فهرست مطالب

مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای - پیاپی 13 (تابستان 1391)
  • پیاپی 13 (تابستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • تاج الدین کرمی، محمد سلیمانی، حسن افراخته، حسین حاتمی نژاد صفحات 1-22
    توزیع نابرابر فضای سبز، نوعی تولید اجتماعی محسوب می شود که اغلب در یک چرخه بازخوردی، با ایجاد شرایط بوم شناسانه نامتوازن، نقش خود را بر کیفیت محیط و تشدید نابرابری های درون شهری اعمال می کند. هدف مقاله حاضر تحلیل الگوی پراکنش تاج پوشش درختی واقع در عرصه کاربری های مسکونی (فضای سبز خصوصی) به منظور شناسایی عوامل موثر در نابرابری کیفیت محیط زندگی در شهر تهران است. مقاله حاضر به لحاظ نظری از رهیافت بوم شناسی سیاسی شهر بهره می گیرد. از منظر بوم شناسی سیاسی شهر، عناصر شهری و از جمله فضای سبز، نوعی تولید اجتماعی به شمار می روند که تجسم و تحول آنها متاثر از اقتصاد سیاسی، الگوی مالکیت عمومی و خصوصی حاکم بر جامعه است. بعلاوه این تحقیق نوعی پژوهش همبستگی محسوب می شود. برای تهیه پایگاه داده های جغرافیایی مورد نیاز و تحلیل آنها، از فنون سنجش از دور و روش های تحلیل آماری استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که توزیع تاج پوشش درختی در شهر تهران، نابرابر و نامتوازن است. همچنین با عنایت به روابط متعامل تاج پوشش درختی و کیفیت محیط زندگی شهری، همبستگی درونی ارزش شاخص متوسط پوشش گیاهی با سایر شاخص های اکولوژیکی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی موثر در نابرابری های فضایی در شهر تهران، در چارچوب تحلیل عاملی مورد توجه قرار گرفت. نتایج تحلیل مذکور نشان دهنده آن است که «عوامل اقتصادی- اکولوژیکی»، «الگوی استقرار اقشار اجتماعی و کیفیت سکونت»، «کیفیت سازه و بافت شهری»، «تراکم خانوار در واحد مسکونی» و «تمرکز و تراکم جمعیت و کاربری های آلاینده»، به ترتیب بیشترین نقش را در آشکارسازی نابرابری فضایی در شهر تهران دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای سبز شهری، بوم شناسی سیاسی شهر، نابرابری فضایی، شاخص نرمال شده پوشش گیاهی(NDVI)
  • محمدرضا رضوانی، سیدعلی بدری، فرخنده سپهوند، سعیدرضا اکبریان رونیزی صفحات 23-40
    از جمله الگوهای گردشگری در نواحی روستایی، گردشگری خانه های دوم است. گردشگری خانه های دوم همانند دیگر انواع گردشگری دارای آثار مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی است. تاثیر این نوع گردشگری بر کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی می تواند از جمله این اثرات باشد در این راستا هدف پژوهش بررسی وتبیین اثرات گردشگری خانه های دوم در بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی در ناحیه روستایی رودبار قصران است. روش شناسی این تحقیق توصیفی و تحلیلی و داده های مورد نیاز با اسنفاده از پرسشنامه گردآوری شده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش ساکنان محلی در روستاهای ناحیه است که در هر یک از روستاهای نمونه به طور برابر 22 سرپرست خانوار به عنوان حجم نمونه تعیین شدند. همچنین با بهره گیری از آزمون های آماری در محیطی نرم افزار SPSS داده های جمع آوری شده مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که گردشگری خانه های دوم در ناحیه روستایی رودبار قصران نقش موثری بر بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی داشته است. به طوری که از 9 قلمرو مورد مطالعه در هفت قلمرو کیفیت محیط، فعالیت و اشتغال، مسکن، سلامت و رفاه، درآمد و ثروت، مشارکت و همبستگی و امنیت و بهزیستی فردی، موجب بهبود کیفیت زندگی ساکنان محلی شده ولی در دو قلمرو آموزش فرهنگ، تفریح و اوقات فراغت بهبودی حاصل نشده است. همچنین نتایج در خصوص اثرات گردشگری خانه های دوم بر قلمروهای کیفیت زندگی نشان دهنده آنست که جز در قلمرو مسکن در دیگر قلمروها تفاوت معناداری در بین روستاهای مورد مطالعه وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری روستایی، گردشگری خانه های دوم، اثرات گردشگری، کیفیت زندگی، رودبار قصران
  • غلامحسین عبدالله زاده، ابوالقاسم شریف زاده صفحات 41-62
    با توجه به وجود نابرابری های گسترده در توزیع خدمات و امکانات توسعه در سطح استان های کشور، این تحقیق با هدف، تعیین سطوح توسعه فضایی و شناسایی ماهیت الگو های آمایشی توسعه طراحی شد. روش مورد استفاده بر مبنای تحلیل مجموعه ای از شاخص ها برای ساخت شاخص ترکیبی توسعه بود. این شاخص سپس برای رتبه بندی و سطح بندی توسعه استان ها به کار برده شد. برای جمع آوری داده ها، نتایج سرشماری مرکز آمار ایران در سال 1385 و نتایج سالنامه های آماری کشور در طی سال های مختلف بهره گرفته شده است. برای ساخت شاخص ترکیبی توسعه نه مرحله شامل انتخاب، گروه بندی، اعتبارسنجی، قضاوت، تبدیل، نرمال سازی، وزن دهی، محاسبه شاخص های ترکیبی زیر گروه ها و محاسبه شاخص ترکیبی کل انجام شد. در این تحقیق 41 شاخص مورد استفاده قرار گرفت که در سه گروه اجتماعی، جمعیتی و فرهنگی (14 شاخص)، اقتصادی (13 شاخص) و زیرساختی و خدماتی (14 شاخص) قرار گرفتند. نتایج رتبه بندی استان ها بر اساس شاخص ترکیبی ابعاد سه گانه نشان داد که استان تهران در گروه شاخص های اجتماعی، جمعیتی و فرهنگی، استان خوزستان در گروه شاخص های اقتصادی و استان سمنان در گروه شاخص های زیرساختی و خدماتی بالاترین رتبه را دارا هستند. در کلیه موارد استان سیستان و بلوچستان پایین ترین رتبه را به خود اختصاص می دهد. نتایج رتبه بندی استان ها از نظر شاخص ترکیبی کل نیز نشان داد که، استان های تهران، سمنان و اصفهان توسعه یافته ترین بودند و استان های کهکیلویه و بویراحمد، لرستان و سیستان و بلوچستان از پایین ترین سطح توسعه در کشور برخوردار بودند. الگوی فضایی به دست آمده بر اساس شاخص ترکیبی کل توسعه نیز در سه سطح توسعه یافتگی بالا (نه استان)، متوسط (16 استان) و پایین (پنج استان) بر مبنای تکنیک های سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی طبقه بندی شد. چنین الگویی وجود ساختار مرکز- پیرامون درتوسعه اقتصادی فضایی ایران را تایید می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: سطح بندی توسعه، منطقه بندی، شاخص ترکیبی، توسعه آمایشی، توسعه منطقه ای
