فهرست مطالب

زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ایران - سال هشتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1391)
  • سال هشتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/11/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
|
|
  • A. Mozaffari, D. Habibi, A. Maleki, F. Babai Page 1
    In order to eavaluted the some Crop species for Remedation of Heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) In Contaminated soils under Greenhouse condition, an experiment was conducted in experimental Greenhouse of Islamic Azad University of Karaj branch in 2009-2010 year. The studies were carried out in a Factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replactions.The factors were Cadmium doses into soil at three levels (0, 40 and 80 mg/kg) and Crop species at three levels (Annual alfalfa (Medicago rigidula), Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Canola (Barassica napus)). Results showed that Cadmium doses into soil had significant effect on all of Experiment characteristics. Whereas Crop species only had significant effect on Cadmium concentration in Shoot parts, Biochemical Biomarker Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Chlorophyll (a). Between deferent Crop species, Canola with 34.19 (mg/kg.dw) and Hairy vetch with 19.23 (mg/kg.dw) were highest and lowest Cadmium concentration in Shoot parts, respectively. Hairy vetch with 4.02 (mg/g.Fw) and Alfalfa with 3.76 (mg/g.Fw) were highest and lowest Chlorophyll (a) Contents, respectively. Olso, Canola with 37.13 (μMol/g.Fw) and Alfalfa with 33.70 (μMol/g.Fw) were highest and lowest Biochemical Biomarker Malondialdehyde (MDA) Contents, respectively. Results showed that Cadmium dose 80 (mg/kg.dw) have highest Cd concentration in Shoot parts and Malondialdehyde (MDA) Contents with 55.51 (mg/kg.dw) and 38.72 (μMol/g.Fw), respectively and Cadmium dose 0 (mg/kg.dw) have lowest their traits. With increase Cd doses into soil, content of Chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a+b) and Antioxidant Enzyme Superoxid Dismutase was decreased.
    Keywords: Phytoremedation, heavy metal, cadmium, crop species, chlorophyll content, superoxid dismutase, malondealdehyde
  • A. Rahi, M. Davoodi Fard, F. Azizi, D. Habibi Page 15
    The effect of acid on the vegetative growth humic acide Dactylis glomerata pasture species in 89 years as a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Damavand city humic acide granular fertilizer to the value of 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg per hectare was used. Traits studied were above the surface of the first leaf (cm), length from collar to the plant’s largest leaf (cm), fresh and dry weight of leaves, roots, stems and aerial parts (in grams), leaf (cm square), root length (cm), number of leaves, the shoot to root collar diameter in millimeters. Chlorophyll a, b, total, rwc, sal and wsd.The identified traits affect shoot dry weight and the effect of values humic acide on these traits, on the basis of ss or curves on the amount of 150 kg humic acide ha makes the most of these traits is and the weight of dry air also increases.
    Keywords: Humic acide, Damavand, Dactylis glomerata
  • A. Mousavi, B. Alizadeh, M. Khodarahmi, Kh. Mostafavi Page 29
    Canola is susceptible to cold stress especially in flowering stage because that yield of plant decreases to 70 percent. Hence, genetical variety creation and selection the genotypes that are resistant to cold, is important. This experiment was performed in the form of completely randomized block design with Three replications, and each replication included 16 treatments.(genotypes of canola).Canola genotypes cultivated at two different times separately. First experiment or normal experiment carried out at 23th September, and second experiment performed one month later (delayed cultivation).The experiment performed in seed and plant improvement Institute of Karaj during 2010. Cold resistance indicators included: Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Tolerance indicator (TOL), mean productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI) and Geometric mean productivity (GMP) were measured. Upon this, cold resistance degree and susceptibility of varieties to cold damage determined. Results showed that, Based on SSI, GKH2005 and GKH305, known as most tolerant varieties. On the other hand GKH2005 variety had highest amount of STI, MP and GMP indicators and SLM046 variety had lowest resistance to cold damage.
