فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 50 (تابستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/09/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • حبیب الله آیت اللهی، مهدی پوررضاییان، مهران هوشیار صفحه 5
    هویت که شخصیت هر جامعه ای را تشکیل می دهد، ارزش های فرهنگی است که توسط قشر تحصیل کرده و دانشگاهی صیانت شده و در مسیر انتقال به نسل های آینده با تحولات و نیازهای روز جامعه همگام می گردد. این وظیفه ی نظام های تربیتی، بخصوص آموزش عالی است که برای ارتقاء و انتقال مناسب هویت فرهنگی به تدوین مناسب ترین سیاست های راهبردی اقدام نمایند. نظام آموزش عالی در رشته های هنری به تناسب محتوای موضوعی و مفهومی که با فرهنگ جامعه و همچنین ارتباط با ارزش های بومی، ملی و آیینی دارد، در این میان از اهمیت و حساسیت بیشتری برخوردار است. این پژوهش که به لحاظ هدف، تحقیقی بنیادی است، در تحلیل نظام های آموزش عالی رشته های هنری، ابتدا با روش کتابخانه ای، به تاریخچه، مفاهیم بنیادی و چارچوب هایی که می باید در امر آموزش، تعلیم و تربیت مدنظر قرارگیرد، پرداخته و سپس در مطالعه ای پیمایشی ویژگی های هویتی این نظام و تاثیر متغیرهای فرهنگی معاصر را در برنامه های آموزشی این رشته ها مورد بررسی قرار داده است. در نتیجه؛ برنامه های آموزشی و سرفصل های مصوب در رشته های هنر نیازمند بازبینی، تصحیح و سازگاری با تغییرات و تحولات معاصر بوده و در شرایط موجود با نیازهای جامعه، انتظار دانشجو و آرمان های ایران اسلامی همگامی نداشته، کیفیت لازم را برای حفظ و انتقال هویت فرهنگی ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ، آموزش عالی، نظام های آموزشی، هویت، هنر
  • پریسا رضایی، سید ابوتراب احمدپناه صفحه 15
    هنر ایران در سیر تاریخی خود از ویژگی های بی شماری برخوردار بوده است. حال در این پژوهش سعی شده با استناد به نقوش ظروف سفالین تمدن حصار به بررسی ویژگی های بصری نقوش به لحاظ ترکیب بندی در هنر سفال پیش از تاریخ ایران، پرداخته شود. دلیل انتخاب تمدن حصار، اهمیت سفال آن در بررسی روند عمومی سفال پیش از تاریخ ایران و همچنین در دسترس بودن گزارش حفاری و طبقه بندی منظم دوره های تمدنی آن است. لذا برای دستیابی به سیر تحول ویژگی های نقوش از تحلیل بصری استفاده می شود و نقش ظروف به واسطه شماری از ویژگی های بصری، مورد ارزیابی قرار می گیرد. پس از طی فرایند تحلیل و جمع بندی، نتایج حاصله نشان داد که در طی سه دوره تمدنی حصار، بعضی ویژگی های بصری ظروف نظیر پیوستگی نقوش، فضای پر و خالی، کادر و ترکیب بندی، یکسان بوده و تغییر نکرده، و ویژگی های دیگر نظیر نقش یکتا یا تکراری، ریتم و کیفیت خطوط، تغییر یافته اند. بنابراین سیر تحول ویژگی های نقوش در طول حدود 2500 سال، در چهار مورد ثابت و در سه مورد متغیر است؛ که این خود متضمن روند کند تحول ویژگی های بصری سفالینه های منقوش است و همچنین گویای صفت پایداری در هنر نقاشی روی سفال پیش از تاریخ در منطقه حصار می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: ظروف سفالین، تمدن حصار، نقوش، ویژگی های بصری
  • ابوالقاسم دادور، لیلا مکوندی صفحه 23
