فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 45 (بهار و تابستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مهرداد پاکباز صفحه 5
    مقاله ی حاضر کوششی است در جهت تحلیل وبازگردانی دو قطعه ی آوانگاری شده به طریق ابجدی برای ساز عود که از جلال الدین ارموی (موسیقی دان قرن هفتم ه.. ق.) بر جای مانده است. ذکر اصطلاحاتی مانند «مجنب»، «مطلق» و «طریق» در عناوین مربوطه به این دو نمونه شیوه ای متفاوت با نام گذاری دیگر نمونه های آوانگاری شده توسط جلال الدین را آشکار می سازد. با در نظر گرفتن این اصل که وجه تشابه سیاق نام گذاری این دو نمونه با دیگر مثال های آوانگاری شده، اشاره به ساختارمایه و الگوی ضربی لحن بوده است، عدم قرابت این اصطلاحات با دیگر واژگان متداول در مکتب نوظهور منتظمیه، فرض متفاوت بودن هویت این دو اثر را نیز مطرح می کند. روش پژوهش استناد به منابع تاریخی دسته اول برگرفته از اشارات پراکنده در رسالات و همچنین بهره گیری از مقالات رسمی مرتبط با موضوع است. در بخش نتیجه گیری، منشا این دو نمونه مرتبط با مکاتب قدیم عرب تشخیص داده شده است. همچنین جنبه ی تشریحی عناوین با محتوای اثر موکدا در حوضه ی الگوهای ضربی قابل تشخیص می شود. بدین گونه کاربری اصطلاحات مجنب و مطلق در تشریح مایه و لحن با توجه به سیر تحولی اصول نظری موسیقی قدیم عرب تا پیدایش مکتب منتظمیه و عدم وجود مستندات به جای مانده از قرن شش ه.. ق. تنها مبتنی بر فرضیات باقی می ماند.
    کلیدواژگان: الرمل، الاصابع السته، مجنب، ثقیل الاول، طریق، مطلق
  • امین هنرمند صفحه 15
    هدف اصلی این مقاله، بررسی تریادها با سوم مشترک و نحوه ی استفاده از آنها در آثار مجلسی آلفرد اشنیتکه، آهنگساز روس می باشد. این ترکیب شامل دو تریاد مینور و ماژور است که پایه ی آنها نیم پرده با یکدیگر فاصله داشته و در نتیجه دو آکورد دارای سوم های مشترک هستند. پس از بررسی خاستگاه تاریخی نت های مشترک در روابط هارمونیک، خواهیم دید که در آثار اشنیتکه این ترکیب با دو هدف ایجاد تسلسل های هارمونیک و ساختن پلی کوردها مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. در ادامه، ساختار پلی کوردها را با توجه به گستره ی صوتی مورد استفاده برای هر تریاد در دو نوع گروه بندی می کنیم. در نوع 1 تریادهای تشکیل دهنده ی پلی کورد در رجیسترهای مجزا قرار گرفته و در نوع 2 این تریادها با قرار گرفتن در نزدیک ترین حالت نسبت به یکدیگر، پلی کوردهای متراکم (کلاستر) ایجاد می کنند. علاوه بر تریادها با سوم مشترک که موضوع اصلی مقاله است، خواهیم دید که چطور اشنیتکه از تریادهایی که دارای سوم های متفاوت و پایه و پنجم های مشترک هستند (تلفیق دو مد ماژور و مینور) به عنوان ترکیبی مکمل بهره می گیرد. با بررسی مثال های متعددی از آثار اشنیتکه خواهیم دید که تریادها با سوم مشترک همراه با ادغام دو مد ماژور و مینور که ریشه در تغییر مد در دوره ی کلاسیک دارد، دو فرمول قابل توجه در طرح ریزی هارمونی موسیقی این آهنگساز می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: تریاد، پلی کورد، سوم مشترک، آلفرد اشنیتکه