  • مرتضی خلیلی، غلامرضا مردای، علیرضا رحیمی صفحات 63-80
    دسترسی به خدمات درمانی بالاخص اورژانس، نیازمند توجه ویژه به ساختار شبکه ارتباطی است. بنابراین، در طرح های شهری به خصوص برای بافت های قدیمی و فرسوده، توجه جدی به این نکته ضروری است. در این پژوهش، با استفاده از تلفیق سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی و روش تحلیل شبکه وضعیت دسترسی ساکنین بافت تاریخی یزد به خدمات اورژانس، در شرایط عادی و همچنین امکان بروز اختلال در شبکه ارتباطی، در وضع موجود و طرح پیشنهادی حفاظت جامع بافت تاریخی یزد، ارزیابی و مقایسه شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که در وضع موجود بافت تاریخی یزد، قسمت های اعظمی از آن نمی توانند در زمان استاندارد به خدمات اورژانس دسترسی داشته باشند، ضمن اینکه در صورت بروز اختلال در بخشی از شبکه ترافیکی، مسیرهای بهینه جایگزین برای استفاده در مواقع اضطراری وجود ندارد. طرح پیشنهادی جامع حفاظت بافت تاریخی یزد تا حد زیادی بر مشکل زمان دسترسی ساکنین به خدمات اورژانس فائق آمده و این زمان را به استانداردهای موجود نزدیک نموده است. اما همچنان قسمت هایی از بافت تحت پوشش کامل این خدمات در زمان های استاندارد نیستند. بنابراین، در صورت امکان، یک تجدید نظر کلی در ساختار شبکه ارتباطی بافت های مشکل دار و اصلاح مجدد شبکه معابر آن، در غیر این صورت، مکان یابی یک مرکز اورژانس جدید طبق اصول و ضوابط مکان یابی، می تواند در حل این مشکل راهگشا باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اورژانس، بافت تاریخی، وضع موجود، طرح پیشنهادی، تحلیل شبکه، یزد
  • محمدرضا پورجعفر، مهدی منتظرالحجه، احسان رنجبر، رضا کبیری صفحات 81-94
    امروزه بسیاری از شهرهای کشور ما با توجه به گسترش نامحدود و بدون برنامه خود سبب دست اندازی به محیط های طبیعی و از بین بردن آن ها شده اند. در حالی که افزایش روزافزون جمعیت شهرنشین و در پی آن رشد شهرها، توجه به چگونگی کنترل توسعه شهرها و گام برداری در راستای اصول توسعه پایدار را الزامی می نماید. شهر جدید سهند که در حدود دو دهه پیش و به منظور جذب سرریز جمعیت کلان شهر تبریز ایجاد گردیده است نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نیست. از آن جا که این شهر در محیطی که از نظر منابع طبیعی از غنای بالایی برخوردار است واقع شده است، ضرورت توجه به چگونگی رشد و توسعه آن و همچنین تدوین برنامه ای مناسب به منظور توسعه مناسب این شهر را دوچندان می نماید. در این مقاله نحوه توسعه فیزیکی شهر سهند و ویژگی های جمعیتی آن از ابتدا تا به امروز مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. سپس به منظور توسعه آتی این شهر در نواحی با توان اکولوژیکی مناسب، اراضی صفه سهند بر اساس اصول آمایش سرزمین مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته و مناسب ترین اراضی برای این توسعه معین شده است. بدین ترتیب که ابتدا اطلاعات مربوط به منطقه با استفاده از آمار و اطلاعات موجود تهیه گردید. سپس بر اساس روش سیستمی و با استفاده از نرم افزارهای مختلف مانند GIS تجزیه و تحلیل و جمع بندی داده ها صورت گرفت. در ادامه توان اکولوژیکی محدوده مورد مطالعه تعیین و محدوده های مناسب برای توسعه آتی شهر جدید سهند با مساحتی حدود 3200 هکتار پیشنهاد گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر جدید سهند، توسعه فیزیکی، توسعه پایدار، ارزیابی توان اکولوژیکی
  • غلامحسین حسینی لقب، رضا مختاری ملک آبادی، امیر گندمکار صفحات 95-114
    بندر گناوه با داشتن جاذبه های گردشگری، مراکز تجاری و تفریحی، سالانه پذیرای میلیون ها نفر مسافر- 2302154 نفر در تعطیلات نوروز1390- از سراسر کشور است. سیل عظیم جمعیت مشکلات ترافیکی متعدد در این شهر به همراه داشته است که ریشه اصلی این مشکلات را در کمبود و مکانیابی ناصحیح کاربری پارکینگ در این شهر می توان جستجو کرد که البته، این موضوع در ایام رونق گردشگری بسیار حاد و بحرانی جلوه گر می شود. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش بر اساس هدف؛ کاربردی و بر اساس ماهیت توصیفی- تحلیلی است. در تحلیل وضع موجود و برداشت اطلاعات میدانی، از پرسشنامه ای با حجم نمونه 320 نفر که افراد نمونه؛ 100 نفر از شهروندان و 220 نفر از گردشگران بوده اند، استفاده شده و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS انجام شده است. پس از تخمین مساحت و تعداد فضای مورد نیاز پارکینگ با استفاده از روش تولید پارکینگ، ابتدا معیارهای موثر در مکانیابی پارکینگ های عمومی با استفاده از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی AHP در محیط نرم افزار Arc GIS وزندهی شده و سپس مکان های مناسب برای احداث پارکینگ با استفاده از روش OWA(Ordered Weighted Average) فازی مشخص گردید. نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که تعداد 1863 جای پارک علاوه بر جای پارک های موجود در محدوده مورد مطالعه در یک روز، مورد نیاز است و بین تقاضای پارکینگ و پارکینگ های موجود در شهر گناوه تناسب منطقی وجود ندارد. باید اذعان کرد پارکینگ های موجود در این شهر از نظر مکانیابی با معیارهای جغرافیایی سازگاری دارند ولی از نظر تعداد با محدودیت زیاد مواجه هستند و با توجه به ویژگی های شهر، منطقی ترین گزینه استفاده از پارکینگ های طبقاتی است.