    همواره در تاریخ پادشاهی دنیا شاهی بدون تاج قابل تصور نیست. پادشاهان ایرانی نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نبوده اند. تاج شاهان ایران باستان به عنوان یکی از مظاهر سلطنت و قدرت، در آثار هنری گوناگونی همراه با نقش پادشاه در حالی که وی را از دیگر اشخاص متمایز می سازد، نمایان شده است. یکی از آثار هنری مهم که نقش شاهان ایران همراه با نماد قدرتشان یعنی تاج، برروی آنها توسط هنرمندان خوش ذوق و قریحه ی ایرانی حک شده است، سکه ها می باشند. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی_تاریخی است که از طریق گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی و نیز مشاهده سکه ها در برخی موزه ها انجام پذیرفته است؛ ضمن اینکه مطالعه سیر تحول طرح تاج شاهان دست یابی به تفاوت ها و تشابهات تاج ها را امکان پذیر می نماید. در این جستار تلاش نگارندگان بر این است که، سیر تحول تاج شاهان نقش شده بر روی سکه های سه امپراتوری بزرگ ایران باستان(هخامنشی، اشکانی و ساسانی) را مطالعه نمایند. هدف از بررسی تاج شاهان در ادوار تاریخی ایران باستان شناخت، بازشناسی، تشخیص و تفکیک آنان از یکدیگر از طریق مطالعه سکه ها می باشد؛ چرا که هر پادشاهی تاج مخصوص به خود را داشته و بعضا علاوه بر طرح تاج نقوش، جنس و نمادهای مورد استفاده متفاوت بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقوش نمادین، شاه، تاج، سکه
  • فریده آفرین صفحه 33
    نقاشی های هزار و یکشب از ممتازترین آثار هنری ایران در تمام دوران قاجار است. این مجموعه به دست صنیع الملک و شاگردانش به عرصه تصویر درآمد و دارای ویژگی هایی است که آن را از دیگر مجموعه های مشابه در سایر ادوار تاریخی هنر ایران متمایز می کند. در این مطالعه با روش تطبیقی - تحلیلی به بررسی وجوه خاص هزار و یکشب با سینما پرداخته شده است. با این تعبیر به این مجموعه با برشمری و تحلیل این ویژگی ها از زاویه دیگری نگریسته شده است. واقع گرانمایی، چینش صحنه ها، کادر بندی، ترکیب بندی، زمان و پویایی، شخصیت پردازی، طرح داستان مصور، روایتگری و نقطه اوج، مراحل سه گانه پیش تولید، تولید و پس تولید، پیوند نوشته و تصویر، ارتباط اقتباس و منبع آن و نور پردازی از بحث هایی هستند که در قسمت اصلی این مقاله مورد بررسی و قیاس با ویژگی های سینمایی قرار گرفته اند. بین تکنیک های سینمایی و روش هایی که در خلق هزار و یکشب به کار گرفته شده است مشابهت های ظریفی وجود دارد. این مشابهت ها میل به تحرک و پویایی در تصاویر نقاشی ایران را در این بازه زمانی نشان می دهد. همچنین به چگونگی فراتر رفتن صنیع الملک از رسانه نقاشی در این مجموعه و وجود ظرفیت برای ورود تصاویر متحرک می پردازد.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی دوره قاجار، صنیع الملک، ویژگی های سینمایی، هزار و یکشب
  • احد روان جو صفحه 43
    این مقاله به رسم اجازه ستانی و اجازه دهی در آموزش سنتی خوشنویسی می پردازد. شیوه ی درخواست «اجازه» توسط شاگرد پس از اتمام آموزش ها در خوشنویسی به عنوان آزمون صلاحیت شاگرد تلقی می شود که شاگرد تمام آموخته های خود را، با زبردستی در مرقعی فراهم می آورد، تا استاد به فراغت او از تحصیل در فن شریف خوشنویسی رای بدهد. این نوشتار ابتدا به حکمت کسب «اجازه» پرداخته، آنگاه درباره روال کسب اجازه و ورود شاگرد به صنف بحث می کند. ضرورت ستاندن اجازه برای شاگردی که سال ها فراگیری خوشنویسی را از مبتدی تا استادی با دقت سپری کرده، برای احراز پیشه خطاطی بسیار مهم است. اهمیت آن هنگامی دوچندان می شود که در یابد پس از ستاندن «اجازه» باید در پاسداشت استاد خود به