  • رحمت امینی، جلیل خلیل آذر، وحید معینی صفحه 23
    از دیرباز، قهوه خانه ها در شمار نهادهای اجتماعی- فرهنگی تاثیرگذاری بودند که در ادامه ی فعالیت های خود به جایگاهی ثابت جهت اجرای نمایش های سنتی- مذهبی ایرانی و برخی خرده نمایش ها تبدیل شدند. پژوهش حاضر در پی بررسی جایگاه گذشته و اکنون این مکان ها در حوزه ی اجرای نمایش های سنتی- مذهبی و پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که؛ آیا می توان ضمن اجرای نمایش های ایرانی در اشکال احیاشده آنها، فضاها و مکان های تازه ای را نیز برای اجرای نمایش در دیگر نهادها و کانون های اجتماعی و فرهنگی معاصر ایجاد کرد؟ بنابراین هدف اصلی این پژوهش، ارائه ی راهکار و الگویی عملی و کاربردی بر مبنای نیاز جامعه ی امروز بوده است. روش تحقیق، مبتنی بر رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و در گردآوری اطلاعات اولیه نیز از روش اسنادی و علی الخصوص سفرنامه های مستشرقین بهره برده شده است. به این ترتیب در این مقاله ابتدا به موضوع قهوه خانه ها، شرایط ایجاد، شکل گیری و تطور آنها به عنوان جایگاهی ثابت برای اجرای نمایش های ایرانی پرداخته شده، سپس رابطه ی فضا و معماری قهوه خانه ها با فضا و مکان نمایش های ایرانی بررسی و تشریح شده است. در نتیجه گیری نیز مهم ترین یافته ی پژوهش، پیشنهاد الگویی برای توسعه و پایداری اشکال اجرایی نمایش های ایرانی در دوران معاصر و نمودار اجرایی آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: سردم، قهوه خانه، نمایش های سنتی، مذهبی، زورخانه، حمام
  • مهدی حامدسقایان، مهدی حاصل پور صفحه 35
    به آثار نمایشی مرتبط با جنگ عراق علیه ایران (1367- 1359)، تئاتر دفاع مقدس می گویند. برای حمایت از این گونه آثار نهادها و تشکیلات مختلفی به راه افتادند؛ که با وجود فعالیت آنها، این نوع تئاتر نتوانست به روند مستمر در تولید و عرضه آثار نایل آید. در این مقاله ضمن تشریح و تحلیل عملکرد انجمن تئاتر انقلاب و دفاع مقدس در زمینه تولید و اجرای نمایش های مرتبط با دفاع مقدس، به پاسخ این پرسش ها خواهیم پرداخت که: «چگونه با وجود نهادهای حمایت کننده، تولید و اجرای تئاتر دفاع مقدس با عدم استمرار روبرو بوده است؟» و نیز: «چه مشکلات و موانعی در مسیر تولید و اجرای عمومی تئاتر دفاع مقدس وجود داشته است؟» در نتیجه مقاله، نبود استراتژی مشخص، ضعف در مدیریت و برنامه ریزی، عدم تحقق برنامه های تولید و قطع سرمایه گذاری ها؛ از معضلات اصلی در تولید تئاتر دفاع مقدس معرفی شده اند. همچنین حرکت به سوی نیمه دولتی ساختن جریان تولید تئاتر دفاع مقدس و ایجاد فضای حمایتی برای فعالیت گروه ها، یکی از راهکارهای اساسی برای احیای تولید و اجرای این گونه نمایش ها معرفی شده است. نویسندگان مقاله تلاش دارند با تکیه بر آمار، جدول و نمودار، به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و بهره گیری از داده های کمی، به اثبات فرضیه ی خود بپردازند.