    کلیدواژگان: پارکینگ، گناوه، عرضه و تقاضای پارکینگ، مطالعات مبدا و مقصد، معیارهای مکانیابی پارکینگ عمومی، روش AHP، روش OWA
  • مصطفی حسین آبادی، مهدی پورطاهری، اصغر محیط سکه روانی صفحات 115-126
    در دو دهه گذشته توجه ویژه ای به نقش شهر های کوچک در توسعه نواحی روستایی و عملکرد مثبت آنها در الگوی سکونتگاهی مناسب در کشورهای در حال توسعه شده است. مراکز شهری کوچک کارکردهای مهم - بازار نزدیک برای تولیدات کشاورزان، مکانی برای ایجاد فرصت های شغلی کوچک، مرکزی برای تولید خدمات اجتماعی، مرکزی برای انتشار اخبار و اطلاعات جدید از بازار کالاها و خدمات، مکانی برای اسکان جمعیت فاقد زمین و مسکن روستایی- بر پسکرانه های خود دارند. در این پژوهش به بررسی میزان رابطه روستاهای پیرامونی با شهرستان قیروکارزین و توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی آنها و تاثیرگذاری عوامل جغرافیایی بر این مقوله پرداخته شده است. ادبیات توسعه شهرهای کوچک، نحوه انتخاب شاخص ها و ارزیابی آنها بررسی شده و در ادامه با استفاده از مدل های آماری ناپارامتریک، توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی نواحی روستایی متاثر از شهر و تاثیر گذاری عوامل جغرافیایی مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. با استفاده از مطالعات پیمایشی و نمونه گیری، 15 روستا و 300 خانوار در شهرستان قیروکارزین به عنوان جامعه نمونه بکار گرفته شده است. روش شناسی تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است و طراحی شاخص ها در مقوله اقتصادی- اجتماعی توسعه روستایی تنظیم شده است. با استفاده از مدل های آماری، همبستگی بین میزان ارتباط روستاهای پیرامونی با شهر قیر و توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی آنها سنجیده شد، که نتایج حاکی از وجود همبستگی بین میزان ارتباط روستاهای پیرامونی با شهر قیر در بسیاری از شاخص های توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی است.
    کلیدواژگان: شهرهای کوچک، توسعه روستایی، توسعه اقتصادی، توسعه اجتماعی، رابطه شهر و روستا
  • محسن شاطریان، امیر اشنویی، محمود گنجی پور صفحات 127-144
    بافت قدیم شهر به عنوان بستر زیست انسان شهرنشین، نیازمند تامین استانداردهایی است که در یک نگاه می توان آن را استانداردهای کیفیت زندگی نامید. کیفیت زندگی در واقع مفهومی چندبعدی و پیچیده است که از سوی متفکران علوم شهری و سایر اندیشمندان علوم مختلف مطرح و مورد پژوهش قرار گرفته است. هدف این تحقیق، شناسایی میزان رضایتمندی ساکنان بافت قدیم شهر آران و بیدگل از شاخص های کیفیت زندگی است. تحقیق حاضر از نظر هدف، از نوع کاربردی و از حیث روش تحقیق، به دو صورت اسنادی و پیمایشی بوده و جامعه آماری شامل 3433 نفر سرپرستان خانوار ساکن در بافت قدیم شهر آران و بیدگل در سال 1389 است که با استفاده از رابطه کوکران و سهم اطمینان 95 درصد تعداد 350 نفر به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شده و مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS و شاخص CSM مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان دهنده این است که در بین بخش های مختلف، میزان رضایتمندی ساکنان بافت قدیم شهر در شاخص های اجتماعی بیشتر از سایر بخش ها بوده و شاخص اقتصادی در رتبه دوم و بعد از آن شاخص خدماتی قرار دارد، این در حالی است که شاخص کالبدی کمترین میزان رضایتمندی را دارا بوده است. بنابراین، می توان گفت که اهداف اجتماعی به نسبت اهداف دیگر، موثرتر واقع شده و مطلوب نظر ساکنان قرار گرفته است. همچنین نتایج آزمون فرضیات نشان می دهد که میان پایگاه اقتصادی – اجتماعی افراد و میزان رضایتمندی از کیفیت زندگی رابطه معنادار وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: رضایتمندی، شاخص های کیفیت زندگی، بافت قدیم، آران و بیدگل
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  • T. Karami, M. Soleimani, H. Afrakhteh, H. Hataminejad Pages 1-22
    Introduction
    Inequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function) and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus، considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private) with the rest of natural، social، economic and fabric conditions، the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological، social، fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS، ArcView، IDRISI، ERDAS Imagine، and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”، “Square Analysis”، “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. Theoretical basis: The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a kind of social production whose imagination and change are influenced by political economy، dominant pattern of public and private ownership in society (Heynen، Perkins and Roy، 2006:3). The aforementioned perspective clearly states that urban material conditions which includes urban environment too are controlled and manipulated by the elite and city experts to serve their interests. This issue is conducive to make some of the urban social groups marginalized and deprived from natural riches and urban environmental artifacts. As a result، the quality of urban environment (physically and socially) increases in some neighborhoods and decreases in others (Heynen، Kaika and Swyngedouw، 2006:1-15). Since unequal greenery distribution with creating imbalanced ecological conditions often plays its role in a feedback cycle on environment quality and intensification of inequalities within urban life environment، the present study uses pattern of canopy distribution located in areas of residential uses (private and public) to reveal social، economic and spatial inequalities in Tehran.
