فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 3 (تابستان 1385)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1385/05/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Dr. Mansur Amani Page 1
    A majer coalition of the citizens and the tribes was made against the Mohammad Shah Ghajar and by joining to this coalition, Bakhtiary tribe under the leadership of Haj Ali Gholi Khan Sardar Asad, had a majer national role in their country and in the transformation of the regine. The presence of this tribe is worthy of attention from two points of view: First the role of the leadership of Sardar Asad on the Bakhtiary tribe and the amount of the expantion of his comprehention about the constitution. After the victory of constitudiional revolution, the viceroyalty position was proposed to Haj Ali Gholi Khan Sardar Asad to appreciate his hardship but he denied to accept it by mistake and such a mistake caused the Bakhtiary gradees to be omitted from the political scean of Iran helplessly and forcefelly by the advent of the new political conditios in the future of the country.
    Keywords: Bakhtiary tribe– Haj Ali Gholi Khan Sardar Asad– Constitutional revolution
  • Dr. Eisa Hajzade Page 14
    In Sasani era, Iran had a classified system which had a main role in the ups and downs of the empire. One of the important questions during the perioud of the fall of Sasanis was the position that these classes took against the Moslem Arabs. The reflection of the social groups of the Iranians in the conquest and victory of Moslems, the presence and staying and organization and stablization of Islamic government, has an important role and place. Among these classes and groups, the role and importance of the farmers which were from the lords of the second class who were called (Kazkkhodayan) (Kadkhodayan) (dihkanan or the chiefs of the village) is important. The farmers had the role of an intermediotor between government and people. They welcomed the new conquerors to keep up their state and office. Also the need of the new rulers to their collaboration caused them to be immediately amongst their agents. By the entering of Islam not only this group never lost anything but also by the acceptance of Islam and their previous responsibilities they stabilized their state and even promote it. The farmers were one of the most important social groups in Sasani era which were appeared in different roles. In the place of the local chiefs of the villages, the tax collector officials helped and accompanied the Arabs in the process of their presence and stabilization of their rule on Iran and their role in concluding the treaty of ……., guiding and helping the conquerors of the cities, collecting the taxes and tributets, taking the bussineses and administrative positions in hand and forming the organs and the methods of managing the country was very outstanding. The key words: Sasani Government, Social groups Moslem Arabs, The first Islamic centuries of Iran, The farmers, The conquests, The successors, Omavi
  • Dr. Allahyar Khalatbari, Dr. Omid Sepehri Rad Page 32
    One of the most interesting aspects of the studing about the Ilkhan government is to investigate about political changes in the western boarder of Iran. This boarder was the most inflamed one among the Ilkhani boarders. In this side Ilkhans had a close contact with the various outhorities especially the authorized government of Egypt navy territories. The withstanding of the territories against developing measures of Ilkhan in Sham caused the appearance of hostil relations between them and the territories and the formation of the two antagonist political-martial unions and ouccurance of a series of coalition fights under the leadership of the territories and Ilkhans in accompany with their alliances. One of the most important centers of authority in this boarder were Ale-Fazl Arab tribes which were settled between Sham and Iraq. One of the changes of these eras which the researchers neglected it or not paied much attention to it was the action of the Ale-Fazl Arabs living in the wilderness and their role and portion in the conflicts of Ilkhans with the territories in Sham country. This research is to evaluate the quality of the complicated and full of up and downs relations of Ilkhans and Arab princes through the 4 phases and has the intention to answer this question that what the role of Arab tribes was in the appearance and the continuance of the extensive conflicts of Ilkhans and territories. This research will show that the Arab princes took up the opposite positions in these conflicts.
    Keywords: Shah, Ale, Fazl, Ilkhanan, Territories, Reception of Islam, Haj, Hejaz
  • Dr. Omid Sepehri Rad Page 52
    After entering the Aghooz Turks to Iran and establishment of the Seljuk dynasty by Togrol Big in 431 (Hegira), the next crucial issue was the proceedure of stabilization of the bases of authority and having the historical and political acceptability and legality. Seljuk Bigs, after the battle (Dandanghon) first under the flag of supporting the Islam and Abbasi succession and also giving the title, flag and charter, tried to give a legal nature to their rule. Then by attaining the position by an athorized and thoughtfull minister such as khaje Nezamol molk, vast endeavour was done in order to estadlize the bases of the new established Seljuk system. In this regard with the gauidance and leading of the Iranian court authorities, the Seljuk monarchs had recourse to spiritual pretexts such as desenting to Afrasiab mythical family and doing political marriges with domestic governours and Abbasi succession and adopting specific religious policy. The basic pivot of this text is to study some instances of these pretexts.
