فهرست مطالب

Health Scope - Volume:1 Issue: 2, 2012
  • Volume:1 Issue: 2, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Abdolvahab Baghbanian Page 50
  • Saeed Athar, Hasan Asilian Page 52
    Background
    Diatomite coated by nanoparticles of copper and zinc mixed oxides were used to investigate catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide..
    Objectives
    Aim of this paper was to investigatediatomite performance as a supporting host to confine the CuO and ZnO nanoparticles and its catalytic activity for carbon monoxide oxidation.
    Materials And Methods
    The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic behavior for CO oxidation was studied at different conditions in a tubular reactor packed with catalyst..
    Results
    The results illustrated that diatomite is the promising candidate for catalyst support due to its unique characteristics. The variation of catalytic activity of the prepared composite catalysts withdifferent molar fractions of CuO and ZnO for CO oxidation in different reaction temperatures was investigated. It was found that a CO conversion of 100% can be achieved at 300 ºC over catalyst with 80 mol% CuO and 20 mol% ZnO content.
  • Zahra Zakeri, Sharareh Saneie Sistani, Zohre Bari, Alireza Ansari, Moghaddam, Mahmoud Imani, Mohammad Reza Miradi, Mahnaz Sandoughi Page 57
    Background
    Patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are more prone to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases due to atherosclerosis and consequently death..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the intima media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in SLE patients.Patients and
    Methods
    : Sixty SLE patients and 60 healthy persons, being matched in age, ethnicity, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. The thickness of intima-media of the carotid arteries and the levels of CRP were measured using color Doppler ultrasonography and highly sensitive CRP measurement methods, respectively then findings were compared between the two groups.
    Results
    : Ultrasonographic evaluation showed atherosclerosis in 6 (10%) and 3 persons (5%) of the patients and control groups, respectively (P = 0. 298). The mean thickness of intima-media was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.31).But the mean level of CRP was significantly higher in patients group (P = 0. 005).
    Conclusions
    : We could not find any relationship between the serum CRP level and the risk of atherosclerosis progression in patients with SLE. Perhaps, SLE alone is not an independentrisk factor for atherosclerosis.
    Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Carotid Intima, Media Thickness, Atherosclerosis, C, Reactive Protein
  • Mahdi Mohammadi, Mahmoud Imani, Fatemeh Tajari, Farzad Akbari, Fariborz Rashedi, Ardavan Ghasemi, Alireza Ansari, Moghaddam Page 61
    Background
    : Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are considered to be the most common safety challenge, causing more than a million deaths worldwide annually..
    Objectives
    : The current study was aimed at identifying the etiological role of human and vehicle safety factors in road crashes, and their effects on the severity of injury and fatality in the Sistan and Baluchistan Province, South East Iran..Patients and
    Methods
    : In this study, 2 703 MVC recorded at the police office during one year period, were reviewed. The profile of the crashes was comprised of data that included; demographic characteristics of the injured persons in a MCV, type of crash, type of vehicles involved, location of crash, as well as human, environmental and mechanical factors which contributed to the crash. Data were analysed using binary and multinomial logistic regressions..
    Results
    : After adjusting for confounding factors, vehicles with passengers were 33% more likely to have a crash. Furthermore, pickup trucks and heavy trucks increased the chance of causing a crash, 1.66 and 1.84 times more than saloon cars, respectively. Vehicles made after 2005 had twice the risk of causing a crash than those made in 1980 or before. In addition, in a multivariate model; driver’s age, type of vehicle and circumstances of car damage were contributing factors to the severity of injury..
    Conclusions
    : Type and age of the car, the presence of passengers and the degree of damage to the car were the determinant factors for car crashes, and consequent severity of injury in the study area. Educational programs must be directed at promoting public knowledge about the consequences of their behavior as either a passenger or driver.
    Keywords: Motor Vehicle, Iran, Injuries
  • Mohammad Ali Zazouli, Mahmoud Taghavi, Edris Bazrafshan Page 66
    Background
    This study demonstrates the removal efficiency of phenol from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes and also investigates solution chemistry and polymeric natural organic matters on removal efficiency.
    Objectives
    : The main aim of this work was to focus on the removal of phenol by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes..
    Materials And Methods
    : This study was conducted in a bench scale. The Plexiglas cell was employed as an electrolytic reactor with dimensions of 12cm× 12cm × 16cm and a working volume of about 1.5 L was used to conduct the experiments, and a magnetic stirrer was applied for mixing (200rpm). Concentrations of phenol were determined by spectrophotometer according to the analysis of the color resulted from the reaction of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine at 500 nm. Alginate was selected as a model of polymeric natural organic matter (PNOM)..
    Results
    The results showed that optimum pH was 7 for the phenol removal. The highest removal rate was observed 91% for 25 mA/cm2 of the current intensity. Changes of ionic content (from 0.5 to2 mg/l) lead to an increase of the removal efficiency from 63% to 92%. The removal rate hasdecreased with increasing the initial phenol concentration. Adding alginate in the solution decreased the removal efficiency from 82% to 61%..