عنوان مروج شیوه هنری سلسله ی استادان پیشین کوشا باشد. سنت «اجازه» دهی در علوم انسانی، صنوف جوانمردان و مصنفان پیشه های کتاب آرایی مرسوم بوده است. شاگرد با ستاندن اجازه، اجازه ی همکار شدن با استاد خود را می یابد و تجربه اندوزی را آغاز می کند. حکمت سپردن اجازه به شاگرد جامعه ی هنری، منش استاد اجازه دهنده و شاگرد مشتاق را تحت تاثیر می نهد و در آخرین حلقه ی آموزش یعنی سپردن«اجازه» سنت پایدار حرمت استاد را در نظام آموزش استاد شاگردی گوشزد می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: شاگرد، اجازه، استاد، نظام آموزش استاد، شاگردی
  • ابراهیم باقری صفحه 51
    برخی محصولات حاوی پیام احساسی هستند که به صورت ناخودآگاه توسط مخاطبان تشخیص داده می شود و درک می گردد. چنین محصولاتی می توانند ضمن برقراری ارتباط قوی تر با استفاده کنندگان، پاسخگوی نیازهای حسی آنها باشند. طراحی احساس گرا، پاسخ به نیازهای حسی کاربران را محور اصلی طراحی می شناسد و سعی می کند تا معیارهای طراحی را به سوی این هدف متمایل سازد، اما شناسایی نیازهای حسی در حال رشد و تغییر کاربران و کاربرد آنها در فرایند طراحی به سهولت امکان پذیر نیست و نمی توان الگوهای کاربردی قابل اطمینانی را پیشنهاد نمود که متناسب با این رویکرد عرصه طراحی باشند. در این مقاله تاریخچه مختصری از طراحی احساس گرا، فرایند ایجاد احساس در کاربران، معیارهای تحلیلی طراحی احساس گرا (فرم، عملکرد، جنس و رنگ) و نحوه بهره گیری از آنها در فرایند طراحی به همراه مثال های کاربردی ارائه می شود. به وجه تمایز مفاهیم طراحی احساس برانگیز، احساس گرا و طراحی احساس اشاره می گردد و در پایان تفاوت این رویکرد در سطوح غریزی، رفتاری و انعکاسی و نحوه تاثیر محصولات در سطوح مذکور معرفی می شود. بنابراین با تشریح مفاهیم کاربردی سعی شده است تا نحوه استفاده از آنها در فرایند طراحی مشخص شده و بتواند مورد استفاده طراحان قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی احساس، طراحی احساس گرا، قابلیت حسی محصولات، طراحی احساس برانگیز
  • یاسمن خداداده، سمیرا بافرونی صفحه 61
    این مطالعه به منظور تشویق کاربران به استفاده از سیستم پستی، به بررسی و تهیه مشخصه های طراحی برای محصولی تحت عنوان دستگاه پست پرداخته است. این دستگاه امکان پست بسته های پستی و تهیه ملزومات آن نظیر پاکت و تمبر را بدون نیاز به مراجعه به دفاتر پستی فراهم می آورد. در این مطالعه از روش گسترش عملکرد کیفیت (QFD) به عنوان یکی از روش های نوین مهندسی کیفیت استفاده شده است که از مطالعه بازار و شناسایی مشتریان محصول آغاز شده و در فرآیند بررسی و تحلیل خود، ضمن شناسایی خواسته ها و نیازمندی های مشتریان، سعی در لحاظ نمودن آنها در تمامی مراحل طراحی و تولید دارد. در این راستا ابتدا نیازهای کاربران از طریق روش سناریونویسی و مصاحبه و تهیه پرسشنامه از 40 کاربر بین 23 تا 45 ساله جمع آوری شد. سپس از ماتریس خانه کیفیت برای شناسایی ویژگی های یک دستگاه پست ایده آل استفاده گردید. نتایج حاصل نشان می دهد که در طراحی این دستگاه، نرم افزار برای برقراری ارتباط و تعامل بین کاربر با محصول از اهمیت بسیار زیادی برخوردار است. همچنین فرم و جنس بدنه به لحاظ قابل تشخیص بودن دستگاه برای کاربر در درجه بعدی اهمیت قرار دارد. نتایج مطالعه اطلاعات لازم برای طراحی یک دستگاه خودکار پست را در اختیار طراح قرار داد.