    کلیدواژگان: تئاتر جنگ، تئاتر دفاع مقدس، بنیاد حفظ آثارو نشر ارزش های دفاع مقدس، جنگ ایران و عراق، انجمن تئاتر انقلاب و دفاع مقدس
  • فاطمه بنویدی، فرزان سجودی صفحه 47
    هگل در کتاب پدیدارشناسی روح و در فلسفه هنرهای زیبا خود، به مسئله تراژدی و چگونگی شکل گیری آن می پردازد. اکثر پژوهندگان غربی مدعی هستند که از زمان ارسطو تاکنون هیچ یک از اندیشمندان اروپایی نتوانسته اند تراژدی و کمدی را آن طورکه هگل تبیین کرد مورد تحلیل قرار دهند و تاکنون همواره نکته گیری های ژرفش، اندیشمندان پس از او را به تامل واداشته است. نمونه تراژدی یونانی در نظر هگل، آنتیگونه سوفوکلس است. هگل در اثر معروف خود فلسفه هنرهای زیبا به شرح و بسط تراژدی آنتیگونه می پردازد. در طول تاریخ فلسفه در حوزه های مختلف رابطه هنر و فلسفه به وضوح مشاهده می شود. اگرچه هگل متن کاملی در مورد زیبایی شناسی منتشر نکرد تا با علم منطق مقایسه کند، این به این معنا نیست، که او هنر و زیبایی را در مرز نظام فلسفی خود پایین آورده، در واقع نظریه زیبایی شناسی هگل از قلب نظام فلسفی اش ناشی می شود، و تنها می تواند دور نمایی از آن سیستم شناخته شود. بر این اساس ما در این اوراق در پی آنیم که بسته به بضاعت خویش، لحظه های بی زمان فراز و فرود تراژدی را، به تحریر کشیده و رخداد «وجدان معذب (آگاهی معذب)» هگلی را شرح داده، «برخورد تراژیک» را مصور کرده و دقیقه ای بازاندیشی کنیم.
    کلیدواژگان: تقدیر تاریخی، وجدان معذب، آنتیگونه، تراژدی، سوفوکل
  • پیام فروتن یکتا، فریدون علیاری صفحه 55
    فرایند طراحی صحنه به شکل قراردادی و معمول خود، بیش از آن که از ناخودآگاه ذهن طراح ناشی شود، بیشتر معطوف به حوزه خودآگاه طراح است. این در حالی است که ناخودآگاه از قدرت بی نظیری برخوردار است و هنرهای تجسمی مدرن با شیوه هایی نظیر هپنینگ و آبستره، به شدت به سمت آن حرکت کرده اند. طراحی صحنه مرسوم، همچنان از قواعد مشخص استفاده می کند؛ تا جایی که در بسیاری مواقع، صحنه پردازی بیشتر به بستری سه بعدی به منظور جای دادن میزانسن های کارگردانی تبدیل می شود. این مقاله تلاش می کند تا ناخودآگاه و قابلیت های آن را مورد بررسی قرار داده و موانع پیش روی استفاده از این مولفه را درطراحی صحنه مرسوم و قراردادی واکاوی کند. در ادامه می کوشد پاسخی برای مسائل یاد شده که معمولا از سوی قراردادهای رایج در صحنه پردازی مطرح می شود بیابد و این شیوه اجرایی را که مبتنی بر صحنه پردازی آبستره است، پیشنهاد کند. برای تبیین این شیوه اجرایی، از یکی از نمایش هایی که نگارندگان خود با استفاده از همین روش در پردیس هنرهای زیبای دانشگاه تهران به روی صحنه برده اند، استفاده گردیده است. در این مقاله چگونگی شکل گیری نمایش یاد شده به عنوان نمونه تحقیقی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی صحنه، شیوه اجرا، تجسمی، ناخودآگاه، اتفاقی
  • احمد کامیابی مسک صفحه 63
    بسیاری از نویسندگان اروپایی در سده های اخیر به بازنویسی اسطوره ها پرداخته اند. مبانی نظری اسطوره شناسی در انسان شناسی، دیرینه شناسی، ادبیات و هنر در سده بیستم، از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار شد بویژه، بازخوانی اسطوره در نظریات مختلف، آغازی دوباره یافت. در این مقاله، نظریه های متفاوت در باب اسطوره معرفی شده، از جمله نظرات یونگ که به عنوان مبنای نظری تحلیل ما از نمایشنامه چهره ارفه نوشته الیویه پی، نمایشنامه نویس معاصر فرانسوی، بکار گرفته شده است. یونگ، اسطوره را بازتولید کهن الگوهای جهانشمول بشری نامیده و ناقدان ادبی را به کشف و کاربرد این کهن الگوها در آثار ادبی رهنمون شده است. عده ای از نمایشنامه نویسان فرانسوی، آثاری بر این مبنا بوجود آوردند؛ الیویه پی، یکی از آنهاست که به پیروی از این جنبش ادبی اسطوره ای که با ادبیات نمایشی پیوندی دیرینه دارد، در آثارش از اسطوره استفاده کرده است. او با انتخاب ارفه، اسطوره ای که در طول تاریخ بارها الهام بخش هنرمندان گردیده، نمایشنامه ای تحت عنوان چهره ارفه، آفرید. پی، افزون بر اسطوره به دین و مذهب گرایش دارد که بخوبی در آثار نمایشی او نمایان است. در این مقاله ما ابتدا به تعریف اسطوره و خاستگاه آن، سپس از طریق تحلیل چهره ارفه، کاربرد آن را در این نمایشنامه مورد بررسی قرار داده ایم.
