فهرست مطالب

هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 43 (بهار و تابستان 1390)
  • پیاپی 43 (بهار و تابستان 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • راهکارهای بهبود حضور در بازار بین المللی فیلم ایران
    محمود محمدیان، امیرحسن ندایی، یاسمن گیاهی صفحه 4
    بازارهای بین المللی فیلم، محلی برای عرضه و خرید و فروش انواع فیلم ها و محصولات تلویزیونی از کشورهای سراسر دنیا هستند. بازار بین المللی فیلم ایران به عنوان معتبرترین و شناخته شده ترین این نوع بازار ها در ایران، هر سال در تهران برگزار می-شود. جهت ارتقا، هم اکنون بیشتر از هر زمان دیگری نیازمند مدیریت صحیح برگزاری این بازار هستیم. جدا از درآمدی که چنین رویداد هایی نصیب هرکشوری می سازد، این امر به ارتقای صنعت فیلم ایران کمک موثری کرده و چهره واقعی کشور را به افراد سراسر دنیا می شناساند. کلیه متغیر ها و شاخص ها با اتکا به منابع علمی جمع آوری شده اند و برای این بازار مورد آزمون قرار گرفته-اند. این تحقیق از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت موضوع، پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری دربرگیرنده افراد ایرانی و غیرایرانی است که به عنوان خریدار و فروشنده فیلم در حداقل یک دوره از سیزده دوره اول بازار بین المللی فیلم ایران حضور داشته اند. 152 نمونه به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده از 251 عضو جامعه آماری انتخاب شده است. آزمون فرضیه ها نشان داد که انگیزه فرهنگی - اجتماعی، مهم ترین انگیزه شرکت کنندگان، فیلم مهم ترین عنصر آمیزه بازاریابی فیلم، جوایز دریافتی مهم ترین عنصر تعیین کننده قیمت فیلم، تاریخ برگزاری مهم ترین عنصر مکان و پاسخ گویی دائم دبیرخانه دائمی بازار، مهمترین عنصر تبلیغات و روابط عمومی در بازار بین المللی فیلم ایران است.
    کلیدواژگان: بازاریابی فیلم، بازار فیلم، بازار بین المللی فیلم ایران، آمیزه بازاریابی فیلم
  • امین هنرمند صفحه 5
    هدف این مقاله بررسی دو تکنیک آهنگسازی کانن و دودکافونی در آثار آلفرد اشنیتکه آهنگساز روس می باشد. برای انجام این مطالعه ابتدا به صورت مختصر پلی استایلیزم او را تعریف کرده و سپس به مطالعه ی ویژگی ای کانن و چگونگی استفاده از دودکافونی در موسیقی او خواهیم پرداخت. در بررسی هر کدام از این تکنیک ها، بر اساس مطالعاتی که بر روی آثار مجلسی او انجام شده است، طبقه-بندی هایی صورت گرفته و ویژگی های هر کدام ذکر می شوند. در بخش اول مقاله سه نوع کانن مورد بررسی قرار خواهد گرفت و در ادامه گرایشات دودکافونیک موسیقی او را به دو دسته تقسیم خواهیم کرد. در هر مورد مثال هایی از آثار مجلسی او مورد تحلیل قرار خواهد گرفت که صحت مباحث مطرح شده را تایید کرده و به درک مفاهیم کمک خواهد کرد. همچنین کانن و دودکافونی در آثار او با اشکال معمول و اصیل این دو تکنیک در موسیقی گذشتگان مقایسه شده و تفاوت های آنها مشخص می شود. این بررسی ها نشان خواهد داد که چطور اشنیتکه از عناصر موسیقی گذشته و گرایشات موسیقی مدرن استفاده کرده و با تغییراتی که بر روی آنها صورت می دهد زبان آهنگسازی خاص خود را بوجود می آورد. همچنین در ادامه روشن می شود که چطور مباحث مطرح شده، در یگ نگاه موشکافانه، با تئوری پلی استایلیزم در موسیقی او مرتبط است.