    Discussion
    The results of this research in relation to Tehran city confirm the determining position of urban political ecology in forming distribution pattern and density of trees canopy located in areas of Tehran. This is a subject which is confirmed by studies conducted on urban green space (including public and private) in the cities such as San Diego، Toronto (by Perkins، Heynen and Wilson 2004، Scobedo and colleagues 2005، Heynen، Perkins and Roy 2006 and Conway، Shakeel and Atallah 2011). Also، so far many researchers on the urban issues of Tehran city (such as Madanipoor 2005، Horkad 2009) have emphasized the conformity of natural topography over social topography in Tehran. The result f this attempt، while confirming aforementioned perspectives، indicated that the distribution pattern of canopy density in residential areas (private urban green space) has a greater capability to portray social classifications and environmental quality and as a result spatial inequalities in Tehran city due to the fact that their production، distribution and density are performed in relation to different natural، social، economic and fabric-spatial factors.
    Conclusion
    The attained results from the analysis of canopy density dispersion in Tehran residential areas indicated that areas with thick and very thick tree-coverage density possess quite clustered patterns and geographically are almost conformed to the northern urban regions which have a more desirable environmental quality. Also، the areas with average density have an almost scattered pattern and geographically show more development in the northern half of Tehran. Areas with low density or without tree coverage at all have also scattered patterns. Nevertheless، with respect to the concentration of residential blocks without tree coverage، their spatial dispersion pattern have changed to quite scattered patterns which are geographically conformed to the areas with thick density population، problematic، old and low environmental quality tissues. According to the results obtained from Rotated Component Matrix of factor analysis، five main components which indicate spatial inequality in Tehran are: economical – ecological factors، settlement pattern of social classes and residential quality factors، structure quality and city texture، family density in residential units and density and centralization of population and contaminant uses. Suggestions: In a society like Iran، whose almost 70 percent population are urban، it is vital to schedule justly to decrease social and economic inequalities and their bad functional outcomes in cities. This subject is of particular importance in relation to Tehran and its urban collection which accommodates 19 percent of the total country’s population and which plays an important role in political stability of Iran. After the victory of Islamic revolution the economic powers had fewer facilities to show luxurious and lavish styles and this was because they had a cultural and fair approach. As a result، the dimensions of social inequality are not much visible in the society. Therefore، with respect to difficulties of access to sources of documented information (such as families’ income and their financial and non- financial facilities)، it is suggested to seriously pay attention to technology development in using variables and spatial indicators such as the use of Normalized Vegetarian Index (NDVI) in the present article which has an interactive relationship with social and economic conditions to measure spatial inequality in cities and metropolises.
    Keywords: Urban green space, urban political ecology, Spatial Inequality, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)
  • M.R. Rezvani, S.A. Badri, F. Sepahvand, S. R. Akbarian Roonizi Pages 23-40
    Introduction
    Quality of life as a multidimensional concept and important aspect of living in human communities has been penetrated in many scientific fields including tourism. The relationship between tourism and local communities’ quality of life is generally considered and the subject is classified in relation to economic، social - cultural and environmental aspects. areas is considered as one of the patterns of tourism whose growth and development could have profound changes in many objectiveTourism as a major area of activity can improve quality of life for local residents. The pattern of second home tourism in rural and subjective parameters and characteristics of macro-economic، social، cultural and environmental aspects of destination communities. Quality of life in rural areas not only is affected by the factors، activities and events that exist in rural areas but also by external factors that affect the village and its inhabitants. The analysis of this type of tourism was necessary and important in the process of planning of rural development and rural tourism development. Thus، the main goal of the study is to investigate second home tourism’s effects on improving life quality of local residents in rural areas of Rudbar Qasran (Shemiranat County of Tehran province). Second home tourism has historically been promoted in the area since 1981، is suffused with life and consequently has had a profound impact on the lives of local residents. Therefore، recognizing the effects of this model of tourism on the rural residents’ quality of life can provide the appropriate tourism development and promotion of quality of life for residents of the area. Theoretical bases: The formation and development of second homes caused from the development of tourism، is one of the important phenomena of the twentieth century and current century. A large part of second homes are built in rural areas. Second home tourism is emerged as an activity of the complex relationships between stakeholders in different locations due to various other activities. Therefore، its activities create the desired، undesired or complex effects on environmental، economic and social - cultural aspects of the host communities. When an area becomes a tourist destination second home، it affects lives of local residents. Local residents’ quality of life is improved by the development of second homes; hence، they are more likely to develop the activity. Thus، second homes tourism creates the change of economic، social، and environmental characteristics that can lead to an improvement in the quality of life. Quality of life is a concept that defines human life. This is a reflection of several factors and features that is usually synonymous with prosperity، opportunity، life satisfaction and prosperity، meeting demands، life power، capacity building، poverty، human poverty، living standards and development. When quality of life was introduced، its measurement was considered and a number of research and studies were performed in this field. Measuring indicators of quality of life (at any level) can be mainly classified in two categories: objective indicators and subjective indicators. Thus، to measure the quality of life، different areas have been provided by researchers. But the review، understanding and combining these areas، with emphasis on the researcher''s goal، is important. Thus the role of second homes tourism in the quality of life is clarified through environmental، economic and social data that can be calculated by the host community and based on objective and subjective approaches. Here، in this article the objective approach has been applied.
    Discussion
    Second home tourism areas would improve environmental quality، housing، health and welfare، participation and solidarity، work and employment، income and wealth has been exemplary in all villages. The results of this attempt show that second home tourism has influences in rural areas of Rudbar Qasran local residents’ quality of life. So، in seven realms of nine studied realms including environmental quality، activity and employment، housing، health and welfare، income and wealth، participation and solidarity and the individual security and welfare have improved the local residents’ quality of life but in two realms of education-culture and recreation-leisure، there was no improvement.
