فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های زراعی در حاشیه کویر - سال ششم شماره 4 (زمستان 1388)
  • سال ششم شماره 4 (زمستان 1388)
  • 120 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 10,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • A.H. Ehteshami*, Gh. Asgari Jafarabadi, B. Mohammadnazari Page 371
    In this research, the statistical data related to karakul (fars grey) sheep that were collected during years 1986 to 2001 by national animal breeding center, were used to estimate the economic coefficient for 15 traits including: birth weight (bw), weaning weight (ww), weight on six month (wsm), weight on nine month (wnm), weight on one year (woy), colour of skin (cs), skin flower type (cft), rate of skin flower type (rsft), concession of skin flower type (csft), extent of skin flower (esf), diameter of skin flower (dsf), radiation and luminosity of skin (rls), scheme and harmony of skin flowers (shsf), skin size (ss) and skin thickness (st) for 7 distinct animal group in 3 herds of this breed in Abadeh, Marvdasht and Fasa townships in fars province. The economic indices of traits were estimated through applying system analysis method,via partial derivation of profit function in relation to the considered trait. Then, sensitivity of the model to changes in each parameter in the model was calculated. Among Skin and weight traits, the highest economic coefficient was related to weaning weight trait and skin thickness trait. Also, it was observed that the increase in costs and the decrease in productions price (by ±20% from base condition) lead to reduction of relative economic indices with regard to base condition and the decrease in costs and the increase in productions price lead to increase of relative economic indices with regard to base condition. Finally, According to the results obtained in this study, a selection index was determined based on market condition in this breed of sheep. hisbreed of sheep this breed of sheep this breed of sheep is breed of heep.
    Keywords: Karakul (fars grey) sheep, economic indices, system analysis method, profit function, model sensitivity, selection index
  • M.R. Beheshtifar, M.R. Abedini*, F. Foroudi Page 383
    This study was conducted in poultry research farm of Islamic Azad University faculty of Agriculture Varamin-Pishva branch to determine the effect of nanosilver on Broiler performance, Carcass yield and Immune response. The treatments included: 1- Control (CTL), 2- Nanosilver Colloid (NC) in drinking water and spray on broilers’ body twice a day), 3- Nanosilver Zeolit (NZ) in feed and 4- Nanosilver Colloid and Zeolit (NCZ) together in feed. For this purpose 360 male Arbor Acres plus broiler chickens were grown for a 42-d experimental period. Birds were assigned to 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 18 chicks per replicate in a complete randomized design. Blood samples were collected from 20 day old chicks for determining maternal antibody titers against Newcastle disease by HI method and Infectious Bursal Disease by ELISA method, Then this procedure was repeated in days 14, 28 and 42 of experiment. The broilers in each pen were weighted in 1, 14, 28 and 42 days of experiment and body weight, feed intake, weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio were determined. 24 hours before and after each vaccination use of Nanosilver Clloid was stopped. The results of this experiment indicated that, Nanosilver treatments had an effect on body weight, especially in 14-28 days old. NC, NCZ, and NZ treatments respectively were heavier than CTL (p<0.05). Nanosilver treatments generally had no effect on feed intake and significant differences were not observed. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) data for Nanosilver treatments were lower than CTL (specially in 14-28 d-old) but at the end were no significant differeces. Carcass yield, weights of thigh, breast, heart, liver and abdominal fat of Nanosilver treatments were not statistically significant with CTL. Nanosilver treatments had no effect on Mortality and were not statistically significant with CTL. Nanosilver treatments had an effect on intestine weight. Respectively NZ, NCZ and NC treatments were heavier than CTL (p<0.05). Respectively NZ, NC and NCZ treatments antibody titers by HI method were higher than CTL, especially in 14-28 days old (p<0/05) and also Respectively NCZ, NC and NZ Treatments Antibody Titers by HI method were higher than CTL In 28-42 days old (p<0.05) but antibody titers by ELISA method were not significantly different.