    کلیدواژگان: میکروپلیفونی، پلی استایلیزم، میکروتنال، کانن، دودکافونی
  • نقش نغمات بر حیات و ماندگاری سازها مطالعه ی موردی: دوره ی ایلخانی و تیموری
    نرگس ذاکرجعفری صفحه 7
    در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده است نقش و تاثیر نغمات تولید شده توسط سازها بر حیات و ماندگاری سازها در برشی تاریخی از موسیقی ایران (دوره ی ایلخانی و تیموری) مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در این تحقیق سه عنصر مهم در «نغمات تولید شده توسط سازها» این گونه شناسایی شده اند: 1 اجرای گام بالقوه ی سامانه موسیقی 2 وسعت صوتی 3 اجرای همزمان چند نغمه. در مبحث «اجرای گام بالقوه» چگونگی اجرای گام بالقوه ی 17 نغمه ای صفی الدین در سازهای رایج آن دوران مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته اند. در مقوله ی «وسعت صوتی» در متون موسیقی آن دوران با دو مبحث «جمع تام» و «اجرای نغمه لو» روبه رو هستیم. جمع تام به معنی کل نغمات قابل استخراج از یک ساز است. جمع تام حائز اهمیت در متون مکتب منتظمیه دربرگیرنده ی فاصله ی دو هنگام بوده که به آن ذی الکل مرتین می گفته اند. سپس چگونگی «اجرای همزمان چند نغمه» در سازهای رایج آن زمان مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. با بررسی این سه جنبه ی موثر بر نغمات تولید شده توسط سازها، اهمیت ساز عود به عنوان ساز کامل در مباحث نظری از منظر هر سه جنبه در خور توجه است.
    کلیدواژگان: حیات سازها، ساز کامل، گام بالقوه سامانه ی موسیقی، جمع تام، سازها در رسالات مکتب منتظمیه
  • منیژه کنگرانی، بهمن نامورمطلق صفحه 15
    اسطوره های زنانه در ادبیات و هنر ایرانی حضوری کم رنگ دارد که بیانگر گذشته ای تک صداست. امروزه، در جهان چند صدایی معاصر و با حضور زنان، اسطوره های زنانه اهمیت یافته و بخش قابل توجهی از هنر و ادبیات را به خود اختصاص داده اند. یکی از مهم ترین این اسطوره ها در ادبیات و هنر ایرانی اسطوره «شیرین» است. که به تنهایی و یا گاه با خسرو و فرهاد سه گانه ای را شکل می دهند که موضوع آفرینش آثار متعدد ادبی و هنری در حوزه های گوناگون بوده اند که بازتاب تفاوت در سلیقه های مولفان، گرایش ها و کشش های فرهنگی در هر زمان را می توان در آن جست. این مقاله تجلی شخصیت اسطوره ای شیرین در برخی از حوزه های هنر معاصر را در رویکرد گفتمان اسطوره ای مورد مطالعه قرار می دهد. این ترجمه های بینانشانه ای یعنی انتقال روایت کلامی به روایت های نمایشی و موسیقایی نیازمند تحلیل بینامتنی و بیش متنی خواهد بود. پرسش اصلی این است که چه شرایط و عواملی موجب بازآفرینی اسطوره شیرین در هنر معاصر ایرانی گردیده است؟ چه دگرگونی هایی در ترجمه بینانشانه ای از نظام کلامی به نظام های دیگر رخ داده است؟ لذا ابتدا به حضور شیرین در ادبیات ایرانی پرداخته خواهد شد و سپس تصویر این شخصیت در تئاتر، سینما و موسیقی مورد مداقه قرار خواهد گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: اسطوره، شیرین، گفتمان هنری، سینما، تئاتر، بینامتنیت
  • علی کاظمی، هومان اسعدی صفحه 23
    در آواز ایرانی هنگام اجرای تحریرها و غلت ها، از واژگان و آواهایی استفاده می شود که کاملا بیرون از دایره شعر هستند و ترنم نامیده می شوند. ترنم های آوایی آن دسته از ترنم ها هستند که با الفاظی بی معنا مانند «ها ها» و «ه ه» اجرا می شوند و مهم ترین ابزار اجرای تحریرها به شمار می آیند. هدف این مقاله شناسایی برخی از قانون مندی های حاکم بر ترنم های آوایی است که بر پایه ی 12 آوانگاری از اجراهای اساتید موسیقی آوازی ایران و بررسی گونه های تحریری موجود در آنها با رهیافتی تطبیقی تحلیلی انجام خواهد شد. یافتن این قانون مندی ها، صرف نظر از این که می