    Keywords: Canola, STI, SSI, Yield
  • F. Chamani*, D. Habibi, N. Khodabande.M. Davoodi Fard, A. Asgharzadeh Page 39
    Salinities the tensions of living that reduces the ability of non-production areas, soils are dry and humic acid, as an organic acid obtained from humus and organic sources without any environmental destructive effects and Plant growth promoting bacteria through the effects of hormonal and nutrient improve uptake to raise grain yield in wheat, especially in terms of salinity can be effective. The effects of salinity on growth and changes antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat inoculated with Plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid, an experiment was conducted in 2010 at research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture and plant breeding, Islamic Azad University of Karaj Branch. A completely randomized design with three replications was using analysis of factorial. experimental treatments included two levels of humic acid {(A0): control, (A1): humic acid consumption}, and salinity levels in the three levels of {(B0): control, (B1): low salinity of 75 mM, (B2): high salinity of 150 mM}, the use of microorganisms in the five levels of {(C0): control, (C1): grain inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum, (C2): grain inoculation with Azotobacter chroocccum, (C3): grain inoculation with Pseudomonase putida, (C4): the mix grain inoculation with (Azotobacter chroocccum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonase putida)}.The results showed the effect of grain inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid consumption during exercise salinity on Grain yield, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was significant.The highest grain yield of treatments inoculated with Azetobacter chroocccum bacteria and humic acid no consumption and the salinity was 75 mM and Most of glutathione peroxidase enzyme with the treatment grain inoculation with Azetobacter chroocccum and humic acid no consumption and salt stress of 150 mM was.while the highest catalase enzyme with the Azospirillum lipoferum and humic acid no consumption and salt stress of 150 mM was.
    Keywords: Salinity, plant growth promoting bacteria, humic acid, phyto hormone, wheat
  • M. Bakhtiari Moghadam*, S. Vazan, A. Hamidi, B. Darvishi, M. Esfini Farahani, S. Azizkhani, K. Rezaei Page 57
    In order to evaluate effect of mungbean living mulch on weeds management and yield and yield components of corn an experiment was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four blocks in Research Field of Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University in June 2010. Experiment have two factors that the first was different time of mungbean suppression in four levels (4, 6, 8 and 10 leaves stages of corn) and controls that contains without weeding plots and complete weeding plots as main plot and second was different densities of mungbean in three levels (50%, 100% and 150% more than optimum density) as subplot. Result indicate that effect of different time of mungbean suppression had significant difference (P>0/01) on grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000 grain weight, weed density and weed total dry weight. Also effect of different densities of mungbean had significant difference (P>0/01) on grain yield, harvest index, weed density and weed total dry weight, but had no significant difference on biological yield and 1000 grain weight. Interaction effect of different time of mungbean suppression and different densities of mungbean had significant difference on grain yield, biological yield and weed total dry weight. Grain yield highest level obtained at plots which treated by spraying 2,4-D at 8-leave corn stage and 50% mungbean density, with average of 10342/16 kg/ha and grain yield lowest level obtained at without weeding control plots by 150% mungbean density, with average of 4674/57 kg/ha. Weeds total dry weight lowest level obtained at plots which treated by spraying 2,4-D at 8-leave corn stage and 150% mungbean density, with average of 58/55 gr/m2 and Weeds total dry weight highest level obtained at without weeding control plots and 50% mungbean density, with average of 162/15 gr/m2. Weeds density lowest level obtained at plots which treated by spraying 2,4-D at 8-leave corn stage and 150% mungbean density, with average of 24/50 gr/m2 and Weeds density highest level obtained at without weeding control plots and 50% mungbean density, with average of 79/50 gr/m2.
    Keywords: Suppression time, mungbean density, weeds dry weight, competition
  • M. Esfini Farahani, F. Paknejad, M. Bakhtiari Moghadam, S. Alavi, A. R. Hasibi Page 69
    In order to evaluate different application methods and rates effect of salicylic acid (SA) on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), this study was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replication in Research Field of Agricultural collage, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University in 2011. Two application methods of salicylic acid (Spraying and mixed with irrigation water) were as main plot and three concentration of SA (0, 0.1, 0.7 and 1.5 Mm) were as sub plot. Measured traits comprised number of seed per umbel, number of umbel per plant, number of seed per plant, seed yield and weight of thousands seed. Result showed that spraying method of SA has better effect than other one. Some traits such as number of seed per umbel and number of seed per plant (P> 0/05) and seed yield and thousands seeds weight (P> 0/01) had significant effect in sprayed plant with SA. But number of umbel per plant has no different effect on application methods of SA. Also some traits such as number of seed per umbel and number of seed per plant in sprayed plant with SA increased (P> 0/05) in 0.7 Mm concentration. Wherever maximum seed yield was achieved in sprayed plant with 0.7 Mm concentration in amount of 1480.63 kg/ha and minimum seed yield was achieved in irrigated plant with 0.7 Mm concentration in amount of 1100.16 kg/ha.