    Conclusions
    : According to the results of this paper, electrocoagulation process by using aluminum electrodes is a promising process for decontamination of wastewaters containing high concentrations of phenol..
    Keywords: Fungi, Arsenic, Tolerance, Accumulation, Bioremediation
  • Seyyed Ali Moussavi, Najarkola, Ramazan Mirzaei Page 71
    Background
    : Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a leading cause of disability and workers compensations..
    Objectives
    : The research was done in Tehran Pars-electric factory to prevent inducing WMSDs. Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was carried out to assess musculoskeletal loads on workers due to their postures, repetition, and force. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) was also used to obtain prevalence of entire body disorders..Patients and
    Methods
    : All 673 workers aged 19-49 with mean age of 32.3 (SD = 11.9 years):355 males aged 25-49 with mean age of 38.9 (SD = 7.3 years); 318 females aged 19-33 with mean age of 25.6 (SD = 9.8 years) were examined. Total prevalence’s wrists, lower arms,upper arms, neck, trunk and legs disorders were gained 606 (90%), 532 (79%), 472 (70.1%),345 (51.3%), 243 (36.1%), and 404 (60%) respectively (P = 0.012)..
    Results
    : The number of tasks located in action levels of 2, 3 and 4 were 9, 11 and 12 tasks correspondingly. No tasks were placed in action level of 0 and 1.Thereby,further actions, ergonomic designing solutions, and multiple preventions are necessary..
    Conclusions
    : REBA tool is a useful and an applicable tool for assessing risk factors producing entire body disorders on workers performing various tasks in electric factory..
    Keywords: REBA, Musculoskeletal Loads, Rapid Entire Body Assessment, Risk Assessment
  • Ramazan Mirzaei, Hossein Ansari, Alireza Ansari, Moghaddam, Laleh Kamalian, Mohammad Nourafshan Page 80
    Background
    Accident is an event that occurs suddenly, unexpectedly and inadvertently under unforeseen circumstances. Accidents can have individual, social and economical effects 2080 injury cases including labor-law workers were studied in Mashhad city, Islamic Republic of Iran. Their data were collected from the labor office archive..
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to determine the effective causes of inducing of accidents among labor-law of Mashhad in Iran..
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional analytic study, data on accidents related to labor-law workers for a period of three years (2004–2007) were collected from the laboroffice archive, in Mashhad. All recorded accidents were investigated and analyzed bySPSS 13 software..
    Results
    This study was conducted in Mashhad and results showed that Accidents were more common in married rather than single workers (71.8% vs. 28.2%) and men rather than omen (%97.3 vs. %2.7). Bone fractures (68.2%), followed by injuries of maimed (18.5%) and death (9.9%) and burn injuries (3.5%) were the most common results. Accidents were more prevalent in 20-30 year-old range. There were statistically significant relationships among result of accident and age, marital status, insurance status, minimum wage, educational level and work history (P < 0.05). The greatest level of accident was among workers with the minimum wage..
    Conclusions
    Conclusions
    Proper accident investigation and cause identification found to be helpful for accident prevention or reduction. Therefore, appropriate decision should be made regarding holding training courses for all workers as part of pre-employment training and before starting the work..
    Keywords: Accidents, Occupational, Occupational Injuries
  • Edris Bazrafshan, Hossein Kamani, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Amir Hossein Mahvi Page 84
    Background
    One of the most important health problems in life is dental caries or tooth decay. Untreated caries are painful and may affect diet, school attendance, and sleep. Tooth decay can also have significant negative health and social consequences in later life.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 8-12 year old students in Zahedan City and also to determine fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the studied area.Patients and
    Methods
    This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 2009 on 800 (400 boys and 400 girls) 8-12 year old students, who were randomly selected in Zahedan City (southeast of Iran) to assess the DMFT index. The DMFT index was determined using standard methods suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and drinking water fluoride concentration was measured in 144 samples collected from 12 desalination units using the SPADNS method. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15 software and presented as mean ± SD.
    Results
    The mean DMFT value was 2.41 ± 2.12, which was higher in the boys (2.68 ± 2.15) incomparison with the girls (2.13 ± 1.91). Of the subjects surveyed, 38.5% were healthy, with 42.5% of the girls and 63.75% of the boys. The mean fluoride concentration of the drinking water was 0.57 ± 0.07 mg/L, which is less than the normal range (1.5 mg/L).
    Conclusions
    According to the results of the present study, the DMFT scores in 8-12 year old students are higher than the global standards suggested by WHO. Results indicate that the availability of other sources of fluoride must also be considered and taken intoaccount in public health dentistry planning programs
  • Syed Hassan Syed Tajuddin, Rosha Abdul Raman, Haliza Mohd Riji Page 89