    Conclusion
    Second home tourism is one of the effective phenomena in rural areas that made an improvement or a decline in the quality of life of rural residents. The results show that second home tourism has played an effective role in the quality of life of local residents in the rural areas. In seven of the nine territorial scope of the study، including the quality of the environment، activities and employment، housing، health and welfare، income and wealth، participation and solidarity، and security and personal well-being، there was an improvement in the quality of life of local residents but in the realm of education، culture، recreation and leisure there was no improvement. The results also show that the impact of tourism on the quality of life of second home tourism realm، there is a significant difference among the villages in all realms، except in the housing. Suggestions: The following suggestions are offered as the effective role of second homes tourism in quality of life of local residents: - Managing growth and expansion of second home tourism and preventing its unplanned promotion; - Coordinating local agencies and executive agencies in the development of second homes tourism; - Participation of people and local communities in the development of second homes tourism; - Management of the tourism impacts; - Monitoring the tourism impacts.
    Keywords: Rural tourism, Second homes tourism, tourism impacts, quality of life, Rudbar Qasran
  • Gh. Abdollahzade, A. Sharifzadeh Pages 41-62
    Introduction
    The spatial economy of Iran، like that of so many other developing countries، is characterized by an uneven spatial pattern of economic activities. The problem of spatial inequality emerged when efficiency-oriented sectoral policies came into conflict with the spatial dimension of development (Atash، 1988). Due to this conflict، extreme imbalanced development in Iran was created. Moreover spatial uneven distribution of economic activities in Iran is unknown and incomplete. So، there is an urgent need for more efficient and effective design، targeting and implementing interventions to manage spatial imbalances in development. Hence، the identification of development patterns at spatial scale and the factors generating them can help improve planning if development programs are focused on removing the constraints adversely affecting development in potentially good areas. There is a need for research that would describe and explain the problem of spatial development patterns as well as proposal of possible strategies، which can be used to develop the country and reduce the spatial imbalances. The main objective of this research was to determine spatial economic development level in order to identify spatial pattern of development and explain determinants of such imbalance in Iran based on methodology of composite index of development. Then، Iran provinces were ranked and classified according to the calculated composite index. To collect the required data، census of 2006 and yearbook in various times were used. Theoretical bases: Theories of regional inequality as well as empirical evidence regarding actual trends at the national or international level have been discussed and debated in the economic literature for over three decades. Early debates concerning the impact of market mechanisms on regional inequality in the West (Myrdal، 1957) have become popular again in the 1990s. There is a conflict on probable outcomes between the neo-classicalists and structuralists. The neo-classicalists، optimistic about market forces، regarded regional inequality as a passing phase and postulated that market forces would ensure that the returns to all factors of production would approach their marginal products. Regional inequality initially arises in the process of the allocation of resources، but factor mobility and efficient market forces would eventually ensure regional equality (Smith، 1975); although a prerequisite of efficient markets is the existence of fully competitive markets، which are not present in most developing countries. Similarly، the inverted U hypothesis predicts that regional inequalities within developing countries will eventually be reduced through factor mobility. In contrast، the structuralist school of dualism postulates that regional inequality is an inevitable outcome of capital accumulation and profit maximization and that market forces tend to increase rather than decrease regional inequality. Myrdal’s (1957) circular and cumulative causation thesis proposes that the creation of a favored region may have its origin in a historical accident، but there is a natural tendency for all economic activities with higher than average returns (such as industry، commerce، banking and insurance)، know-how and all the social amenities that go with these، to cluster within such a core region with backwash effects on unflavored regions. There may be some centrifugal spread effect (like trickle-down effects)، but these do not point to the achievement of equilibrium. On the contrary، “even in a rapidly developing country many regions will be agging behind، stagnating or becoming poorer; and there would be more regions in the last two categories if market forces alone were left to decide the outcome” (Myrdal، 1957،p. 32).
    Discussion
    In order to measure spatial development، composite index is developed based on nine phases method including: Selection of Indicators، Grouping Selected Indicators، Validating Indicators، Judging the Indicators، Transforming the Indicators، Normalizing the Indicators، Weighting the indicators، Calculating the sub-indices and Combining the sub-indices into the Composite Development Index. In this research، 41 indices in which data were available were used and grouped in three categories including: social، population and cultural (14 indicators)، economical (13 indicators) and infrastructural and service (14 indicators). Calculated weights for development components revealed that infrastructural and services and economical components have more weight to spatial disparities analysis of development.
    Conclusion
    The results of calculated composite index for social، population and cultural group showed that Tehran، Guilan and Mazandaran are ranked in the first position. In this context Kordestan، Hormozgan and Sistan-Baluchestan are at the bottom of ranking scale. Economical composite index results indicated that Khuzestan، Esfahan and Markazi are top and Lorstan، Kohkiloyeh-Boyrahmad and Sistan-Baluchestan are bottom of ranking scale. Based on composite index of infrastructural and services، Semnan، Qom and Esfahan have the highest rank and North Khorasan، Lorestan and Sistan-Bluchestan have the lowest rank. According to final calculated composite index، Tehran، Semnan and Esfahan were ranked in the first position and Kohkiloyeh-Boyrahmad، Lorestan and Sistan-Bluchestan were ranked in the last position. The spatial pattern is divided into three development categories: high (9 provinces)، medium (16 provinces) and low (5 provinces)، based on Geographical information system (GIS). Such pattern confirms core-prophecy in Iranian spatial economic development. Suggestion: Decentralization policy and giving more attention to less developed province such as Sistan-Baluchestan. - Development of regional markets، supply networks and export in less developed provinces. - Improvement and development of infrastructural service especially transport system in periphery areas. - Development of commercial and industrial cropping system to save non-renewable resources. - Extending and strengthening cooperation between stakeholders of planning in national level. - Formulating policies aimed at reducing regional inequalities and population concentrations in the urban areas of a few richer.
