فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:3 Issue:3, 2013
  • Volume:3 Issue:3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/02/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Bulus Adzu*, Kudirat Bola Mustapha, Collen Masimirembwa, Obiageri Obodozie, Rukaiyatu Abdullahi Kirim, Karniyus Shingu Gamaniel Page 201
    Objective
    To evaluate the effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 in order to generate clinically significant data for its safe and efficacious use.
    Materials And Methods
    NIPRD-AM1 is a phytomedicine developed from aqueous root extracts of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 was measured with and without the addition of NIPRD-AM1, by testing different concentrations of the product at 37 °C in reactive mixtures with ketoconazole (2.5 µM) as the positive control.
    Results
    Results showed a very low IC50 value of 0.01 mg/ml similar to that of ketoconazole (0.016 mg/ml).
    Conclusion
    Metabolic processes of NIPRD-AM1 are likely to inhibit CYP3A4, with potential implication on drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. This is a promising approach for guidance towards the safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1.
    Keywords: CYP3A4, Herb, Drug Interactions, Nauclea latifolia, NIPRD, AM1
  • Fatemeh Doosti, Saeedeh Dashti, Seyed Meghdad Tabatabai, Hossein Hosseinzadeh Page 205
    Objective
    In this study, the current literatures on the use of herbs and herbal preparations of Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicine for the treatment of opioid addiction were reviewed.
    Methods
    Search was done in databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and Google Scholar.
    Results
    Among 18 retrieved studies, 3 studies were about asafetida extract, an approved preparation for ameliorating drug abstinence in China. Chinese preparations including Composite Dong Yuan Gao, Qingjunyin and TJ-97 (a water extract of dai-bofu-to) as well as Indian ones, Mentate and Shilajit, were reported to have positive effects against opioid withdrawal, dependence, and tolerance. Moreover, Levo-tetrahydropalmatine and L-Stepholidine, in addition to extracts of Caulis Sinomenii and Sinomenium acutum showed similar effects. Banxia Houpu Decoction, Fu-Yuan pellet, Jinniu capsules, Qingjunyin, Tai-Kang-Ning capsule, and Xuan Xia Qudu Jiaonang (WeiniCom) from Chinese preparations, showed anti-addiction effects in randomized, double-blind and, in some studies, multicenter clinical trials.
    Conclusion
    Traditional herbal preparations of China and India have anti-addiction effects with less adverse effects than alpha2-adrenergic or opioid agonists.
    Keywords: Addiction, Opioid Tolerance, Opioid Withdrawal, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Traditional Indian Medicine
  • Ritesh Kumar Srivastav, Hefazat Hussain Siddiqui, Tarique Mahmood, Farogh Ahsan Page 216
    Objective
    The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) Bombyx mori (B. mori) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicenna’s tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresham Sada, and Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala.
    Materials And Methods
    The ethanolic extract of B. mori (Abresham) silk cocoons in the dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days before isoprenaline administration to test their cardioprotective effect. Isoprenaline (85 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on days 29th and 30th, respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction.
    Results
    The parameters for evaluation of cardioprotective activity were the physical parameters and the biochemical estimations. The physical parameters were gross examination of heart, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathology examination. In biochemical estimations, the activity of various cardiac enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and the gold marker troponin-I were determined. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the both doses of test extract especially at higher dose.
    Conclusion
    The result of this study shows that alcoholic extract B. mori hassignificant cardioprotective activity against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction.
    Keywords: Abresham, Bombyx mori, Cardioprotective Effect, Isoprenaline
  • Seema Farhath, Dr. Vijaya, Dr. Vimal Page 224
    Objective
    The immunomodulatory effect of geranial, geranial acetate, gingerol, and eugenol essential oils were evaluated by studying humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
    Materials And Method
    The essential oils were evaluated for immunomodulatory activity in in vivo studies, using rats as the animal model. The essential oils were tested for hypersensitivity and hemagglutination reactions, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen while sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) served as the control in all the tests.
    Result
    Orally administrated essential oils showed a significant increase of test parameters, viz., haemagglutinating antibody titre (HAT) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC, essential oils enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the foot pad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats with doses of 50-800 mg/ml. Haemagglutination titre of geraniol showed the highest increase of 139.3±6.38 and with 5.9±0.7 DTH, respectively. For geranial acetate, the haemagglutination titre showed a moderate increase of 87.5±5.9 and highest increase in DTH with 5.9±0.8, respectively. Using gingerol, the haemagglutination titre showed a moderate increase with 88.2±6.306 and DTH 3.5±0.5, respectively and for eugenol, the haemaggulation titre showed a moderate increase with 112.06±6.169 and DTH 4.4±0.6, respectively. These differences were statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    The essential oils were found to have a significant immunostimulant activity on both the specific and non-specific immune mechanisms.
