فهرست مطالب

Pediatrics Review - Volume:1 Issue: 1, Jan 2013
  • Volume:1 Issue: 1, Jan 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/12/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
  • Javad Ghaffari, Mohsen Aarabi Page 2
    The prevalence of asthma is inconsistent in different countries and even in regions of a country. Awareness of this prevalence has favorable impacts on health care system planning. The aim of this literature review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence of pediatric asthma in the Islamic Republic of Iran during two recent decades. A search was done in national (SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Iranmedex) and international databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) to find articles which evaluated asthma prevalence in pediatrics and adolescences, using the international study of asthma and allergies in children written questionnaire. Twenty eight articles between 1992 and 2012 with a total of 96822 participants were found. ‘Asthma ever’ prevalence was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9 to 3.6) and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.6 to 4.6) in children aged 6-7 and 13-14 years, respectively. ‘Wheezing in the past 12 months’ were 7.6% (5.6 to 9.8) and 10.7% (95%CI: 8.9 to 12.7) in children aged 6-7 and 13-14 years, respectively. The prevalence of asthma had an increasing trend during the last two decades, therefore, the health care system should be alarmed for more meticulous planning and evaluation to control and prevent asthma.
    Keywords: prevalence, pediatric, asthma, Iran, review, meta, analysis
  • Mohammed, Jafar Saffar, Hiva Saffar, Hana Saffar Page 12
    Prevention of infectious diseases by immunization in children has markedly diminished the morbidity and mortality of once common contagious diseases in many countries worldwide. Immunization programs have led to the global eradication of smallpox, elimination of measles and poliomyelitis in regions of the world, and substantial reduction in the morbidity and mortality attributed to diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles. Childhood vaccination was estimated to prevent more than 2.5 million deaths for vaccine preventable- diseases each year. However, at current levels of coverage, it still causes 1.7 million deaths annually, most of them in developing countries. The main objectives of this review are as following: To overview the expanded programme of immunization and WHO global vision and strategies for vaccination. To review underlying mechanisms that influence host immune response to vaccine, and differentiate primary from secondary vaccine failure. To determine the environmental factors that may reduce the potency of the vaccines or vaccinees. To explain the probable factors that lead to lower responses in vaccine recipients in developing countries.
    Keywords: Vaccination, Developing Countries, Responses to Vaccine
  • Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Ahmadali Enayati, Janet Heamingway Page 19
    Malaria is still the number one killer especially among young children and is responsible for one death per minute in the world. Overall,between 250-500 million cases of the disease occur worldwide causing more than one million deaths annually about 90% of which in children under five years of age. Although the spread of the disease is worldwide but it is seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions of all continents and is more so in sub-Saharan Africa. Five parasite species transmitted by more than 70 potent Anopheles mosquito vectors are responsible for the occurrence of the disease and its spread. There have beenseveral approaches for malaria diagnosis, management and prevention as a whole and in children (as the most vulnerable group) in particular with various degrees of success. In this context works undertaken by international organizations such as Roll Back Malaria, Global Fund, UNICEF, as well as None for Profit international agencies and also at the national levels are promising in malaria control. However, drug and insecticide resistance, constraints in access to health care, poverty and the like are among the main challenges ahead. In this review paper the situation of malaria and its management measures with especial reference to children are discussed.
    Keywords: Malaria, Children, Prospect, Challenge, Iran
  • Reza Farid Hossaini, Javad Ghaffari, Alireza Ranjbar, Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Houshang Rafatpanah Page 34
    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory and complex disease in children with many contributing (including genetic and environmental) factors. This study aims to review the impact of infections in children with asthma. Different websites including Googlescholar, Yahoo, Pubmed, SID.IR, MAGIRAN, IRANDOC, IRANMEDEX, Embase and Hand searching were searched for pertinent articles with keywords asthma, pediatric, infection, virus, bacteria, and fungus. Out of the results, full articles relevant to pediatric asthma were selected. Acute respiratory infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are involved in 5%-30% of wheezing events and asthma attacks. Viral infections were previously found in 24%-34% of asthmatic children, but technological advancements have revealed them to be present in 77%-81% of cases, with rhinovirus found in 47%, Respiratory Syncytial Virusin 21%, and the rest (including influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, coronavirus, and enterovirus) accounting for 2%-5% each. Viral respiratory infections are basically the major trigger for asthma symptoms and attacks in children. No causal relationship has been established between asthma and viruses and bacteria.
    Keywords: Child, Asthma, Viruses, Bacteria
  • Hasan Karami, Leila Shokohi Page 45
    A normal bowel pattern is thought to be a sign of good health. Constipation is a symptom rather than a disease. The exact prevalence of the disorder is difficult to be estimated. The differential diagnosis of childhood constipation can be extensive. Constipation is recognized and diagnosed by most practitioners based on the child's clinical presentation. Herein, we present a useful guide to the organization of pediatric constipation and appraise the current suggestion for treatment regimens, to help the clinician in treating a situation that can be distressing and has a significant influence on affected families.
    Keywords: Management, childhood, constipation, Review article
  • Mohammad Reza Navaeifar, Mohammad Sadegh Rezaei Page 51
    Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects younger children. Although the definite cause still remains unknown but the clinical and epidemiologic findings discuss an infectious cause. The prevalence of incomplete Kawasaki disease reported 15 to 36.2%, and it is more frequent in the extremes of the age spectrum. Non delayed treatment of disease should be initiated because of critical cardiac vascular complications. Up to 15% - 25% of patients with Kawasaki disease who remain febrile after administration of first dose of intravenous immunoglobin plus aspirin are classified as refractory disease. These intravenous immunoglobin resistant cases are at increasing risk for coronary artery complications. The strategy on prediction of potentially non responder and treatment of intravenous immunoglobin resistant patients is now controversial but some useful points were recommended.
    Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Resistant, Kawasaki Disease
  • Mohammad Hasan Bemanian, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Nabavi Page 61
    Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis is not clearly identified, in a very small percentage of patients, rhinitis is the clinical manifestation of food allergy.
    Keywords: Food allergy, Allergic rhinitis, Children
  • Zhila Torabizadeh, Farshad Naghshvar, Anahita Nosrati, Omid Emadian Page 64
    Sirenomelia is a rare anomaly of caudal region of the body presented with fusion of lower limbs in which Genito-urinary, Gastrointestinal, Cardiovascular and Neural tube anomalies are found in most cases. We introduce a case of severe oligohydramnios, which had characteristic aspects of Sirenomelia at the time of delivery and review the pertinent articles. All in all it is our aim to present another case of sirenomelia to add to existing knowledge and data about the condition in order to make an earlier diagnosis and put an end to pregnancy safely in advance.
    Keywords: Sirenomelia, Mermaid syndrome, Oligohydramnios, Dextrocardia
  • Abdulrasool Alaee Page 70
    Appendiceal intussusception is a very rare cause of abdominal colic in childhood. This paper reports a reducible appendiceal intussusception in the barium enema in a girl and reviews articles in PubMed.
    Keywords: Appendiceal, Intussusception, Barium reduction