    کلیدواژگان: یونگ، الیویه پی، مذهب، کهن الگو، ارفه، اسطوره
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  • Mehrdad Pakbaz Page 5
    An attempt is made here to analyze and transcribe two pieces for solo Oud by Jalal ed-Din Ormawi, a 13th-century Iranian musician, which has been originally transcribed in “Abjad” system of notation. Using such terms as “Mujannab”, “Mutlagh” and “Tarigh” in the titles of these pieces is an eloquent instance of a different style of titling as compared to his other pieces. Considering the principle that the title reveals the rhythmic pattern of the melody and the modal structure of the piece, the estrangement of using the two terms “Mujannab” and “Mutlagh” to title pieces in the newborn “systematic” school leads on the assumption that these two pieces are of a different essence. This article seeks to uncover the true ideology behind these two pieces through analyzing and transcribing them under the modern system of notation. In that way the meaning of the terms “Mujannab”, “Mutlagh” and “Tarigh” such as well known rhythmical patterns “Ramal” and “Thaghil al-Awwal” are the main items of this research. The methodology to this end calls for reference to prominent historical literature in diverse and variant treaties and studying other secondary related official articles such as those by E. Neubauer and O. Wright. To demonstrate the 6. tetrachord spices, namely "6. Mawajib", Jalal ed-Din himself combines Oud frets as an alternative old traditional way in “Risala al-Sharafiye”. This practical method reminds us of the modal terminologies such as “Mutlagh”, “Mazmum”, “Mahmul”, … based on the position of the left hand fingers on Oud frets as used by the well-known Iraqi and Egyptian musicians Hasan Ibn al-Katib and Ibn al-Tahhan al-Musighi in the 11th century. However, in the treaty “Adab al-Ghina”, Ibn al-Katib describes the “three Genera” in the same way as Farabi in “Musighi al-Kabir”. The combination of the principle of the 4.Modes (Asabi’ al-Arbi’) and the modification of the melody throw the “three Genera” prove the identity of the prototypes showed in resolution with the “6. Mawajib”. It is now clear that discussing unknown Oud melodies survived from the old Arab school of using practical method of modifying the melodic modes is based on fingerings on the Oud frets and old terminologies like “Mujannab” and “Mutlag”. Also, modal definitions of the two pieces are related to the descriptions of the “6. Mawajib” given by Jalal ed-Din himself. Furthermore the term “Tarigh” sets its roots in an old persian musical method of composing named “Rah”. Yet the transcription of the “Abjad” system to the modern notational style and analysis of the modal structures fails to clarify the exact relation between the meaning of the terms “Mujannab”, “Mutlaq” and the pieces’ content. It is finally concluded that these two pieces originally come from some old Arab schools of music. Also the descriptive function of these titles, especially in the rhythmic patterns, is made clear with still uncertainty of the functionality of the terms “Mujannab” and “Mutlagh” in describing the modal and melodic structure and is applied to the piece only based on assumptions.
