فهرست مطالب

دانش پیشگیری و مدیریت بحران - سال دوم شماره 1 (بهار 1391)
  • سال دوم شماره 1 (بهار 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/04/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mahdi Alizadeh, Savadcoohi, Sara Eslami Page 11
    Background And Objective
    A few organizations feel that it is necessary to prepare themself in dealing with potential crises. Similarly, to deal with these hazards, thay don’t have suitable mechanisims to be prepared in confronting hazards. Not paying attention to this issue can cause destruction in many organizations. Therefore, it is necessary that organizations be prepared to confront hazards. The best soluion is to use crisis management. Crisis management covers many aspects and issues: communication, structure, training and planning.
    Method
    The data in this descriptive-survey type was gathered from crisis management directors and experts of Tehran Municipality. The questionnaire is considered as the most integral tool for gathering data in this research. Meanwhile, Colmograph- Smirnov, Binominal and Ratio Tests were used in order to analyze the impact of organizational communication and strategic planning on crisis management.
    Findings
    There is a meaningful relationship between the organizational communication and crisis management and while verifying this hypothesis in Tehran Municipality, there must be an appropriate relationship between the organizational communication and strategic planning with the underlying indicators in this study.
    Conclusion
    Using appropriate organizational communication and strategic planning as well as applying development programs, Tehran Municipality is able to improve safety conditions of Tehran citizens and thus protect their lives and properties.
    Keywords: Organizational Communication, Crisis Management, Communicative Processes, Urban Management
  • Mehdi Zare Page 24
    One Year after the greatest earthquake ever occurred in Japan (11 March 2011), and one of the most disastrous events in the human history, many important experiences are learned from the earthquake and its following tsunami. The World Bank has estimated the financial loss of this earthquake to be 235 billion USD. In this article it is been tried to describe first the specifications of this earthquake and then to have and overview on the aftermaths of this earthquake, having a special reference to the explosion in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.
    Keywords: Nuclear Crisis, 2011 Earthquake, Tsunami, Fukushima, Nuclear power plants, Case study, Japan
  • Seyed Mosa Pourmosavi (Phd), Armin Firoozpour, Masoud Darani Page 32
    Background And Objective
    After the introduction of sustainable development (SD) theory in the 21st century, urban sustainable development has became a solution to achive sustainable cities. Nowadays, community sustainable development (CSD) with stress on social capital and participation of the communities, wants to reach sustainable development through the goal of ‘Global Thinking, Local Action.’ Therefore, it is essential to use development-based approaches in disaster management to empower the community, decrease people’s vulnerability, are top priorities in any plans and actions. Thus, it seems that community based disaster management (CBDM) is an approach which has all the characteristics stated before.
    Method
    In this descriptive study, the concepts and goals based on of CBDM and defining compliance with the CSD, examples of similar measures and actions in the disaster management system (DMS) in Iran were studied. Finally, a clear image of the approach for implementing it at the community and local level was given.
    Results
    Although there are enough experiences in local communities in DMS in Iran, the actions done are only related to the disaster response phase.
    Conclusion
    To fulfill a complete community-based disaster approach in DMS in Iran, we need to increase the role of people in policy and decision making activities.
    Keywords: Community participation, Community, based disaster management (CBDM), Local communities, Sustainable development, Empowerment, Vulnerability
  • Amir Abbas Emami, Sara Keshani Page 43
    One of the regions in Iran that is exposed to natural disasters, especially earthquakes, is Tehran. Due to their extent and intensity, these incidents destroy urban buildings and infrastructures and finally cause damage to people and make them homeless. It is quite clear that the demand for emergency shelter and people recovering to ordinary life are the main primarily actions after an earthquake. In this regard, a successful management in preventing the consequences of a post-disaster phase, we should have executive plans for rapid rescue and relief, providing temporary shelter and other demands for earthquake victims. Therefore, Tehran disaster mitigation and management organization, has equipped 9 parks in Tehran for accommodating people temporary residence for potential earthquake victims.
    Keywords: Temporary shelter management, Emergency residence, Earthquakes, Crises management, Earthquakes, Tehran parks, Tehran
  • Hamideh Aghamahdi, Sarraf, Hediyeh Imani, Alvecheh, Mahdiye Nouri Page 50
    Background And Objective
    Rapid population growth and urban life cause irreparable damage to nature and particularly water resources and thus has endangered many natural resources. Consequently, the serious crisis of water resources due to the recent drought, leads water-providing organizations, and water suppliers to look for new sources of water. Therefore, some useful guidelines can be used for sustainable development such as surface and waste water management in cities and metropolitan areas as well as recycling or reusing water resources.
    Method
    In this paper, a review of the technical literature on the importance of undrinkable water and using new techniques to control urban runoff and its quality control procedures was carried out. A study among published works and a review of international cases was used for research theoretical concepts.
    Results
    Some new methods have been recommended to control runoff such as the use of artificial wetlands, Retention Basin, porous boxes, modern drainage system were the results of the study. Coclusion: A simple method to collect and utilize rainfall was introduced.
    Keywords: Urban runoff management, Surface water, wastewater, urban runoff, Wetlands
  • Adam Rose Page 63
    Very few of the large number of major disasters in recent years have threatened the survival of the host region. Improvements in conditions underlying sustainability have helped in this regard, as has inherent and adaptive resilience associated with disaster recovery. Sharp breaks from the past do not appear to be the norm, but opportunities for major transitions do increase in the aftermath of disasters. This paper examines some major types of resilience that have been effective and encourages their incorporation into long-term recovery and mitigation strategies.
    Keywords: Disasters, Economic resilience, Sustainability, Transitions
  • Dongya Sun, Dawei Zhang, Xiaotao Cheng Page 69
    In recent years, disasters caused by flash floods with many casualties have occurred frequently in China. In order to effectively prevent flash flood disasters, the State Council approved the National Flash Flood Control Planning (NFFCP) in 2006. In this planning, non-structural measures are recommended as the first step to be adopted in the prevention of flash floods, debris flow and landslide disasters caused by heavy rainfall. In order to effectively build up a comprehensive non structural measure system for flash flood disaster prevention, the Ministry of Water Resources has asked the local authorities to conduct studies in 103 pilot counties aiming to explore practical schemes. Based on the experience from these pilot counties, the construction of non-structural measures on flash flood disaster prevention for 1836 counties was officially initiated in 2010. The contents of non-structural measures for flash flood disaster prevention at county level include eight aspects. This paper will systematically illustrate the main contents of this national project for the construction of non-structural measures for flash flood disaster prevention in China. This work could provide a reference for other countries and regions in terms of flash flood prevention.
    Keywords: Flood Management, Flood prevention, Flash floods, Disaster prevention, Non, structural measures, Monitoring, Warning, China