    Keywords: Cumin, salicylic acid, application method, yield, yield components, spraying
  • M. Behdad, F. Paknejad, S. Vazan, Mr. Ardakani, M. Sadeghi Shoae Page 79
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit irrigation on effective traits on grain weight in two cultivars of wheat. The study was conducted using a split plot design in completely randomized blocks with four replication and 16 treatments. All farm experiments were conducted in agriculture research field of Azad University of Karaj in 2007 cropping season. The main plot treatments consisted of 8 irrigation regimes as control treatment (T1), irrigation in 60 and 80 depletion of soil moisture (T2 and T3), stop irrigation in stem elongation stage (T4), stop irrigation during stem elongation to ripening (T5), stop irrigation in flowering stage (T6), stop of irrigation during flowering to ripening (T7), stop irrigation in grain filling stage (T8) as first factor. The second plot as secondary factor consisted of two wheat cultivars (Chamran and Marvdasht).AsT1 and T2 treatments had the greatest grain filling duration and T5 had the greatest grain filling duration and grain growth rate. Drought stress condition decreased grain filling duration and 1000 weight grain that leads lower grain yields. Results of correlation showed that seed yield is no significantly correlated with grain growth rate. Also seed yield has a positive and significant correlation with grain filling duration (r=0.57) and grain growth rate showed a negative significant correlation with grain filling duration(r=-0.51).
    Keywords: Wheat, drought stress, grain filling rate. grain filling duration
  • M. Nabi Ilkaee, P. Foroozesh, D. Habibi, D. Fatollah Taleghani, A. Rajabi, S. Oroojnia, M. Davoodifard Page 87
    In order to investigation of physiological respect of water deficit on important traits in fourteen sugar beet genotypes two experiments conducted in form of split plot in based on randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2009 and 2010. This experiment conducted in researches institute breeding and sugar beet production placed in Karaj, Kamal shahr (latitude 35, 59 North and longitude 50, 75 East with 1313 m upper sea level). Irrigation levels in this experiment include two level S1: Normal irrigation (Irrigation time after 80 mm evaporation of pan class A) and S2: Water deficit (Irrigation time after 180 mm evaporation of pan class A) that applied by ways of turning irrigation. In between irrigation treatments in respect of Super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity rate at p < 0.01 as highest enzyme activity rate showed in drought condition (1479.74 mg pr /unit) and lowest its rate in normal irrigation (1334.44 mg pr /unit). In between studied cultivars in respect of enzyme activity rate showed different significant at p < 0.05. Different significant have been at p < 0.01 in between irrigation treatments in respect of enzyme activity rate of Catalaz. Highest enzyme activity obtained in drought stress (118.58 mg pr/unit) and lowest its activity obtained in normal irrigation (98.33 mg pr/unit). In between irrigation treatments showed different significant at p < 0.01 in respect of enzyme activity Glotation peroxidase (GPX). As highest of GPX activity obtained in drought stress (67.95 mg pr/unit) and lowest its activity (55.7 mg pr/unit). Among irrigation treatments in respect of Malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production have been different significant at p < 0.01, as highest MDA produced (72.94 mg pr/nano mole) due to drought and lowest its rate (64.33 mg pr/nano mole) due to normal irrigation. Different significant at p < 0.01 showed in between cultivars in respect to MDA produced. Different cultivars and irrigation treatments have different non- significant in respect to root yield. Highest root yield obtained in SBSIDR-5, SBSIDR-9 and SBSIDR-14 cultivars and lowest its rate obtained in SBSIDR-2 cv.
    Keywords: Sugar beet, drought stress, root yield, genotypes, antioxidant activity, MDA
  • M. Sheikhi, N. Sajedi, M. Jiriaie Page 101
    In order to study Effects of water deficit stress on agronomical traits of maize hybrids in Arak climate condition an experiment was conducted in the research station of Islamic Azad University- Arak Branch, Iran in 2009. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replication. The treatments composed of irrigation levels: %100, %75 and %50 crop water requirement plant and maize hybrids consisted of KSC500،KSC524, KSC700، KSCو 704 DSC370. Results showed that of water stress reduced grain yield. Decreasing yield grain belonged to decreasing kernel number per ear. In between hybrids, the highest grain yield obtained from early and medium maturity hybrids. Interactions effects of treatments showed that, in optimum condition of moisture and medium water stress, grain yield in KSC524 had high compared to other hybrids. The highest grain yield equal 8624. 22 Kg ha-1 obtained from KSC524 in condition of %100 crop water requirement plant and lowest grain yield equal 4072. 32 obtained from KSC700 along %50 r crop water requirements.