    Keywords: al, Asabi al Satte, Mujannab, al, Ramal, Tarigh, Thaghil al Awwal, Mutlagh
  • Amin Honarmand Page 15
    The main purpose of this article is to study common-third triad pairs in the chamber music of Alfred Schnittke. This harmonic device consists of major and minor triads which are a semitone apart and have the same chordal third; C major and C# minor, which will be labeled c.t. E (common-third E), D major and Eb minor labeled as c.t. F#, etc. After a short introduction on the history of shared elements in Western Classical harmony, we will study Schnittke's approach in using the common-third triad pairs. The study of Schnittke's chamber music reveals that this technique is often marked by the keyboard instrument and is used to serve two
    Purposes
    creating harmonic progressions and building polychords. In creating progressions, the common chordal third produces a static feel while the stepwise motions create a dramatic harmonic change which results in an uncommon progression in traditional harmony. With this method, Schnittke borrows the triad-based harmony from the common practice era without applying the functionality of the chords which results in a fresh harmonic language. The study of the excerpts shows that the common third almost always remains in the same register whiles the harmony changes. When used in a sequence, the common third might move up or down stepwise to create a smooth voice-leading between the progressions. In addition to harmonic progressions, Schnittke uses common third principle to construct polychords. As opposed to common-third progressions where the pure nature of each triad is maintained, the shared-third polychords obscure the sonority of the components which makes it an ideal formula to make complex harmonies. The polychords created by this technique can be divided into two groups: Polychords with distinct triads in different registers, and clusters in which triads are not separated by register. In type 1, depending on the register, the quality of the triads could be distinguishable to the ear. Sometimes one triad is heard and then the other one is played after a delay so the listener can identify the nature of each chord, and then appreciate the combination. In addition to the common-third clusters, Schnittke's music features juxtaposition of major and minor thirds. As opposed to the common-third structures where the third remains while the root and fifth change, we refer to major/minor juxtaposition as split-third triad pairs because of different thirds and common root and fifths. Therefore, Schnittke juxtaposes two contrasting techniques in some parts of his music: polychords with shared chordal third but different roots and fifths, and chords with shared roots and fifths with different thirds. This organized combination of contrasting approaches in Schnittke’s harmonic language has roots in his polystylistic thoughts. As the article continues we will see how sometimes Schnittke combines these techniques with other compositional devices such as canon and dodecaphony to strengthen his music. The study of the excerpts from his chamber music will create an insight into his strong musical language which could be helpful for composers of our time.