تواند جنبه های آموزشی برای آوازخوانان داشته باشد، کمک شایانی به درک چگونگی به کارگیری این گونه های متنوع ترکیبات آوایی در موسیقی آوازی ایران خواهد کرد؛ نیز از این رهگذر می توانیم لایه ی ظریفی از وابستگی های موسیقی دستگاهی به گویش زبان فارسی را واکاوی کنیم. در نتیجه، بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل گونه تحریرهای متن مقاله نشان خواهد داد، بر خلاف تصور غالب که قائل به قاعده ای برای شیوه ی به کارگیری ترنم های آوایی در موسیقی آوازی نیستند، این ترنم ها از قانون مندی هایی که ریشه در مواردی چون: بافت ملودیک و کیفیات احساسی تحریرها؛ خصلت های مدال؛ مفصل بندی (آرتیکولاسیون) و هماهنگی های زیبایی شناسانه ی جملات موسیقایی؛ و در نهایت گویش زبان فارسی دارد، بهره مند هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: زبان فارسی، ترنم های آوایی، تحریر، آواز ایرانی
  • صدرالدین طاهری صفحه 41
    این نوشتار تلاش دارد به بررسی نگاره های همبسته با رقص یا کنش های نمایشی بر روی آثار دوران پیش از اسلام ایران بنشیند و در این راه با پژوهشی کتابخانه ای و موزه ای، به پی جویی تطبیقی و تحلیلی هنرهای نمایشی در آن دوران بپردازد. گستره این بررسی از هزاره ششم پ.م تا دوران ساسانی است و سخن با نگاهی به نوشتارهای ایرانی آغاز می گردد. با موشکافی آثار ایرانی موزه ها و مجموعه های جهان می توان دریافت که آیین های نمایشی ایران در دورانی بس کهن تر از تصور ما پا گرفته اند. بر روی این آثار نشانه های پرشماری از آشنایی مردمان ایران با گونه های رقص و اهمیت آن در فرهنگ و هنر ایرانی آشکار است. نمایش در شکل رقص، خنیاگری، بازی یا آیین و نیز ابزارهای نمایش چون سیماچه، لباس مبدل جانوران یا گیاهان، سازهایی برای آفرینش ریتم و... دستکم از هزاره ششم پ.م در ایران شناخته شده و مورد بهره بوده اند. در سنت کهن ایرانی نمی توان فاصله ای میان رقص، بازی و نمایش نهاد. این هر سه در خدمت آیین هایی چون جشن، سوگ و نیایش بوده اند، و به دست بازیگرانی آشنا به موسیقی، رقص، کنش های بدنی و شیوه های بیان رخ داده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: رقص، نمایش، ساز، بازی، سیماچه
  • نرگس یزدی، منصور براهیمی صفحه 51
    مفاهیمی که میخائیل باختین، نظریه پرداز روس، در عرصه ی نقد و نظریه ی ادبی طرح کرده، امکانات جدیدی پیش روی تحلیلگران آثار هنری به ویژه در حوزه ی ادبیات، تئاتر، و سینما قرار داده است. یکی ازمهم ترین مفاهیم در دایره ی اصطلاحات او، مفهوم کارناوال است. این واژه یکی از مهم ترین محور های اندیشه ی او و از جمله مبسوط ترین مباحث او به شمار می رود. با آن که کارناوال با اجرا و آیین و از این طریق با تئاتر پیوند دارد، اما وقتی از«نوشته ی کارناوالی» سخن به میان می آید کاربست ادبی آن در چشم انداز باختین مورد نظر است و مشخص کننده ی آن دسته آثار ادبی است که در آنها ویژگی های کارناوال در زمینه ای نوشتاری به ظهور می رسد. باختین رمان را بهترین زمینه برای تحقق ویژگی های کارناوالی دانسته است، اما بعد از او منتقدین تئاتری با عطف توجه به پیوند دیرپای آیین و نمایش استدلال کرده اند که تئاتر و اجرا امکانات بسیار وسیع تری فراهم می کند که مورد توجه باختین قرار نگرفته است. در مقاله ی حاضرنمایشنامه ی رومئو و ژولیت نوشته ی ویلیام شکسپیر بر اساس مفهوم کارناوال بررسی و تحلیل می شود: در ابتدا، توضیحات مختصری درباره ی مشخصه های کارناوال و ویژگی های«نوشته ی کارناوالی» ارائه وسپس تحقق این عناصر را در نمایشنامه ی رومئو وژولیت به بحث گذاشته می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: باختین، رومئو و ژولیت، رئالیسم گروتسک، کارناوال