    Keywords: development classifying, zoning, composite index, spatial development, regional development
  • M. Khalili, Gh. Moradi, A. Rahimi Pages 63-80
    Introduction
    In addition to general diseases، texture and material oldness، complexity and density of the building، have exposed the inhabitants of the historical texture of cities like Yazd to dangers such as earthquake and fire. Thus، in this type of texture، the supplementary and health-medical land uses like emergency has special importance regarding the roles they play. Accessing the medical services especially the emergency requires special attention to the connection network structure. Thus، in the urban plans especially for the historical and time-worn textures، this requires more attention to the connection network structure and also the pattern of locating and quick and in time and comfortable access to emergency centers related to that and according to the standards and criteria، in order to act quickly and without facing any obstacles and limitations of the urban environment in the case of requirement. This study tries to analyze the existing context and the proposed plan of Yazd historical texture from the point of access to emergency services relating to its connection network structure. Theoretical bases: The main view point in the research methodology of this paper is analytic descriptive and the applied kind which is performed with the systematic trend and based on the theoretical information and geographical data. The tool which is used for such analysis is GIS tool and Network Analyst tool. First a network of all the connection paths of the historical texture based on the real directions of traffic is prepared and after creating topology، the other network supplemental information such as street type، length and width of the street، one-way، tow-way and cul-de-sac، traffic volume، average speed، and the crossroads and the existing limitations was added and the special relation between the network lines was created and the network became intelligent and according to this، the time factor، i. e. the duration of each paths was obtained and the accessibility to the emergency centers was analyzed base on that.
    Discussion
    In the current situation، 40. 8 percent of the parcels of Yazd historical texture have access to less than 4 meters of the street، which has reduced to 24 percent by the proposed plan. Also، in the existing context، more than 70 percent of the historical textures are farther (3 minutes) from the global standards of accessing the emergency service centers and about 50 percent of the texture reach these services in a later time (8 minutes) compared with the common time in Iran. The plan proposals based on the texture organizing and improving the connection network structure has resulted in a noticeable increase of the service area of the existing emergency center and consequently to an access to these services by a considerable part of the texture، such that about 60 percent of the texture has been covered under the global standards (3 min) and about 80 percent under Iran common standard (the 8 minute). In the existing situation، in the case of disruption in the connection network and blocking the main paths of accessing the emergency، there is no other appropriate alternative path while in the proposed plan this problem has been resolved somewhat and alternative path or paths are accessible.
    Conclusion
    Yazd historical texture causes an increase in the time of accessing of the citizens inhabitant in the texture to the emergency services in the existing situation due to the organic structure of the street network، while in the case of the disruption in a part of the traffic network، there is no optimum alternative path to be used in the emergency cases; the most important reason of this could be mentioned as not regarding the function hierarchy in the accessing network structure، the narrow width of the paths and non-applicability of most of the texture paths for the traffic of vehicles، the one way paths and etc. The comprehensive protective plan of Yazd historical texture emphasizing the requirement of the increase in the applicability of the connection network in order to physically and functionally organize the texture district has overcome the problem of the citizens in the time of accessing the emergency services and became close to the existing standards; yet، there are parts of the texture which are not covered by these services in the standard times. Thus، possibly، a comprehensive revision of the current improper connection network structure of the texture and re-improving its paths network or locating a new emergency center based on current standards can be useful in resolving this problem.
    Keywords: Emergency, Historical Texture, Existing Situation, Proposed Plan, Network Analysis, Yazd
  • M. Pourjafar, M. Montazerolhodjah, E. Ranjbar, R. Kabiri Pages 81-94
    Introduction
    Human beings have many impacts on the land because of their management methods and different interventions. So، with regard to human beings potential capability، ecological capability has much importance for future development of land. On the other hand، appropriate development of cities depends on appropriate use of land potentials. Thus، considering land potentials and capabilities is the most important stage before site selection of cities and land uses on the land. According to these issues before any intervention، ecological capability of land should be assessed and considering this capability and social and economic needs، we should develop cities. Theoretical Bases: The evaluation of land exploitation according to its capability is one of the most fundamental issues in sustainable development. For this purpose، selection of a suitable method is very crucial to strengthen the results with facts. In this study، the Ecological capability evaluation was selected as the appropriate method. Ecological capability evaluation is to realize the potentialities of a land in the form of expected and achievable applications. It is an effective step for land use planning and land development studies. Ecological capability evaluation can be performed for the purpose of reaching the maximum unity and compatibility of land use with potential capability of land in a specified scale. Suitability and desirability of a specific land use for land can be assessed using two physical and economic aspects. It should be noted that the economic analysis would not be needed while a particular land use is risky and potentially dangerous for the ecosystem. In other words، socioeconomic assessment takes into consideration only if the land stage of the ecological set for the specified user is granted.
    Discussion
    This article states the Sahand properties based on land use planning evaluated for future development of this city in patches with appropriate ecological capabilities. The main goal of this study is defining the best direction for city development that has the least short-time and longtime bad effects. Research method is descriptive and analytical method and data have been collected from library and observational study. Sahand is a new town in East Azerbaijan which was constructed about two decades ago for controlling the extreme growth of Tabriz and for attracting the extra population of this metropolis. Sahand new town is 20 kilometers far away from Tabriz and it became a town in 2007. It has a population of about 16000 and a population of about 90000 was forecasted for this town at its master plan. The area of allocated lands for this town is about 12650 hectare and it is situated on the hillside of Sahand Mountain. According to the process of ecological capability assessment in this research، for assessing the ecological capability of each region، we have to identify a lot of natural resources parameters. In order to provide these resources for assessment، they must become to land identification and resource maps. Subsequently، this information will be used as different information layers for assessing. Also، the information and the requirements for this model of ecological capability assessment were arranged according to the criteria of ecologic model (urban، rural and industrial development model). In the next stage، given the systematic method and also applying software applications such as GIS، data layers were analyzed، integrated and overlaid by AHP technique. Then، the final map of ecological capability of case study region was produced. This map was produced according to privileging two groups of lands، quiet appropriate and rather appropriate lands. Eventually، the final map of ecological capability of case study region was produced by overlaying the maps of these two kinds of lands with regard to both groups. So، the appropriate land for future development of Sahand new town was determined.
