rules so that it can respond to the demand in these areas. Implementation of renewal and improvement plans in the old texture and granting benefits and financial facilities and tax incentives to the families residing in these texture, can lead to the revival of residential units in the neighborhoods of this texture and the increasment of attractions of residence for groups with different incomes, especially families with upper middle class income. Continuation of the policy of allocating of Tohid Shahr lands for implementing Mehr Housing Project can prevent from unplanned development of cities on the inappropriate pieces of lands on the margin of the city to some extent and respond to the housing demand especially on behalf of low income groups.
    Keywords: Sabzevar, Migration, Residential Mobility, intra, urban movement
  • I. Piri, N. Zali, A.A. Taghiloo Pages 119-134
    Introduction
    Marginalization or as today interpretation informal settlement is the outcome of rapid urbanization and transition to socio – economic paradigm of industrialization while urbanization is the prominent spatial form and parallel with socio – economical aspec of this paradigm. In the past decades from the beginning of information society this phenomenon is so developed as if there is a commitment to its eternity and reproduction. In the past decades along with doing programs and plans of functionalistic and linear socio – economic development, with liberalist sight, everybody expected to resolve problems through hidden hand of market and laissez fair and in this periods specially in 1950 and 1960 decades damage strategy or transition to public house was considered. With critique of this strategy in the late 1960 and early 1970 decade the strategy of site and service was uttered by some bodies such as Terner by neglecting local community subjects such as social and physical capital of settlers this plan also failed and caused the colony transition of poverty and marginalization. Theoretical bases: From the 1980 decade through the agency of world bank for the purpose of regularization of informal settlements sees people settled in this settlements not as a problem but as asset and upgrading of their socio – economic situation has become their own lesponsibbility while the government makes it easier for them so that empowerment replaces the entitlement and poverty culture.
    Discussion
    Mashhad has a special characteristic between the world and Irans cities. This characteristic has made it as the first religious metropolitan in the world. It is the largest city in east of the country with the highest population rate and highest ratio of Iran tourism in all of the country. Mashhad with a population of 2.427 million in 2006 has been the largest metropolitan of the country after Tehran. This city during 1976 to 2006 has the highest rate of population growth between countries metropolitan after Karaj while the great share of this growth has restricted to its margin. That has 200 km2 spaces; it has six hundred and fifty thousand populations in seven city quarter and two hundred and thirteen villages. Golshahr, placed on east north of Mashhad with 34650, population (2006) which were matly Afghans is one of this marginalization quarter of the city. Although it is placed inside the comprehensive plan from 1993, its socio- economic and physical indices are not in a good condition.
    Conclusion
    Using of SWOT method this article analyzed the capabilities of empowerment strategy in regularization of the mentioned area. It has analyzed the strengths and weakness as well as treats and opportunities of structural factors in physical, cultural- social, economical and bioenvironmental dimensions. The results show indicative that this strategy with emphasis on potentials and cababilities of settlers acts better than the other strategies especially in protectivy human dignity. Suggestions: Article’s suggestions are demonstrated at two levels as physical empowerment of informal settlements and socio – economic empowerment.
    Keywords: informal settlements, empowerment, SWOT, Golshahr