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  • Strategies to Promote the Iranian International Film Market
    Mahmood Mohammadian, Amir Hassan Nedaei, Yasaman Giyahi Page 4
    The most popular international film market in Iran is "IFM", the Iranian film market where to present films and TV programs for sales and distribution from all over the world which is held each year in February in Tehran simultaneously with Fajr International Film Festival. It is to be mentioned that Farabi Cinema Foundation as the administration foundation has held this event till February 2011, the 14th edition of IFM. Despite its successful feedbacks, it seems there are some deficiencies in the previous editions which can have a noticeable impact on the market’s creditability like the unprofessional marketing by the participants and uncertain statistics regarding the contractions done in the market, disqualified film screenings, lack of famous and big companies attending at the market and the classification of the buyers and sellers based on the supplies and demands and the absence of local markets. To promote IFM, we have to identify the effective factors on the film market and its marketing as well. This is the first time that film marketing research as a thesis done in Iran as a research project and has two
    Objectives
    (1) To present a solution for more impressive participation of the companies and independent people at IFM, (2) To present a useful solution to promote the sales of the Iranian films at IFM. The theory in this regard has been made by the experts and all variables and indexes have been gathered out of the scientific resources. There are Iranian and Non-Iranian buyers and sales agents attended at least at one edition out of thirteen ones of IFM. About 152 samples have been randomly chosen among 251 members of the very society. The results of hypothetic tests prove that the cultural and social factors are the most important reasons for the participants. On the other hand, the films themselves for marketing, the received awards are the significant criteria for quotation the best prices. The opening date and place of market, IFM publication and publicity secretariat are to be considered so effectively as well. IFM participants believe that the film production technique is the most important factor in making a film. The data analysis indicate that there are other indexes which are part of the public relations task like inviting special guests, notifications during the market, the reflections before and after it, inviting international press agents, call for entries for the next edition. There are multimedia and word of mouth seems to be more effective to IFM participants. Screening films, adverts in technical publications, posters, film announces at the market, publicities on TV channels, billboards, banners, market's bulletin are in the 1st to 8th alternatives in publicities agencies services. Posters, brochures, word of mouth, multimedia, TV channels, and press book are in the 1st to 6th alternatives in advertising by the film sales agency. The film, the way a manager presents a film in the market and the sales company is in the 1st to 3rd place.