    کلیدواژگان: روش سناریو نویسی، QFD، پست، طراحی تعامل گرا
  • صاحب محمدیان منصور، سینا فرامرزی صفحه 69
    تزئینات در هنرهای اسلامی به طور کلی به سه قسم گیاهی، هندسی و کتیبه ای قابل تقسیم است. تزئینات هندسی را در ایران گره چینی یا گره سازی می نامند. در این مقاله به بررسی، کشف و توصیف ساختار هندسی گره چینی و مقایسه نظم موجود در آن با نظم موجود در ساختار های طبیعی بر مبنای روش تحقیق توصیفی پرداخته شده است و این فرضیه را مطرح می سازد که علت تشابه میان برخی اجزای معماری سنتی با بعضی ساختارهای طبیعی، تقلید عینی از طبیعت نیست، بلکه رجوع و وقوف معماران سنتی به قدر و هندسه و اصولی است که مبنای شکل گیری مخلوقات عالم نیز می باشند. به جهت اثبات فرضیه تحقیق ابتدا به بررسی ادبیات و پیشینه تحقیق پرداخته شده و در این راستا تاریخچه گره چینی، انواع گره چینی و روش های ترسیم گره و شیوه های گسترش هندسی گره چینی را مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و در نهایت نیز به مقایسه نظم شبه تناوبی موجود در گره های خود متشابه (شاه گره) با نظم شبه تناوبی شبه بلور ها پرداخته شده است. و در این مقایسه، نمونه موردی گره های خود متشابه، شاه گره ایوان غربی مسجد جامع اصفهان و نمونه موردی شبه بلور ها، ساختار شبه بلور عنصر سیلیکون در نظر گرفته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: گره چینی شبه تناوبی، سیلیکون، شاه گره، هندسه، شبه بلور
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  • Habbib Ayatollahi, Mehdi Pour Rezaian, Mehran Houshiar Page 5
    Identity, which forms the personality of every society, is the cultural and social values that has today been kept by the academicians and is transferred to the next generation according to timely revolutions current needs. It is upon different codes of conduct and especially higher education systems to come up with the most suitable strategies in order to keep, revise and transfer cultural identity and national and scientific personality. The higher education system of the various branches of art plays a key and sensitive part in protecting this identity based on their covered subject and connection with national and traditional values.In this fundamental research the higher education system of the branches of art will first be analyzed through studying the Persian history of education and Islamic morals and guidelines. A survey on characteristics of identity in the current system will then be mentioned which has evaluated the influence of contemporary cultural variables on educational programs in this field. Finally, In addition to giving answers to the questions of concern, this essay also highlights the following
    Conclusions
    1-Attention to the national, indigenous and ritual values and to the cultural identity in the educational programs of the universities. These values have not been conveyed to the university students in a satisfying manner and are not compatible to the rich historical background of this country. Likewise, their importance has not been elaborated sufficiently. 2-In most cases, due to unawareness toward the necessity of links and communication between the traditional values and the fast progresses happening in the present era, certain contrast and opposition between the two concepts of tradition and modernism have been unwillingly created in the minds of the university students, to the extent that the foundation of their thoughts has been affected by unclear illusions with respect to choosing the right path to take. 3-The goals, the subjects to be taught and the approved educational programs are generally outdated. Although one can detect the presence of values and the importance of culture and identity in them, they do not match the speed and amount of changes that occur in the world nowadays. Therefore, it is essential to review and revise them. 4-Reforms in the structure of the society, the extensive cultural and economical expectations and the broad political exchanges occurring in the society at both national and global levels are not in line with the educational goals and the expertise of the university graduates. Lack of evaluation of the society's needs in relation to the educational programs separates and disconnects the universities from other social institutions. Therefore, the needed incentive to continue higher education and have progress in gaining vocational expertise is indeed very low among the university students. In the other hand, with a glance to the title of this essay, we can lay the grounds for an ideal higher education program on 4 main sections: fostering the sense of identity, updating, evaluating the needs and empowerment.