    Keywords: Nanosilver, Colloid, Zeolit, Broiler, HI, ELISA
  • K. Jafari Khoshidi*, H. Kioumarsi, M.Zahrdifar Page 395
    In this research two levels of ME (2. 3 and 2. 5 Mcal /kg DM) and three levels of CP (12, 14 and 16%) and their interaction were studied. Twenty four male lambs with 7-8 month old and live body weight of 19. 7±1. 84 kg were used in an experimental period of 105 days. In this study a completely randomized design in 2×3 factorial experiment with 6 diets and 4 replications were used. average daily gain (ADG)، daily dry matter intake (DDMI, kg/day) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated each 15 days interval. At the end of the experiment, carcass cuts and chemical composition of 9, 10 and 11th ribs area were measured. The result of this experiment indicated that experimental diet had significant effect (p<0. 05) on ADG, DDMI, FCR and carcass cuts. Results of urea space (US) showed a high and significant correlation (p<0. 05) between urea space (US) and chemical composition of ribs area. It is recommended that an energy concentration of 2. 5 Mcal ME/kgDM and 14% CP in diet will be appropriate for fattening native male lambs. This experiment was conducted at 2007 in Animal Science Research Center in Gilan Province.
    Keywords: Energy, Protein, growth performance, carcass characteristics, fattening lamb
  • A. Ghot*, M. Chamani, F. Forodi Page 407
    The objective of this study is to investigate the probability of increasing the fiber digestibility in ostrich with injecting different dosage (30%-50%-70%) of goat ruminal anaerobic fungi in ostrich microorganisms. Culture in in vitro condition. The study was conducted in microbiology laboratory of Azad Islamic university of Varamin in summer of 1386. At first 1.29 gr of chopped wheat straw was placed in 50cc serium battles. 40cc of Cald well anaerobic media was added into the battles in anaerobic condition. The microbial samples of ostrich colon and goat rumen was gathered from the abbatories and in the strill condition was injected to the surium battles in 1cc dosage. The purified ruminal anaerobic fungi with different levels (30%-50%-70%) was injected to the different serium battles contanning ostrich microorganisms. All the serium battles were incubated in 39°C for 48 hour. According to the result the goat showed the highest digestability for DM-NDF-ADF and CF- respectively. Ostrich with 39.52%, 32.72%, 28.88%, 29.38% showed the lowest digestability for these parameters respectively. (P < 0.05) Injectiong the ruminal anaerobic fungi in the ostrich microorganism's culture showed a significance improvement in digestability of all the parameters we had estimated before, (P < 0.05). Espicially when we injected 70% of anaerobic fungi the digestibility of DM-NDF-ADF and CF was respectively. We can conclude that the presence of ruminal anaerobic fungi may have a synergism effect with ostrich microorganism's in fiber digestion.
    Keywords: Fibrolytic digestion, Ostrich, Fiber feedstuff, Anaerobic fungi
  • K. Karimi*, A.A. Sadeghi, F.Froudi, M. Shivazad, Sh. Karimi Page 417
    This experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of addition of β- mananase (M) and β-glucanase (G), alone or in combination (MG), to barley soybean basal diets with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME), Lower (L) or equal (H) of broiler chicks requirement. For this purpose 120 one day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 treatments by 3 replicate (5 birds in each replicate). In day 21, 8-cm segments from their duodenum, Jejunum and ileum were sampled, and then villi length and width and crypts of lieber khon depth of each sample were measured by use of light microscopy and LeicaQwin image analysis software. Data from this experiment were analyzed in form of a 4×2 factorials experiment (4 enzyme combinations and 2 ME levels) in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that ME levels only affected duodenal and jejunal crypts depth (P<0.01). Different enzyme combinations affect duodenal and ileal villi length, duodenal villi width and jejunal crypts depth. HMG and LMG treatments compared with other treatments increased duodenal villi length. Addition of enzymes compared with control groups, increased duodenal villi length in duodenum. Villi width were less affected by treatments, widest villi were for LM (338 μm), HM (368.5μm) and HMG treatments in duodenum and in LMG and HM treatments in ileum. Jujenal villi widths were not affected by treatments. HMG treatment increased crypt depth in duodenum and ileum and adversely decreased it in jujenum.