    Keywords: Film Marketing Mix, Iranian International Market for Films (IFM), Film Market, Film Marketing
  • Amin Honarmand Page 5
    The purpose of this article is to investigate canon and dodecaphony in the music of Alfred Schnittke. As an introduction to this topic we will first introduce his polystylism, and then we will study the characteristics of his canons, and his approach in using dodecaphony. The study of his chamber music reveals that unlike the conventional canon, the interest in Schnittke's canons is rarely the result of a polyphonic texture in which independent layers are comprehensible. Instead, the short durations between the entrances and closely-spaced imitations create a dense texture which is not easily divisible to its components by ear. In writing his canons, Schnittke is concerned with the conventional variables of canon such as time and pitch intervals of entrances, and the number and order in which the voices commence. Schnittke's canons can be categorized in three groups: canons with same-rhythm layers starting at different points, canons with different-rhythm layers starting simultaneously, and finally, canons with different-rhythmic layers starting at different points. Each of these types will be studied with the aid of excerpts from his chamber works. Schnittke's interest in dense canonic textures can be linked to the style of two pre-eminent composers of different eras: Bach and Ligeti. We will see how Schnittke was inspired by Ligeti's micropolyphony, and how he described Ligeti's music. As an index to canon topic we will study the mirror technique in which Schnittke uses the inverted theme to accompany the main melodic line. Following the discussion of canon, we will study Schnittke's approach in using dodecaphonic passages in his compositions which started early in his oeuvre. Schnittke adopted dodecaphony at the beginning of his compositional career but came to the conclusion that serialism was too restrictive to freely express himself. In his early twelve-tone pieces, Schnittke tried to find ways to break from the strict rules that were practiced by the followers of dodecaphony, and applied the technique in his personalized way. The study of the dodecaphonic and "quasi-dodecaphonic" passages shows that Schnittke sometimes presents the twelve pitches in a strict form where all twelve pitches are used without any repetitions. Elsewhere the series are non-strict in which there are repetitions of the pitches or missing pitches within a row. A common arrangement of the pitches in the first type is groups of various chords, especially three diminished 7th chords. In such cases, he organizes the pitches melodically based on the minor thirds while the intervals between the diminished 7ths chords vary from one piece to another. As the article progresses, his approach in using these compositional tools will be compared with those of "classic" traditions to understand the differences and the uniqueness of Schnittke's methods. Also, we will study examples in which Schnittke used a combination of the above techniques to convey his musical thoughts. Moreover, we will look at the use of quarter-tones in Schnittke's canonic imitations and the way they contribute to his musical goals, as well as the use of pedal elements to improve the cohesion of his compositions. This study will show how Schnittke combines elements from different styles, and how he manipulates them to shape his own musical language.
    Keywords: Micropolyphony, Canon, Microtonal, Polystylism, Dodecaphony
  • Tones Impact on Musical Instruments Life Case Study: Ilkhanid and Timurid Periods
    Narges Zaker Jafari Page 7
    Catching a glimpse of the Iranian music’s history, in the presented research, efforts have been made in order to carry out a review on the role and the impact of the produced tones on the lifespan and the indelibility of the instruments during Ilkhanid and Timourid dynasties. Three main elements, impacting upon tones produced by instruments, have been identified in this research. Those are as follows:1- Performing theoretical scale of Musical System. 2- Pitch range 3- Performing a number of tones simultaneously. When it comes to performing theoretical scale, the way the theoretical scale has been performed in the 17-tone Safi-al-din scale has been studied through the instruments that were quite fashionable at the time. Speaking of pitch range, we come across two main subjects that and those are Jame Tam and performing Naghme Lu. Only a particular number of instruments have been able to perform two-octave of Jame Tam and Naghme Lu. Next, the way in which few tones could be performed simultaneously by the instruments that were the mode back then has been studied. Within a review of the aforementioned three effective factors on the tones produced by instruments, the importance of Ud as perfect instrument appears noteworthy in all three aspects. The point that within a distinct pitch range, which tones will be selected; is determined by the Musical System Theoretical Scale and since the subject of study in this research was the music of Systematist School, extraction of the Theoretical Scale of Safi al-din has been intended. According to the treatises of Systematist School, it can be realized that some of the instruments described in these documents were able to produce the 17-tone Theoretical Scale. On the other hand, the point that, in which range does an instrument perform the tones of its Musical System Theoretical Scale, depends on the pitch range of the instrument. And also the fact that, whether the playable tones by a particular instrument, are performed consecutively, or they also posses the ability to perform simultaneously; is another factor which can impact upon the acoustic characteristics of an instrument. Regarding the topic of "Pitch Range" in theoretical basics of Iranian ancient music, we come across the two concepts of "Jame Tam" and "Naghmeh Lu". Jame Tam means the entire tones extractable from an instrument. the Jame Tam, of importance in the documents of Systematist School, includes the interval between two octaves, which was called Zel-kolle Marratein. In a way that, one of the reasons of the addition of the fifth string or "Had" to Ud has been stated to extract this interval. Furthermore, out of Jame Tam range, also we will come across a tone called "Naghmeh Lu". Iran's ancient music theoreticians have always spoke of Ud in the topics of Jame Tam and Naghmeh Lu, therefore the importance of Ud becomes ostensible, in addition to its performing of Theoretical Scale and Adwar tones. The Importance of Ud as perfect instrument in perspective of the third factor, meaning the ability to perform a number of tones simultaneously is also considerable.