    Keywords: Water deficit stress, maize, yield, yield component, hybrids
  • P. Nazeri, A. Khashan, K. Khavazi, M. R. Ardakani, M.Mirakhori Page 111
    Bean is one the main agricultural plants in bean family, which has an important role in nutrition and protein supplement for men and fertility of soil in various crop rotations. The aim of analyzing physiological rate indices is interpretation of plant’s reaction toward a specific environment. In order to check effect of use microbial granulated phosphorous bio fertilize and phosphorous super phosphate chemical fertilizer on physiological rate indices in Mehran city field experiments with factorial experiment of a randomized complete block design with three replications were performed. Experimental treatment were include of using phosphate triple super phosphorous chemical fertilizer at 5 level (without using of chemical fertilizer, use of %25 phosphorous chemical fertilizer, use of %50 phosphorous chemical fertilizer, use of %75 phosphorous chemical fertilizer, use of %100 phosphorous chemical fertilizer) and bio granulated phosphate fertilizer including zinc in 2 level (without using bio phosphorous fertilizer, without bio phosphorous fertilizer). Characterizations such as whole dry weight, net assimilation rate (NAR), crop growth rate (CGR) were measured. To access to the process of shoot dry weight changes during the season of growth, various equations were examined. Results shows that accumulation of dry matter were done under effect of using phosphorous chemical fertilizer and bio phosphorous fertilizer treatment; thereby using of %50 and %75 level of phosphorous chemical fertilizer and also using of bio phosphorous fertilizer have the best states, and the most whole dry weight, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, relative growth rate in the treatment were observed.
    Keywords: Bean, zinc, phosphorous biofertilizer, growth, whole dry weigh, crop growth rate
  • M. Pourebtehaj*, D. Habibi, F. Paknejad, M. Davoodi Fard, P. Farahani Pad Page 127
    Reducing of drought damage in plants by using of Biofertilizers as plant growth promoting bacteria, silicic acid and amino acids and improving physiological parameters such as enzymes, hormones and biomarkers and thus raising the level of plant yield in arid and semiarid areas are emergency management for drought control agriculture and also in barley agronomy. Thus, this study was carried out in 2009 in Agricultural Research station, Karaj Islamic Azad University with irrigation factor at two levels, Includes A1:full irrigation and A2:cut irrigation after flowering stage and sub factor levels at the five levels, includes B1: control, B2:seed inoculated with bacteria, B3:seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed silicic acid, B4:seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed amino acids and B5:seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed silicic acid and sprayed amino acids in randomized complete blocks design with four replicates using analysis of split plot. Analysis of variance showed that the irrigation effect on all traits in the1 percent level is significant. The highest seed yields were related to the normal irrigation. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, Dihydroxy Guanosine and dityrosine related to cut irrigation after flowering. The interactions showed that the highest seed yield related to normal irrigation and seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed silicic acid and sprayed amino acids, respectively. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, Dihydroxy Guanosine and dityrosine belonged to cut irrigation after flowering stage and seed inoculated with bacteria and sprayed silicic acid + sprayed amino acids and (198/4, 204/9 and 18/1 μ mol /g protein), respectively.
    Keywords: DNA damage, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, silicic acid, amino acids, grain yield
  • Sh. Sarvari, M. Maez Ardalan, A. Khoshnod Yazdi, M. Akhtari Page 139
    in order to study wastewater effect of bojnourd petrochemical mill on wheat quality and quantity on 2008 growing season, the test is accomplished like greenhouse and in completely randomized design in 5treatment and 3 replicates. The used treatment for irrigation were: (T1) undiluted wastewater. (T2) 75% wastewater and 25% well water. (T3) 50% wastewater and 50% well water. (T4) 25% wastewater and 75% well water.These result showed that use of wastewater in irrigation had important effect on value of wheat N, wheat protein and wheat opration, that if rate of wastewater increase from treatment 5 to 1, that the value of wheat N, wheat protein and wheat opration will increase. Although weight of seed, weight of root, weight of shoots and height of stem in final growth increased, but this diversity was not meaning statistically.The result showed that the wastewater can be used as a water source for irrigation. however, irrigation with wastewater has not baneful effect on wheat.
    Keywords: Wastewater, petrochemical mill, agronomic, chemical characteristics, wheat
  • S. Rezaei Kalow, M. Khodarahmi, Kh. Mostafavi Page 149
    In order to understand internal relations of traits and defining vindicator factors of barely different type’s specifications, this test has done on 12 types of barely in field of Islamic Azad University of Karaj in a randomized complete block with 3 frequencies on 2009-2010. The measured characteristics include: biologic operation, seed operation, harvest indicator, weight of spike grain, number of grain in spike, physiologic ECC, complete ECC, number of spike in (m), time of grain filling, speed of grain filling, days to being spike, days to pollination, height of bramble, length of awn, length of peduncle bulge out, length of peduncle and length of second internodes. Analysis of variance showed normal and drought conditions, irrigation, among many traits, there are significant differences in the 1% level. In irrigation condition factor analysis depended to catalysis to main components and varimax rotation showed that number of factors which had high values were five that could justify 87.92% of changes.In drought stress condition simple correlation coefficient explained those indicator traits of harvest and speed of grain filling and complete ECC had a significant relationship with grain operation. Also factor analysis depended to catalysis to main components and varimax rotation showed that number of factors which particular had high values were six that could justify 92.11% of changes. Genotypes were grouped using cluster analysis and method of irrigation WARD normal and drought conditions, respectively, 4 and 3 groups were identified.