    Keywords: Common Third, Alfred Schnittke, Triad, Polychord
  • Rahmat Amini, Jalil Khalil Azar, Vahid Moeini Page 23
    Coffee shops have always played a key role and have affected the shaping and stability of important parts of social cultures and traditions as well as public rituals. Although this effectiveness during different periods has been associated with distinct ups and downs, a number of traditional religious and other kinds of shows such as minstrelsy, eloquence, curtain narration and tornabazi have been changed to an old tradition and been transferred from generation to generation. It is natural that by growing and expanding the technology including the presence of effective media such as cinema, radio and television, the social-cultural position of traditional coffee shops and following that the Iranian shows have been subjected to basic changes. Today, though places under the title of traditional coffee shops are established or reconstructed in some small and metropolitan cities of Iran and the different types of Iranian shows are played in these centers, this trend does not seem so stable. They sometimes become museum centers. Really how it can be dealt with the protecting and expanding the Iranian shows in these spaces and atmospheres by studying and surveying the interacting way of coffee shops and Iranian shows since old times until now as well as how could design the new spaces and locations with respect to taste and the culture of the current audience. Therefore, the most important goals of this research include the following points: 1. Presenting a model for stable development of traditions and Iranian ritual shows in today’s spaces and locations. 2. Presenting a recommending map of architectural places and spaces of streets, bazaar and mid ways. 3. Recognition of locations in contemporary coffee shops to stage the traditional-religious shows. The research questions discussed in the present article include: 1. What are the space and location attributes for performing the Iranian shows in coffee shops? 2. At present, what places and spaces have the capacity to perform the Iranian shows? The research method is based on analytical-descriptive approach. Information were extracted from the dominant coffee shops and subsequently analyzed and the results were compared. The library documents particularly the travel accounts of orientalists have been used in collecting the initial information. This article, at first, deals with the subject of coffee shops, their initial conditions, their formation and transformation as the stable places to perform Iranian shows. Then, the relationship among space, performing areas and the architecture of coffee shops have been examined. In addition, we have recommended new spaces and locations to perform Iranian shows based on the culture of Iranian society. Corresponding diagrams and models have also been presented in this regard. In fact, the study carried out and the results obtained from this research indicate that the creation of space as well as locations to perform Iranian shows in foundations and educational, social centers, passages and in terminals can also be dealt with the reconstructed and revived shapes of traditional coffee shops that are the indicative of the Iranian shows and plays.
    Keywords: Persian Sport Club, Coffee Shop, Platform, Bathroom, Traditional, Religious Shows
  • Mahdi Hamed Saghaian, Mahdi Haselpour Page 35
    Theatrical works of art related to Iraq & Iran war are refered to as the genre of “The Sacred Defense Theatre”. Although various organizations were established to support these works but this genre have not been produced continuously. Indeed, the Sacred Defense Theatre is a kind of war theatre that not only deals with themes, situations, events and characters of war but also reflects moral and religious values, and heroic actions and sacrifice of Iranian militants and people. This definition is rooted in the belief that sacred defense because of its religious base values (Ashoora) is different with common wars. Even though, application of the term “theatre of war” for this kind of theatre could mention on some part of dramas and performances in the area but it doesn’t involve doctrinal content and series of symbols, characters and special language which just could be studied in the Sacred Defense area. Sacred defense theatre has been prominent in two periods of time since beginning the war: 1) from beginning to the end of war (1359-1367). In this time. sacred defense theatre appeared in different forms: A) in rears and cities B) in fronts; 2) from end of war till today. In first years of war, sacred defense theatre mostly were performed in form of propaganda. In this time, dealing with themes about the war was more important than artistic and technical aspects of dramatic works. Characterization and creations of new characters in dramatic works of sacred defense theatre gradually have been developed from last years of war till mid-1370. New Characters were in different forms such as: injured in war, released prisoners of war, families of martyrs, lost and. .. in the second part, from mid-1370 till today, linguistic matters, dialogue writing, new themes specially social and political criticism have been emphasized. Foundation for Preservation and Publication of Values from 1369 and The Revolution and Sacred Defense Theatre Association from 1375 started their activities to improve qualitative and quantitative level of sacred defense theatre works by holding festivals and planning for producing the plays. The article analyzes functions and activities of The Revolution and Sacred Defense Theatre Association and tries to answer following questions: “Despite the presence of some organizations to support, produce and perform sacred defense theatre why these theatres have not continued in performance?” and “What problems and barriers have been raised about producing and public performance of sacred defense theatre?” Finally, we focus on activities of The Revolution and Sacred Defense Theatre Association from 1378 to 1387 in three different domains of planning, producing and anniversary report to make certain norms for evaluating these activities. This article concludes that main problems in producing sacred defense theatre are lack of certain strategies; weak management and planning; unrealized projects and stoppage of investment. We propose some solutions such as semi-governmental process of producing and supporting the active groups. The authors use relative statistics, charts and graphs to analyze quantitative data in order to prove their hypothesis.