    Keywords: β mannanase, β glucanase, Small intestine, Metabolizable Energy, Broiler
  • M. Mohammadi Saei*, N. Ila, K. Ghorbani, B. Yarahmadi Page 431
    This experiment was conducted with 288 1-d-old broiler chicks strain Ross (308) in 2008 in khorramabad. These chicks were randomly grouped into eight treatment with three replication and each of twelve chicks the treatment groups consisted of control group (without oil), containing oil group in starter period, containing oil group in grower period, containing oil group in finisher period, containing oil group in starter+grower period, containing oil group in starter+finisher, containing oil group in grower+finisher period and containing oil group in all period. According to the results, the body weight among different treatment were significant (P<0.05). The most final weight obtained from containing oil treatment in total period. There was significant difference in feed conversion among treatments as containing oil treatment in was the best feed conversion in total period and grower+finisher period. The highest production index was observed in containing oil treatment in total period. The most carcass percentage was obtained in containing oil treatment in starter period that except of containing oil treatment in total period was no significant with other treatments (P>0.05). The abdominal fat percentage among treatments no significant difference was recorded (P>0.05). the most serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in containing oil treatment was observed instarter+ grower period and among treatments were no significant (P>0.05); but low density lipoprotein (LDL) was significant among treatments (P<0.05). Finally, it will be suggested that soybean oil applied in broiler diet at 11 days old after.
    Keywords: broiler, soybean oil, performance, abdominal fat, biochemical parameters
  • M. Molaei*, F. Foroudi, M. Chamani, H. Janmohammadi, Gh.R. Reisali Page 445
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on the apparent ileal digestibility in male broiler breeders of amino acid from soybean meal. This study had done in aviculture research institute of agriculture faculty of Islamic university Varamin branch in 2008. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) was left at a room temperature: similar to other treatments, evaporation decreased the moisture content of the samples. Autoclaving of soybean meal for 15min at 121°c was studied. The treatment were: 1) control untreated soybean meal diet; 2) autoclaved soybean meal diet; 3) soybean meal diet gamma irradiated at a dose of 15 kGy; 4)soybean meal diet gamma irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy; 5) soybean meal diet gamma irradiated at a dose of 45 kGy. The results showed that autoclaving for 15min at 121°c had a statistically significant effect on the apparent ileal digestibility of the amino acids soybean meal (p<. 05). Autoclaving increased the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids (CIAD) of soybean meal compared with untreated treatment (p<. 05).Gamma irradiation at dose of 15 and 30 kGy significantly increased CIAD of soybean meal (P<. 05).A dose of 45 kGy significantly decreased CIAD of individual amino acids of soybean meal except, valine, threonine, and glycine compared with untreated treatment (P>. 05). The results also showed that gamma irradiation of soybean meal were effective in denaturizing of protein and increasing the apparent digestibility of amino acids. In addition, autoclaving soybean meal for 15min at 121°c and 105 kpa increased the apparent digestibility of amino acids.Irradiation of soybean meal at 30 kGy improved the apparent digestibility of amino acids in comparison with the other processing methods.
    Keywords: Gamma irradiation, digestibility, amino acid, soybean meal, poultry
  • A. Noshari, S. Amirinia, R. Vaeztorshizi Page 459
    Leptin is a protein which is synthesized by adipose tissue. It has 16 kilo Dalton weight and its effect was proven on regulation of feed intake, energy balance, pregnancy and the function of immune system. There are some evidence about association of Leptin gene polymorphism and important economic traits. Uses of genetic markers in optimum selection index increase the accuracy and efficiency of selection in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the Intron 2 of Leptin gene in Iranian Holstein proven bulls. Genomic DNA was extracted from frozen semen of 141 Iranian proven bulls and PCR-RFLP was used to detect the genotype of a part of Intron 2 of Leptin gene related to each animals. The AluI and Hinf I restriction enzymes didn’t show any polymorphic pattern in 422 base pair of the above locus but three genotypes AA, AB and BB with frequency equal to 0.823, 0.135 and 0.042 were distinguished respectively for this locus when it was digested by Sau3AI restriction enzyme. Also the C to T transition was detected in one of the Sau3AI restriction sites according to the PBR results. This locus deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.01) and the frequency of allele B was low in Iranian Holstein proven bulls. Results showed that the expected heterozigosity of this locus was low. However, the association of Leptin gene and milk production related traits in Iranian Holstein cows will be one of the important subjects of the feature researches.
    Keywords: Leptin, Holstein bull, PCR, RFLP, polymorphism, genotyping