    Keywords: Perfect Instrument, Theorical Scale of Musical System, Jame Tam, Musical Instruments Life, Instruments in Systematist School's manuscripts
  • Manizheh Kangarani, Bahman Namvar Motlagh Page 15
    Feminine myths in Iranian literature and arts aren’t significant and outstanding so that other cultures. This matter indicate the Iranian monolog culture in past. Today, the feminine myths have a high importance, in the contemporary polyphonic world, which a Significant part of art and literature is allocated to sub-cultures, women, children and.... One of the most important of feminine myths in Iranian art and literature is Shirin. Shirin is sample of beauty, love, bravery, tolerance, chastity and forethoughtful. She forms the subject of numerous works of the artists, sometimes alone and sometimes with Khosrow and Farhad. Khosrow and Shirin is one of the most famous lyrical and romantic couples are considered in Persian literature as literature without their lyrical Persian state would find another. Although the first couple in the book indicate myth -epic Shahnameh narration is complete picture of the story can be found in the eleventh century and the book "Khosrow and Shirin" Nezami observed. Nezami describes in detail how the Sassanian King Khosrow Parviz and the Armenian princess Shirin seeing the paintings are from one another in love. Familiar manner, and Fragh separation, marriage and. .. This love makes dramatic narrative. The presence of dual Farhad artist to become a trilogy and the story that adds traction. Khosrow eventually be killed by his son and Shirin don’t want marriage is beside the corpse of her husband committed suicide to Khosrow. After this story was considered too Nezami and diversity found hundreds of literary and artistic work with adaptation of the novel was created. This paper changes done at the time of this story centered especially for the character is Shirin. Initial review indicates is that the Shirin character previous post would play a second role, and always in the shadow of Khosrow was the story of a man, over time, especially in contemporary character first and original story has become. This study is presented in transtextual method by Jennet in dialogue discourses and the place of women and the horizon womanish waiting in contemporary. It is assumed the woman's personality in story is changed by changing the position and place of women in Iranian story. The female characters has been have an unprecedented importance. In this article, personality Khosrow, Farhad and especially Shirin shall be considered at some artistic and literary works. The main question is what conditions and factors lead to recreating the Shirin,s myth in Iranian contemporary art? What changes has occurred in intersemiotics translation from the verbal system to other systems? Accordingly, it will be paid the presence of Shirin in Iranian literature, especially in Nezami,s poetry book and the picture of this mythical figure in the theater, cinema and music. The most important works include the study of one: 1. Khosrow and Shirin of Nezami, 2. Shirin and Farhad solar effects wahshi Bafgh, 3. A film of Abbas Kiarostami Whit name Shirin, 4. Limited number of dramatic arts of Khosrow and Shirin subject is in their files.
    Keywords: Iranian Art, Intertextuality, Shirin Myth, Khosrow, Shirin, Artistic Discourse
  • Ali Kazemi, Hooman Asadi Page 23
    In Iranian vocal music, singers do not just use poems and words for the creation of music. In this music, in the course of performing the Tahrirs (Melismas) they use additional words that poetry. Melisma covers more than half of the duration of music; therefore Tahrir (Melismas) is the most important embellished element in this music. To perform melisma, singers have to use supplementary words which are called Tarannom. Tarannoms are divided into two groups: meaningful words (Loghavi) and meaningless syllables (Âvâei). The First group includes words which have a clear meaning, for example Jânam, Habib, Aziz and Amân. The Second group apply syllables which do not have any meaning, for instance Hâ Hâ, He He, Hi Hi, He Hâ, Hâ he etc. Meaningless Tarannoms, which this research is discussing about, is the most important implement of performing Melismas. It should be noticed that performing melisma is impossible without nonsense syllables. The purpose of this article is to find out some rules in nonsense syllables (Tarannomhâye Âvâei). In fact, the assumption of this article is that when singers use nonsense syllables, they follow some rules which come from the unconscious. This research will be conducted on 12 transcriptions from the records of Iranian vocal masters, such as Seyyed Ahmad Xân, Soleimân Amirqâsemi, Abolhasan Eqbâl Âzar, Rezâ qoli Mirzâ Zelli, Mohammad Rezâ Shajariân, Razavi Sarvestâni, Râmbod Sodeif, Abdollâh Davâmi, Adib Xânsâri, Ruhangiz, Mahmoud Karimi and Gholâmhosein Banân. All