    Keywords: Art, Culture, Identity, Higher Education, Educational System
  • Parisa Rezaei, Sayad Abotorab Ahmadpanah Page 15
    The Persian art has experienced multiple characteristics during its historical course of development. A prominent characteristic of the Iranian art is continuity and gradual development over time as a result of which different arts develop and find their zeniths over time. Earthenware has long been an excuse for implementation of decorative painting as a significant manifestation of the Iranian art. An attempt has been made in this study to examine the visual features and characteristics of paintings in terms of combination in the art of pottery in the pre-historic Iran relying upon the earthenware of Hesar civilization which is one of the oldest Persian civilizations in order to track the Iranian cultural background. Hesar civilization, lying in the easternmost part of the central of Iran, reflects the cultural remnants of the chalcolithic and bronze age. This civilization encompasses three cultural periods each of which are divided into shorter periods (or layers) which are the subsets of the established, long-term periods. The first period –the oldest one- has been divided into "A", "B", and "C" layers; the second period has been divided into two layers, to wit. "A" and "B"; and the third period has been divided into three layers, namely "A", "B", and "C". This study deals with the painted earthenware of this civilization. By painted containers, this writer means the containers on internal or external surface of which paintings have been dyed. In order to find about the changes made in visual features of the earthenware of Hesar civilization, the visual-analysis-based descriptive method has been employed. Thus, one hundred fourteen sample of painted containers from the triple periods of hill Hesar are assesses drawing upon fundamentals of visual arts on the basis of visual features and characteristics such as single or repeated painting, rhythm, line quality, painting continuity, full or empty spaces, box and combination, so that the final aim of this piece of research, studying the developments experienced by the visual characteristics of the paintings during the 2500-year-long period of Hesar civilization, will be achieved. Upon completion of the analysis and summarization process, results suggested that the course of changes in painting characteristics moves very slowly on account of Hesar's earthenware combination, such that three characteristics have developed differently and four have developed similarly, more importantly, from among these features, only the features of rhythm has changed at all periods, and two features of line quality and the single or repeated painting have changed only in the third period when compared to the previous periods. Consequently, visual features of earthenware's paintings have less developed in terms of combination and been stable within a well- defined framework. This shape or pattern has been presented as single, detached, inside-box, and over-container paintings vertically. This stable pattern has revealed the stability quality of painting on Hesar pottery in mode of drawing painting on the earthenware during countless years, and the slow course of changes in the painting indicates continuity, sustainability, and gradual development of paintings at this civilization over time.
    Keywords: Patterns, Pottery Dishes, Visual Characteristics, Hesar Civilization
  • Aboulghasem Dadvar, Leila Makvandi Page 23
    Always on kingdom history of the world a king without a crown is unconceivable. The Persian kings were not exception of this rule. Iranian ancient kings crown as one of the aspects of the monarchy and power, the image of king while makes he distinguishes from other persons is visible in various artistic works. One of the important artistic works that image of Iran’s kings with their power symbol namely the crown, on it by Iranian’s gifted and talented artists is carved, are the coins. The coins can study from various aspcts, for example kind of metal applied in the coins in each era is demonstrating which its demonstrator authority financial and credit that one era, or by surveys delicacy and precision crevedimades on the coins can be realize artist ability in each era, and this had been demonstrated the political, social and economic peace in that eraBy surveys. Acaemenid coins can be observed that Achaemenid kings crown became opparent as entirely simple and with dentante on the coins of this age.Achaemenid period coins are more like a medal of honor than current money in the country.TheAchaemend Gold coins were called Darik and silver coins were called Sycle in this period.With studies Achaemenid coins we conclude that the Achaemenid kings crown were made by valuable metal like gold and silver. In opposite to uniformity of Achaemenid king crown from. We see variety in from of the Parthian crown that craved on the coins were precious, variety, symbolic and seemly.The Parthian kings crown been from kind squatty fabric and rich metel that pranked by jewels and pearl. Each kings sassani owned particular crown rom themselves, or somtims each king relieved tow or multiple crown kings crown in this era were luxurios, patchwork and those inclusive stamps symbolic such as image moon, star, sun sphere, bird wing and plants.Jag is symbolism from heaven threefold strata, sphere is symbolism from earth, moon is symbolism from productivity, star is symbolism fromTishtar,sun is symbolism from Mitra,bird is symbolism from Verethraghna,plants is symbolism from life. Sassani kings crown on the coins exposed variety form, symbolic stamps and complement.Symbolic stamps applied on the Sassani kings crown owned wholly aspect religious and those were for worship Ahora.TheSassani kings kind been from worth metal, silk fabric and valuable jewels. Method study in this research is descriptive _ historical that through gathering libraries and documental information and also observed the coins in some museum was undertaken; meanwhile that studying evolution crown kings scheme makes possible achieve to crowns differences and similarities. In these essays the authors attempt is that stydies, Kings Crown evolution carved on three great ancient empires (Achaemenid, …) coins. The aim of surveyed the kings crown in ancient iran historical periods is cognition, recognition, identify and separate them from each other via study of the coins, because each kingdom had its own crown and sometimes in addition to crown design; have been different in used motifs, material and the symbols.