    Keywords: Theatre of War, Sacred Defense Theatre, Iraq, Iran War, Foundation for Preservation, Publication of Sacred Defense Values
  • Fatemeh Benvidi, Farzan Sojoodi Page 47
    Hegel’s interpretation of Sophocles’ Antigone is surely one of the best we can find in literature or philosophy. In his book “Phenomenology of Spirit”, Hegel goes through insightful interpretations of Antigone and analyzes this work based on his own system of philosophy. Hegel is one of the few systematic philosophers who made a universal body of philosophy which is supposed to overwhelm all humanity’s questions and problems. Therefore in order to understand Antigone based on Hegel’s thoughts we should firstly get familiar with the basic ideas of Hegel. It seems that one of the main questions which can be regarded as the beginning point for Hegel is the relationship between God and human. In Christianity, God is in the shape of human and in Christian theology God is incarnated in a human being. The quality of God’s incarnation in Christ was irrational to young Hegel. He was thinking how it is possible that Infinite God can be incarnated in finite physical body of a human called Christ. This problem at the beginning is purely theoretical however later it becomes all his philosophy and inspires his absolute idealism. Theoretically speaking, the problem of God’s incarnation in Christ is that when we state it philosophically, it is the relation of the Infinite with the finite and when we state it politically it changes into the relation of the Government and an individual. In his book, Phenomenology of Spirit and also in his Aesthetics, Hegel presents inspiring ideas regarding the tragedy. Most western researchers believe that since Aristotle’s time, none of the European thinkers have been able to explain comedy and tragedy the way Hegel has done and his deep points of view have made his post-thinkers reflect on them. In Hegel’s view, Sophocles’ Antigone is a sample of Greek tragedy. In his famous work, Philosophy of Fine Arts, Hegel deals with the explanation of the tragedy of Antigone. Therefore, in this paper, considering our available means, the authors plan to portrait the rise and fall of the moments of tragedy and explain the event, “conscience malheureuse”, portrait “Tragic Clash” and rethink for moments. The gods, especially Zeus, are often dispensers of fate, sometimes superior to it, and sometimes constrained by it. Zeus and fate somehow determine events, but men have free will: fate exploits the character of men to maintain cosmic order. The Greeks are in harmony with nature; then a rift opens up between freedom and fate necessity; finally, Christianity begins the reign of providence. Hegel is also influenced by the Greek concept of fate, especially moria (‘allotted portion (especially of death), fate’, also personified s moira, ‘the Fates’), which approach in epic, tragedy and, especially in the guise of ananke (‘NECESSITY’), in pre-Socratic philosophers (especially Heraclitus). Thus, in this paper through the method of analytical-descriptive we intend to find out Hegel’s main philosophical problem and then we justify why Hegel had turned to Greek playwrights specifically Sophocles’ Antigone. At the end, we will discuss the idea of historical destination.