    Conclusion
    By using the above-mentioned assessment criteria and after producing the appropriate lands regarding ecological assessment، the final region for future development was determined with respect to urban planning criteria such as land slope. All future land for development is about 3500 hectares at east and south east of Sahand. This area was decreased to 3200 hectares because of land morphology. Finally، with respect to land morphology and main access to Sahand، four regions are defined for future development. Suggestions: Environment capability evaluation is an important part of urban development management. If an assessment is not carried out، the opportunity to mitigate many of the impacts of a development may be lost or may only be overcome at significant costs to the developer or the community. So، it is important that each development be determined through environment capability evaluation. For doing better evaluation، it is required that the data for performing site selection analysis be determined by interviewing experts as well as internal and international literature reviewing.
    Keywords: Sahand New Town, Physical Development, Sustainable Development, Ecological Capability Evaluation
  • Gh. Hosseini Lagha, R. Mokhtary Malek Abadi, A. Gandomkar Pages 95-114
    Introduction
    Each year Genaveh Port receives millions of tourists (2302154 people in Nowruz Holidays in 1390) from all over the country for its tourist attractions and trade and recreation centers. The presence of this huge populace has created several traffic problems، the main root of which can be found in the shortage or the incorrect positioning of the function of parking lots in this city. However، the issue gets into its peak in the time there is boom in tourism in holiday seasons. field data، a questionnaire with a sample size of 320 participants including 100 citizens and 220 tourists has been incorporated، This applied study uses a descriptive analytical research design. In the analysis of the current situation، and for providing the and SPSS has been used for further analysis. After assessing the area and the number of required parking lots applying parking building methods، the influential standards in situating public parking lots has been weighted through the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in Arc GIS software zone، and then appropriate places for launching parking lots has been recognized by OWA (Ordered Weighted Average) fuzzy method. Results show that with regard to the need for 1863 parking lots in addition to the current lots in the studied area in one day، there exists no logical relations between the demanded parking lots and the existing parking lots in the city of Genaveh. Nevertheless، it should be admitted that the present parking lots in the city are appropriate considering the geographical standards; but limitations exist with regard to the number of these lots. Hence، considering the characteristics of this city، the most logical option is the use of smart parking. Theoretical Bases: - Traffic: Traffic is an international term; it means transportation vehicles and passersby walk on roads and adding three humans، vehicle and road are formed (Rezaei، 1369، p. 7). - Stop surface car: The average surface to stop any car is considered to be 14 square meters and the average number of passengers per car is two; thus، there is a need for at least 7 meters of the city for the parking of each passenger. Since car is a personal device، there is a need for at least two parking spaces for a car: one in the living place and the other in working place or sites such as shopping centers and city centers (Shahi، 1376، p. 85). - Analytic hierarchy process (AHP): The analytic hierarchy process is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions. In this process، decision makers find the answer that best suits their goal. It provides a comprehensive and rational framework for structuring a decision problem. Analytic hierarchy process is based on pairwise comparisons، which makes it easy to judge the accuracy of calculations (Hosseini et al.، 1389، p. 73). -Geographical situation and population of Genaveh: Ganaveh County is a county in the northwest of Bushehr Province in Iran. The county''s area is 9. 69 square kilometers and Genaveh port is located in the Persian Gulf coast. According to the latest census in 2006، the county''s population was 59،583 (30،169 males and 29،414 females).
    Discussion
    This applied study has a descriptive – analytical nature. A questionnaire was completed by 320 participants including 100 residents and 220 tourists، and SPSS software was used for further analysis. After estimating the size and the number of required parking lots applying parking product method، the optimal locations for the construction of public parking lots in the city were identified using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in Arc GIS software zone، and then appropriate places for launching parking lots was determined by OWA fuzzy method.
    Conclusion
    For locating parking lots the traditional method is used in most cities which is incapable of applying all effective parameters in location finding simultaneously and is time-consuming. These disadvantages make the constructed parking spaces useless. This made an increased interest in using the appropriate tools، which can simultaneously integrate a large number of spatial parameters، such as GIS. One of the most important stages in this process is to weight the parameters. Different weighting methods can lead to different results. Using GIS in situating parking lots instead of traditional methods increases the process speed and enhances the efficiency of suitable constructed parking. Weighting methods are less accurate than the AHP method due to lack of a strong theoretical basis. In locating parking spaces، the walking distance to the parking place is very important and in different places of the studied area which need more parking spaces and have heavy traffics، some places for constructing parking places should be found. Suggestions: According to statistics available، the parking area in Genvaeh is ​​56،990 square meters and the required area for parking is 85،997 m daily. Thus، the area needed for parking is 26،072 m in addition to the existing parking spaces and we need 1863 parking lots in the studied area (city center) for a day. The proposed public parking is provided in the following table.
  • M. Hosseinabadi, M. Poortaheri, A. Mohit Sekeravani Pages 115-126
    Introduction
    Numerous researches have shown that small urban centers have a significant influence on hinterland rural district and agricultural development; they offer a nearby market for agricultural products، offer job opportunities، provide a center for social services and help in the diffusion of news and information on products and services. Promoting market-oriented development strategies and their emphasis on the export of agricultural products of economic showed that links between agriculture and foreign markets are efficient. Accordingly، the growth of small towns in rural development planning process cannot be ignored. Small cities are competent regions for non-agricultural investment in order to reduce density and increase costs in big cities. Theoretical bases: If adequate working conditions can be provided in small towns as well as big cities، these cities can control immigration flows. Development of small cities can be helpful in adsorbing the increasing part of labor that can not to be employed in agriculture section and thus plays an important role in employment of labors in developing countries. Criteria provided by the UN to recognize the small towns from other urban groups is the number of inhabitants less than 100000 in it، but in every country and regional conditions and requirements with regard to demographic، social and economic، this criterion is different. In the area under the focus of this study، twenty-five thousand population towns were considered as small towns.