    Keywords: Crown, Stamps Symbolic, Coin, King
  • Farideh Afarin Page 33
    One thousand and one night is the most important manuscript in qajar era. it`s importance stem from some artistic and creative characteristics, which make this collection very distinguishable among others in it`s own age and even another eras. This comparative study is done through descriptive –analytic method. by this method considering some common traits among cinematic works and these paintings have been possible. The narrative form of these paintings is required an attempt to make the viewer ready to confront cinematic images before the entrance of film -taking camera and then film production to iran. Demonstrating realistic aspects, narration and peak points, time and animation, image composition, three process of making artistic works (pre-production, production, after-production), showing individual characters, storyboard, mis-en-scene (selecting and choosing the furniture and appropriate placing of characters and so on so for),relation between calligraphy and image and adaptation and it`s source, lighting are special common attributes between this two mediums Which are so controversial. Displayinag realistic aspects, liken artist`s eyes to a visor which is able to record even a tiny anthropological signs. In these paintings, various clothes of men and women and also the style of domestic decoration and furniture has been painted, in Naser-al-din king period. In these painting we can find some social behaviours like marriage ceremony. As such as a director choose the persuasive moments for making a movie more attractive, in this collection painter select the dramatic moment. In these kind of narrative paintings, the viewer are able to survey the rate of aproximity and distance between adaptation source and this expressive medium. Some paintings are like a first draft or storyboard for being animated in the next process. In some kind of paintings movement can be implied through some painterly tacticts. Processes of making this manuscripts took 6 years and it was done by a grouping activity and appropriate condition. 34 painters accompanied together in this project with particular tasks like a film –making staffs. Despite the presence of various painters, it would be assertive to say that sani-ol-molk is more decisive than others in determining how to make this project, because in some of his personal works at the same time we can find some prominent tactful artistic traits (for example in abd-ol-samad prince). In this paintings, also there is a special attention to explanation of scenes through writing like the tradition of presenting the explanation of the scenes in some shots in silent movies. It should be articulated that there is an admirable interest to create some fantastic and freak creations like science-fiction movies. This similarities lead us to some advantages, there is potential force for being animated in this unique paintings. The capacitiy of Iranian art and artists for progressing and going beyond the paintingmedium is another. Also sani-ol-molk`s view has had outstanding effect on these traits. As a result in narrative paintings always less or more there will be some similarities to cinematic characteristics, but in this manuscript threre are lots of common traits.