    Keywords: Antigone, Historical Destiny, Sophocle's, Conscience Malheureuse, Tragedy
  • Payam Foroutan Yekta, Fereidoun Aliyari Page 55
    The process of stage designing in its traditional and usual sense, takes its basic roots from the conscious mind of the designer rather than his/her unconscious mind. In the meantime, the unconscious mind has a unique power and the modern visual arts- especially after the Second World War- have tended towards by using different methods such as happenings and abstract designing. However, the traditional stage designing usually makes use of the conventional techniques and principles, so that stage designing may also be limited to designing a three-dimensional set for adopting director’s mise-en-scènes. These principles often require the designer to do his/her final design by by means of different techniques of analysis and dramaturgy which are intended by the director, rather than designer’s own feelings and his/her unconscious mind. Taking this situation into consideration, the process of stage design becomes a solid artwork which is not able to express any specific feeling. In this article, we review the unconscious mind and its abilities and then try to investigate the obstacles of using this feature in the traditional stage designing. These obstacles can make so much trouble in creating an artwork, especially in collective endeavor for having a play come to stage. The same obstacles would also be reduced if theater goes toward performance and be regarded as a separate entity from literature. In its next phase, the authors intend to find solutions for these obstacles, which are defined as the usual principles of stage designing. In this article, we propose a practical method which puts its basis on abstract stage designing. Of course, this method may not be applied for all kinds of plays; especially the classic ones and the ones with traditional methods. This method which is based on abstract designing and happening can be used in performances and the plays which are based on the author’s point of view; the plays in which the director has the duty of both writing the play and designing the set. The authors use as a case study the play The Horses in the Sky Pour Ashes by Dr. Naghmeh Samini and directed by Payam Foroutan, in the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, using the same method. Payam Foroutan had used just a few dialogues of the play and made use of some of its general atmosphere for designing the set. In producing that play, he had noticed the set designing and visual effects more effective. In the end, he read The Horses in the Sky Pour Ashes not only in light of traditional principles of theater, but also as an intertextual artwork which has roots in theater as well as other arts- especially visual arts. Payam Foroutan had used just a few dialogues of the play and made use of some of its general atmosphere for designing the set. In producing that play, he had noticed the set designing and visual effects more effective.
    Keywords: The Horses in the Sky Pour Ashes., Unconsciousness, Happening, Stage Design, Style of Performance, Visual
  • Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Page 63
    Myths were created over the course of history by common people and during the past few centuries were used by sociologists and psychologists to study the primitive and quasi civilized societies. After the scientific and sociological developments of the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe, many poets, playwrights, authors, and other artists started to employ their personal and innovative techniques instead of following their Greco-Roman predecessors. These innovations achieved popularity by the end of 19th century. However, the realism of the literary figures and artists in the second half of the 19th century led to a sense of boredom and exhaustion in their audience which resulted in the emergence of alternative schools such as symbolism and surrealism. With the emergence of social media in the 20th century, we witness a development of public information. Many European authors have been busy rewriting myths. The 20th century witnessed an increasing significance of theoretical foundation of mythology in anthropology, archeology, literature and arts; more notably the reexamination of myth in different theories is emerging again. Researchers have proposed a variety of definitions of myth based on works done on sociological, anthropological, psychological, traditional and various structural approaches and functional backgrounds. Each has offered a definition of myth according to his own personal and ideological understanding and characteristics and finally based on his cultural beliefs. This paper uses Jung’s ideas which form the theoretical foundation for our analysis of Le Visage d’Orphée by Olivier Py. Jung defines myth as a reproduction of universal human archetypes and leads literary critiques in deciphering and applying these archetypes in literature. Olivier Py is one of these writers who as a member of this literary/mythological movement that was closely tied to dramatic literature of ancient Greece inspired by Greek mythology, created plays with religious themes as Le Visage d’Orphée. Py’s religious tendencies are clearly exposed in his other works as well. The story of Orphée is one of the most mysteriously of Greek myths which influenced the early Christianity. The most important event in Orphee’s life is going down to spirits’ world to bring back his beloved wife, Oridis, who has been killed by a snake, up to earth. In this paper, we first offer our definition of myth, then we move on to archetypes and their application, and then we introduce Orphee the renowned Greek myth. And finally, we will analyze the play Le Visage d’Orphée by Olivier Py. The method in writing this paper is analytical, using resources like books and essays, as well as field research, including interviews with Olivier Py, writer of Le Visage d’Orphée. In this paper, we first offer our definition of myth, then we move on to archetypes and their application, and then we introduce Orphee the renowned Greek myth. And finally, we will analyze the play Le Visage d’Orphée by Olivier Py. The method in writing this paper is analytical, using resources like books and essays, as well as field research, including interviews with Olivier Py, writer of Le Visage d’Orphée.
    Keywords: Olivier Py, Jung, Myth, Religion, Archetype, Le visage dOrphée