    Keywords: Seljuk, Togrol Big, Abbasi Succession, Khaje Nezamolmolk, Afrasiab, Turkamanan
  • Dr. Gholamhosein Saeedian Page 62
    Amir Khane Turkaman, the descendant of Amir Khan-e Moslow was one of the Turkaman tribe's chieves, who was elected as his tribe's chief in the era of the rein of Shah Esmaeel the second Because of his contribution in the murder of Shah Esmaeel the second and as a sign of gratitude he received the title of Amir Al-Omara (=the Head Governor) of Azerbayejan by Shah Mohammad Khodabandeh and was united in matrimony with Shah Mohammad Khodabandeh's sister (or daughter) Fatemeh Beigom Soltan. In order to maintain his position, Amir Khan held a peace contract with other tribo's chieves and pretended that in order to support and to strengthen the Safavi Government there should be unionship among tribe's chieves. Whit in his sovereignty extent, he became so powerful and influential that was closed to crown prince, Hamze Mirza, and became of the reliable men of his. This led to the jealousy of others especially the commanders ostajh and shamloo and finally cansed his deposal and then he was imprisoned in Ghah Ghaheh castel. This led to aggrouation of disputes among the biggest Ghezelbash tribes. They were increasingly closed to each other and after being informed of the murder of AmirKhan in prison, started a war with Hamzeh Mirza. The result of all these processed was the murder of Hamzeh Mirza and also the weakening of Iranian troops against the ottomans which in turn led to the conquest of the whole caucasia and big parts of Azerbayejan by the ottomans.
    Keywords: Amir Al Omara of Amirkhane, Shah Mohammad, Hamze Mirza, Tribe of Turkaman, Ghah Ghahe castel
  • Dr. Ghorbanali Soleimanpoor Page 82
    The advent and development of Fashism in Italy and Germany has mostly root in the conditions and the historical backgrounds of the two coutries which can be realized clearly from the shifing of the attiontion of their leaders to the national and cultural symbols and also the inspirations of the empire era in order to make the national solidarity. It seems that the desire to rivive the past life in the conditions that the two nations having experienced the feeling of frustration, contemptation and weakness was the most impotant factor in their inclination to the Fashism power tending movement. The Fashism leader s promises baced on the revival of the lost grandeur and their resorting to the ancient mythy and the past glorious ages, caused their success and represented the great wonder of the contemporary history. By the art of a uniqe enchantment and operating in the special conditions of the pressure and spiritual distress which was predominant on the nation of Italy and Germany, the Fashism leaders without any withstanding were succeed to draw it and moblize it in the routh of their developing desires and powerfull aims and in this way Fashism reached to the victory.
    Keywords: Fashism, power tendency, Totaliter, Rish, Mosiliny, Hitler
  • Dr. Yusef Motevali Haghighi Page 94
    The famous minister of Ghazan Khan, Rashid Al Din Fadlolah, whose thoughts were highly influenced by Islamic Relieves, Iranian Customs and Mongolan rules, had big plans for Iran in his mind. The extreme paint of this reformist approach was the idea of starting A scientific – cultural complex, named Robe Rashidi. In an attempt to prevent the accusations of his oppositions, he firstly started shanab Ghazan religious, educational and secial complex, under the name of the Mongolian Ilkhan of Iran in the west of Tabriz and in the upcoming Mearg, using the experiences gained from shanab Ghazan and by the help of its architects and engineers, he succeeded to initiate his more effective complex, named Robe Rashidi in the east of Tabriz. A survey in the existence and listory of Shanab Ghazan and Comparing it with Robe Rashidi's reveals the fact that Shanab Ghazan was actually an introduction to and a path toward staring Robe Rashidi and without it there would be no Robe Rashidi.
    Keywords: Shanab Ghazan, Rabe Rashidi, Ghazan Khan, Rasid AlDin Fadlolah Hamedani, Tabriz, Mongolion, Ilkhanan
  • Dr.Safar Yusefy Page 102
    Iran had seen important political and religious and changes in the first Islamic centurios. One of these changes the advent of religious sects whit the special belives which have been following certain political and social aims. One of these sects was the sect had also some connection with the belives of Shiei Gholat and sect of Bumoslemie in Khorasan and Mavaranahr (Sepid yamegan) However, the Khoramdinan s political and social effects were more effective than their religious belives and they were more staying than them. All of these sects have made endevours to pave the way for gaining the political indipendenc and natinal resurrection in order to rivive the Iranian rule against the Abbasi s succession. As their religious believes had been remained till sixth sentury. This essay has focused on Khoramdinan s belives and the process of the changes and variety of their belives and the political and social effects of them.
    Keywords: Khoramdinan, Mazdak, Abumoslem, Religious belives, social, political activities, The Khramdini s sects