    Keywords: sani, ol, molk, One Thousand, One Night, Cinematic Aspects, Qajar Painting
  • Ahad Ravan Joo Page 43
    In this paper, the tradition of permission in the traditional calligraphy education is addressed. Way of asking "permission" by the pupil after completing training in calligraphy is considered as a kind of test for the competence in that the pupil provides all his skill and dexterity in his scrapbook so that the master permits his graduation from the noble art of Calligraphy. In this article, first, the philosophy of permission as one of the main chains connecting traditional education of calligraphy to profession is discussed, and then the procedure of asking permission and pupil’s entrance into the profession is addressed. This tradition is considered as a requirement for preserving the credibility of engaging in the professions and recruiting artist and skilful individuals. The tradition of asking for the master’s permission, from which the profession’s blessings are originated, is common in all traditional sciences and professions. This tradition has a more elegant manifestation in calligraphy which has a spiritual aspect and is considered as the sacred art due to the inscription of revelations of the Holy Quran. Education of calligraphy is conducted in two ways; first, in person training in which the pupil follows the examples provided by the master, and second, continual practice. The practices of calligraphy are of three types: one, “theoretical practice” for visual study of the pupil to get an effective eye; second, “practical practice” to obtain skill in hands of the pupil; and third “imaginary practice” which aims to train the imagination power of the pupil so that his writings are free from fault and involve creativity at their hearts. At every stage, the pupil must ask for the permission of the maser. Asking for permission by the pupil who has spent years with great care from novice to mastery after being accepted by the punctilious masters is very important to gain profession and being employed in this job. This importance is doubled when the pupil understands that after getting permission, he must be an effective person in respecting the masters as the propagators of the artistic manner and preserving their artistic styles. The spiritual etiquettes of calligraphy and traditional education dominate the order of “permitting” the pupil. The document of “permission” is considers as a valid note of pupil’s efficiency and effectiveness. The tradition of “giving permission” by master in social sciences is common among chivalric, calligraphers and others involved in the industry and art of book decoration. The pupil, by asking for permission, is permitted to be a colleague of his master and commences to accumulate experience. The philosophy of giving permission to pupil in the artistic community influences the nature of the permitting master and enthusiastic pupil and reminds the pupil, at the last circle of education, of the sustained tradition of master’s respect in the educational system of master-pupil. By permitting the pupil, the master announces the end of education or a stage of education, and guides the pupil to a higher stage, and finally, signs the graduation document of the pupil.
    Keywords: Permission, Master, Pupil Educational System, Pupil, Master
  • Ebrahim Bagheri Page 51
    Some products include emotional messages which are recognized and perceived by users unconsciously. Such products can have deeper influence on users and satisfy their emotional needs. From emotional design point of view, the main objective of design is to satisfy emotional needs of users, so tries to direct and incline design criteria to this main goal. Emotional design is based on advanced technology, new materials and computer aided design, so there is a possibility to produce variety of complicated products which are emotional, but it should be mentioned that all the products which are the resultant of new materials and advanced equipments, are not “Emotional”, So they can be distinguished by analysis of their forms, colors, functions and materials and the way they influence human emotions directly. Emotional objects should include semantics and emotions and they should transmit them to their users certainly. On the other hand, user responds to emotional motives in different levels; Decision making about stimulus can be automatic, without reasoning and due to comparing with last using patterns. It can be related to function and using products and be affected by designers and users experiments. Also can be formed by thinking about environmental motives and be related to cultural, social, semantic and semiotic aspects. Recent concepts can be formed gradually and influence on users insight and behavior. So visceral, behavioral and reflective levels of emotional design are distinguished. Some researchers of design field, believe that emotional design is not a style or “ism” and even does not belong to a period of time, it is an approach related to ergonomics and cognitive psychology. They believe that emotional design is the result of user centered design and focus on physical and psychological requirements of users will result in increment of sale and predominance of producers in competitive areas. It should be mentioned that nowadays we live in a world which is full of semantic and semiotic concepts and different values. Rapid and continuous development of technology and delivery of new products with new valuable capabilities by the mass media, makes it difficult to perceive and recognize rising and changeable requirements of users, so it is not possible to reach emotional design by standardization and making related patterns. Only extended study and research about individual and social aspects of users and accompany with development of technology is the main solution of this attitude. In this article brief history of emotional design is mentioned, then process of generation of emotion in users, analytical criteria of emotional design (form, function, material & color) and how to use them in design process with some related applied examples are described. Goes on to talk about the distinctions between concepts of emotionalize design, emotional design and emotion design, and at last the differences of visceral, behavioral and reflective levels of emotional design and the way products play their roles in these levels is introduced. Description of applied concepts of emotional design, helps designers to use them in design process and generate valuable emotional efficacy.