    Discussion
    In the current study، we have analyzed the relationships between hinterland villages near the city of Ghir and their economical and social development. The geographical positioning of the villages was also taken into consideration. We have used statistical inference model in order to evaluate the indexes. 15 villages and 300 families in Ghir-Karzin Township were chosen as our case study. Numerous fieldtrip were made in order to collect the required data. The methodology used was descriptive-analytical and the choice of indexes was chosen according to the social-economical aspects of rural development.
    Conclusion
    We have used statistical model in order to determine the correlation between the relations of the villages and Ghir and the social-economical development. Using SPSS software، 16 indicators of quality were assessed by Spearman correlation coefficient and Pearson. Our study shows that for most indexes a correlation exists. Among the economic indicators، two indicators of job satisfaction and stability in relation to their calorie intake has been stable and for other indicators such as income، housing satisfaction، and the capital، household assets، household amenities، agricultural development a significant positive relationship was observed. The status of social indicators also show the relationship between the city and social development indicators; the most meaningful relationship was positive and only for extroversion and social interaction، responsibility and sense of deprivation، no relation was observed. These results indicate that the research literature that has emphasized the positive role and development of small cities is consistent with reality and at the local level. On the other hand، the role of rural relationship with the geographical factors is also assessed. Based on studies conducted، there has been a significant negative relationship between geographical factors such as remoteness and proximity to cities and typology of villages with the degree of connection to the city. In other words، the villages which are located at a closer distance have more relationship with the city and vice versa. In addition، a more careful analysis of the typology of the villages confirms this assumption in that rural mountain villages have less relationship with the City of Ghir. Suggestions: According to the results of this study and confirmation of the positive and developmental role of small towns، we offer the following suggestions: Providing facilities in small towns for rural working population and unemployed can prevent migration of the rural unemployed to the metropolises. Good access to rural services and shopping centers، especially in small towns. Development of local markets emphasizing agricultural products in small towns. Improvement of transport and communications infrastructure between rural areas and small towns. Providing facilities and incentives to encourage private sector investment in small cities to invest in these cities.
    Keywords: small town, economical, social development, rural, urban relationship
  • M. Shaterian, A. Oshnooi, M. Ganjipour Pages 127-144
    Introduction
    City growth and social-economical problems caused by industrial revolution and city revolution in the current century make the cities separated. The overgrowing of the cities has caused some problems such as over consuming the field، lack of enough facilities in cities، disconnection of cities. It also makes the old parts of the city ruined. As an environment for living، individuals in cities need to be supported by some standards which are called standards of life quality. In fact، studied by scientists in city science and other scientists in other different fields. life quality has a multi-dimensional and complicated conception which has been Old parts of the city in Aran and Bidgol such as other cities of Iran are consisted of organic or natural structure with complicated system based on movement such as narrow passing ways. Theoretical bases: “Residential Satisfactoryˮ theory is applied for becoming familiar with the structured characteristic of families and their residential structure which have some effects on their satisfaction. As residential satisfactory is part of general satisfactory in one’s life، it is the most important subject for studying. According to Closter، this concept is the “obvious gap between inhabitants᾿ needs and the real situation around them in their residential areaˮ. In other words، residential satisfactory means the experienced satisfaction of an individual or a member of a family from its residential area. This concept has multiple features and represents the satisfaction of the individual of their apartments، neighborhood and the area they live in and it is often used to evaluate their feelings of their apartments or houses they live in. Finally، this concept is a significant sign for their positive feelings toward their life quality. Evaluating the satisfaction rate of the residences is so sophisticated and depends on so many individual and non-individual factors. Life quality shows general socio-economical features of an environment in an area which can be used as a powerful mean to supervise and plan social improvement. In fact، this concept is also applied for evaluating the emotional and economical demands of families. Behavioral geography scientists believe that in cognitive plans، the upper socio-economical status has better imagination of cities and life areas; while those with low salary have limited plans and ideas for living. They also claim that socio-economical status such as age، gender، job، profession and level of education have impact on forming and imaging ideas in one’s mind.
    Discussion
    The designed questionnaire consists of the combination of all related matters with life quality to analyze the satisfaction rate of inhabitants in Aran and Bidgol. The questionnaire consists of four groups of main questions of old parts inhabitants in Aran and Bidgol which includes old concepts related to life quality. These four types of question analyze the satisfaction in four dimensions of economic، social، service and environment to analyze the satisfaction and there are different methods. The CSM is considered as an indicator. It can identify the difference level between the real satisfaction and the maximum satisfaction which can exist. The satisfaction rate of old parts inhabitants of Aran and Bidgol of life quality indicators in service part is from the green areas and parks (49. 9%)، cultural areas (51. 1%)، entertainment areas (53. 3%) and treatment and health facilities (53. 3 %). In environmental part، the satisfactory of the passing ways and available ways is (58. 9%). Municipality obligation to respect the standards in building houses is (53. 9%) and house quality is (44. 1%). The satisfaction part in economic، satisfaction rate of job، salary rate، facilities rate given by banks to renew the houses are 63. 3%، 60. 9% and 40. 9%. Also، in social satisfaction part، the satisfaction rate of comfort ability and security in residential area is 74. 3%. Satisfaction of living in the area is 74. 7%. Facilities and educational areas is 43. 5%، social trust is 55. 9% and being proud of and belongings to the area of living is 72. 4%. And general satisfaction (all economic، social، environmental and services) shows that in social part we see satisfaction more than other parts and then we have economic indicators، service indicator، while the environmental indicator has the least satisfaction. The results for socio-economic status with the satisfaction gained through applying Pearson، Kendal and Spearman tests show that according to the significance level which is more than 0. 5%، there is a relation between these variables and the hypothesis is confirmed. Therefore، it can be said that، the higher the level of socio-economic status، the more satisfaction of life quality indicators.
    Conclusion
    The results have shown that in different parts satisfaction in old parts inhabitants is more in social indicators and economic، service، environmental are the next. Having a general view، we can evaluate the satisfaction in old part of Aran and Bidgol of the life quality indicators in all factors which shows that those who have plan for cities have not considered the important role of people. Suggestions: Finally، it can be concluded that we can not ignore the influence of socio-economic status of people in having or not having satisfaction. The organizations’ proper functions in cities affairs and supporting the inhabitant''s needs can provide their comforts and on the other hand lead them to participate in the cities affairs.