    Keywords: barley – drought stress, analysis of variance, varimax rotation, cluster analysis
  • T. Hasanabadi, Mr. Ardakani, F. Rejali, F. Paknejad Page 161
    This experiment was designed in order to the effect of Nitrogen fixation and solubilizing phosphate inoculation on yield and Nitrogen uptake indices of barley(Hordeum vulgare L.) under different levels of NitrogenThe trial field was located on field research Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch.Three factors included Azospirillum inoculation; at two levels (with and without inoculation) pseudomonas inoculation, at two levels (with and without inoculation) and Nitrogen fertilization at four levels(N0%=0 kgN.ha-1 N50%=150 kgN.ha-1, N75%=225 kgN.ha-1, N100% =300 kgN.ha-1) have been studied in spilit - plot factorial experiment. Based on randomized complete block design.The results showed that levels of different nitrogen and Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation each of alone on grain yield, straw yield, Nitrogen yield, grain nitrogen and total uptake nitrogen had significant. And intraction effect Azospirillum and Pseudomonas just on grain yield and straw yield had significantly at 1%, 5%. on base of results of this study Azospirillum and 225kgN.ha-1 application together despite deacresing 25% chemical nitrogen, increased grain yield (7950 kg.ha-1) by 30.3 and inoculation each of bacteria alone or with levels of different nitrogen on the most quality and quantity adjective in this study was significant.
    Keywords: Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonas flouresence, nitrogen
  • V. Ardalan, F. Aghayari, F. Paknejad, M. Sadeghi Shoae, Sh. Esmaeilzadeh Khorasani, Z. Fatemi Rika Page 175
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of drought stress and three irrigation methods on yield and yield components in two hybrid varieties of Corn named: SC704 and SC700. The experiments were laid out in split – split plot using randomized complete block design with three replicates was used at Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch (35°45´ N latitude, 51° 56´ E longitude, 1313m altitude) in 2010. Main plots were allocated to drought treatments that were applied at 40%, 60% and 75% levels of soil moisture depletion, sub – plots including three levels of irrigation methods (All furrows irrigation, furrows alternately irrigation and double row culture) and sub – sub plots considered two hybrid varieties. The Results showed that, drought stress had significant effect on yield and yield components, whereas had reduced for grain yield, row number in cob, grain number in cob row, grain number in cob, 1000 grain weight, grain length, cob length and… in different level of stress conditions. Cultivars responses to the different level of stress was different, while cultivars have the highest yield in stress level is shown by SC700 (10033 kg/ha) comparing to SC704 (8166.7 kg/ha) in 40% soil moisture depletion. Also there was significant for grain yield, grain length, height of first cob and non inoculated part of cob.
    Keywords: Zea mays, drought stress, irrigation method, grain yield
  • Z. Akhavan, A. Fallah, Sh. Rezayi, A. Abadi Page 191
    Nutrient elements absorption in many of Iran soils has problem because of high pH and plenty of calcium Ione in it. Some of these elements are microelements. In order to consider the effect of biological fertilizer on supply of microelements needed for Canola plant, a greenhouse experiment was carried in Azad Islamic University of Karaj in Mahdasht in factorial form and Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 15 treatments contain 5 levels of elemental sulfur (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000kg/ha) and 3 level of inoculants (without, 5 & 10 gram with 107 bacteria per gram) in 3 replications in 88-89 to determine the effect of sulfur oxidation in the presence of sulfur oxidant bacteria and absorbency of microelements and compare among of absorbed elements in treatments. The results of variance analysis indicated that there was significant difference between treatments in viewpoint of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn density in level of 1%. The interactive effect of sulfur and Thiobacillus bacteria on significant in 1% for Fe, Zn, Cu density and 5% for Mn. Average density of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in treatments without inoculants were 754.5, 23, 22.23 and 122.3 mg/kg. whereas this parameter in inoculated treatments were 918.4, 31.8, 29 and 134.75 mg/kg and were increased 1.5, 2, 2 and 0.57 times.
    Keywords: microelements, absorbency, Canola, sulfur, inoculant