    Keywords: Emotional Design, Sensibility of Products, Emotionalize Design, Emotion Design
  • Yassaman Khodadadeh, Samira Baferooni Page 61
    This study is concerned with encouraging people to use post system in Iran. In fact, it tries to find the design specifications of a post machine as an interacting system for improving post system. A machine that can provide facilities for posting parcels and selling envelops and stamps. In Iran, post system is an obsolete system and cannot satisfy the users completely. In order to explore the reasons, which led to dissatisfaction, a study was performed and 40 people were interviewed. The result of the study showed that there were some shortcomings in post system such as; weak services of post organization and consumers’ lack of knowledge about the post services. Also the most important reason for reluctance of using post service in Iran is concerned with the necessity of using the central post office. This is due to the lack of post boxes around the cities and size limitation of post boxes that makes it impossible to put a parcel. In order to make the post available to people in most places and persuade them to use post services, it was decided to develop a post machine. Obviously when the operator is replaced with a machine, the relations are changed and people face new problems. Therefore, there is a need for considering the relation between user and product. For this aim, Interaction Design approach was used to improve the quality of users’ interacts with the post machine. Interaction design is the creation of dialogue between a person and a product, service or system. This dialogue is usually found in the world of behavior. In particular, it is about creating user experiences that enhance and extend the way people work, communicate and interact. In order to identify problems in current system and survey ideal conditions for using a post machine and interaction between users and machine, Scenario Based Design was applied. Three kinds of scenarios were used; problem scenario for identifying problems, activity scenario for visualizing the ideal conditions and interaction scenario for recognizing design interaction between users and machine. The result of three scenarios was used in next step, which is Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD is a systematic method for translating voice of costumer to design specifications. It starts with the identification of the customers and of their own views of their requirements and desired product attributes. In order to obtain voice of customer, forty people (23 women and 17 men) between 23 to 45 years old were chosen randomly among post users. The users were asked to fill a questionnaire about the post system. The result showed user’s needs and problems of current system. This information used in Relationship Matrix of QFD method. The result shows that the most important part of a post machine is the software that is used to interact between users and machine. The results could be use for designing a post machine.
    Keywords: QFD, Post, Scenario Based Design, Interaction design
  • Saheb Mohamadianmansoor, Sina Faramarzi Page 69
    Geometry has always had high status in the world of tradition. Its status is emphasized even by the Islamic religious resources. According to some Islamic scholars, the notion of "Ghadr al-maloom" (the defined quantity) in the holy Quran refers to geometry and measurement. This testifies to the sacredness of mathematics, arithmetic, and geometry in Islamic worldview. Islamic scholars believe that the sacredness of mathematics and geometry appears nowhere more clearly than in art where the matter is dignified by geometry and arithmetic. In the Iranian Islamic architecture geometry played a prominent role, to the point that, scholars like Farabi in categorizing the sciences of their time, put architecture and mechanics under the category of practical geometry, while geometry itself was categorized as a branch of mathematics. Some scholars believe that in Iranian architecture especially in Timurid period geometry is not just a means to achieve a goal; rather it is a goal in itself. Geometry is a hidden meaning in this architecture and an aesthetic standard for that. This paper aims to explore, discover, and describe the geometrical structure of Gereh-work, and to compare its order with the order present in natural constructions. The descriptive method is utilized to do so. This research has this idea as its hypothesis that the reason why there is a noticeable similarity between some aspects of traditional architecture and some natural constructions is not a direct copying from nature, instead is the use of geometry and possessing remarkable mastery of the geometrical principles that are fundamental in creation of natural entities. In this research, first the relevant literature is reviewed. Here the history of Gereh, different types of Gerehs, and the methods for designing and drawing them are reviewed. Regarding their expansion methods two types of them are recognized: Gerehs with a periodic order and Gerehs with a quasi-periodic order. Then the geometrical order of the structure of alloy AL70.Ni15.Co15 is compared with that of a decagonal Gereh. After that, the quasi-periodic order of self-similar Gerehs (Shah Gerehs) is compared with that of quasi-crystals. To do that, the Shah Gereh of the western Iwan of Jame' mosque of Isfahan was used as a sample of self-similar Gerehs and the element of silicon was selected as a sample of quasi-crystals. This comparison illustrates an evident similarity between the two samples. According to the findings of this research the structure of this alloy can be overlaid with obtuse and acute Gerehs in three different scales. One of the primary findings of this research is that the intelligent use of geometry by the Muslim artisans has caused their art to resemble astonishingly to crystals and quasi-crystals which are believed to be the most accurate creatures of the material world. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that this similarity between Gerehs and microscopic structure of quasi-crystals is not brought about by direct copying from nature because the traditional architects were not able to observe these microscopic structures. Therefore, the vital role of geometry in traditional Islamic architecture is emphasized again.
    Keywords: Quasiperiodic Gereh, Silicon, Quasicrystal, Geometry, Shah Gereh