of the notations are in Dastgah-e Châhârgâh (one of the twelve multi-modal cycles in Iranian traditional music). First, we separate the typology of Melismas from notations, and then we will study them. This study applies with a comparative - analytic method. Results of this research, in practice, can have educational application for singers and can lead them to know about the usage of Tarannoms. Moreover, in theoretical part, finding these rules helps us to know how to use these nonsense syllables. We can also study interdependency between Dastgahi music and Persian language. Undoubtedly, the most important concept that can be received of this article is the special role of "â" sound in order to organize nonsense syllables (Tarannomhâye Âvâei). Also, one of the fundamental issues in the use of vowel by Iranian classical singers, is the interaction between "â" and "e" in organizing independent Tahrirs out of poetry. In other words, these two vowel sounds and their various compounds are the main tool of use of vowel in independent Tahrirs such as use of plectrum in instrumental music. It seems that the choice of these two vowel sounds for Tahrirs performance is rooted in phonology issues. As result, the study and analysis of various Melismas in this article indicate, contrary to the general belief that these Tarannoms do not have any rules, that they have multiple rules emanated from melodic texture, emotional content of Melismas, modal traits, articulation, aesthetic correspondence of musical phrases, and in the end, the accent of Persian language.
    Keywords: Melisma, Persian language, Nonsense Syllables, Iranian Vocal Music
  • Narges Yazdi, Mansour Barahimi Page 51
    Mikhail Bakhtin is arguably one of the greatest literary theorists in the twentieth century. He introduced theories in a variety of fields including psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and literary criticism. The extraordinary conditions under which he lived and worked attract the attention of not only literary scholars, but also political scientists, cultural historians and even biographers. It is believed some of the theories introduced by him had been inspired by the events in his eventful life. He has introduced numerous innovative theories among which the concept of carnival is one of the most intriguing. Caryl Emerson has rightly considered this concept to be "the weakest, least consistent, and most dangerous category in Bakhtin's arsenal." This concept is introduced in the book "Rabelais and His World". In this book he successfully locates Rabelai's book in the popular cultural forms that surrounded him. Thus the reader's attention is drawn to a gay, life-affirming and anti-authoritarian attitude to life in the Middle Ages. One of the most important notions through which Bakhtin makes the transition from popular-festive life to the writing of Rabelais is the notion of grotesque realism. At first glance grotesque seems to be a familiar word. However, his grotesque realism is a special notion. It is based on the material and the bodily. In this notion the body which eats, digests, copulates and defecates in an exaggerated and grotesque way is celebrated. The most interesting characteristic of this body is the fact that in this body "becoming" rather than "completion" is evident. Bakhtin himself refers to this celebration of the uncompleted as "gay relativity". In this notion great importance is attached to what he calls "lower body stratum" and some organs in the body are of particular importance. Other elements of carnival include crowning and uncrowning, subversion of authorities, the language of the market place and carnival laughter. Carnivalized writing includes writings in which the spirit of carnival is found. This study sets out to analyze the classic play "Romeo and Juliet" written by William Shakespear considering the elements of carnivalized writing. There has been a lot of controversy over years as to whether "Romeo and Juliet" should be considered to be a tragedy or not. While some critics have conveniently omitted all the happy scenes, others have considered them to be essential to the integration of the play. Particularly in this study these scenes are of great significance. This study reveals that this play can be considered to be carnivalized writing and the ambivalence of carnival imagery is evident in it. Moreover, the relativity of official certainties and also instances of crowning followed by uncrowning can be found in this play. Furthermore, the language of the market place can be observed in this play specifically in characters who belong to lower social classes. In all these a pattern is traced in the play in which analogues can be found for Shakespeare's writing in carnival and popular-cultural forms. This analysis can result in innovations in performing this play.
    Keywords: Bakhtin, Grotesque Realism, Carnival, Romeo, Juliet