    Keywords: Geranial, Geranial Acetate, Gingerol, Eugenol, Haemagglutination
  • Esmaeal Tamaddonfard Page 231
    Objective
    Curcumin is a major constituent of turmeric and influences many functions of the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin on yawning induced by apomorphine in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Curcumin administered orallyfor 10 consecutive days. Yawning was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of apomorphine (a dopamine receptor agonist) and the number of yawns was recorded for a period of 30 min.
    Results
    Apomorphine (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) produced yawning. Haloperidol (a dopamine receptors antagonist) at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg partially and at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg completely inhibited apomorphine-induced yawning. Curcumin alone produced no yawning, whereas at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, it increased yawning induced by 0.1 mg/kg of apomorphine. Curcumin at the high doses (30 and 60 mg/kg) produced yawning when apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) action was partially blocked with 0.5 mg/kg of haloperidol. In the presence of complete blockade of apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) action with 0.2 mg/kg of haloperidol, curcumin did not produce yawning.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that curcumin at high doses increased apomorphine-induced yawning. In the presence of partial, but not complete blockade of apomorphine action, curcumin produced yawning. Curcumin produced a dopamine-like effect on yawning.
    Keywords: Apomorphine, Curcumin, Haloperidol, Rats, Yawning
  • Habibe Kordsardouei, Mohsen Barzegar, Mohamad Ali Sahari Page 238
    Objective
    Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes.
    Materials And Methods
    The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control.
    Results
    Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control.
    Conclusion
    Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.
    Keywords: Cinnamon zeylanicum, Functional Food, Natural Preservative, Sponge Cake, Zataria multiflora Boiss
  • Karim Dolati, Hassan Rakhshandeh, Mohammad Naser Shafei Page 248
    Objective
    The use of drugs with herbal origin is increasing for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Rosa damascena (R. damascena) is a well-known plant suggested to have beneficial effect on GI system. In this study, the effect of aqueous fraction of R. damascena on the contractionsofisolated guinea pig ileum was investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    Aqueous fraction of plant was obtained from ethanolic extract after ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were discarded. To evaluate effect of this fraction on ileum contraction, guinea pig ileum was removed and mounted on organ bath and its contraction was recorded. Effect of various concentrations (0.66, 0.83, and 1.3 mg/ml) of aqueous fraction on ileum contraction in comparison with Ach in presence and absense of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist of cholinergic, was evaluated. The response of ileum to 1 µg/ml of acetylcholine was considered as 100% response.
    Results
    Our results showed that aqueous fractions of R. damascena dose-dependently increased basal guinea pigs ileum contractions
    Conclusion
    It is concluded that aqueous fraction of R. damascena has mild excitatory effect on ileum contraction and this fraction may be beneficial as a mild laxative agent.
    Keywords: Aqueous Fractions, Cholinergic System, Guinea Pig, Ileum, Rosa damascena
  • Mohammad Sadegh Amiri, Mohammad Reza Joharchi Page 254
    Objective
    An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants.
    Materials And Methods
    This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH).
    Results
    The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments.
    Conclusion
    This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities, a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.
    Keywords: Ethnobotany, Iran, Market, Mashhad, Medicinal Plants
  • Ali Louei Monfared Page 272
    Objective
    Carthamus tinctorius L.(C. tinctorius) is used as a food additive but also has medicinal applications. The present work was designed to investigate its probable side effects on the histology and function of the kidney in the mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Sixty adult Balb/C mice were randomly distributed into one control and three experimental groups. The control group received only distilled water, while experimental groups were administered intraperitoneally C. tinctorius at doses of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 mg/kg for 49 consecutive days. In the end of experiments after blood sampling, the biochemical analyses of plasma were performed. Tissue samples were also taken and structural alterations were examined using light and electron microscopes.
    Results
    There were histological changes included decreasing in the diameter of glomerules, increase of proximal tubular lumen, tubular necrosis, leuckocyte infiltration, and massive congestion in the kidney of the 1.4 and 2.8 mg/kg C. tinctorius groups. Moreover, ultrastructural study revealed destruction of the glomerular basement membrane, shrinkage of podocyte΄s nucleus, and reduction in the number and size of microvilli in epithelial cells of renal tubules. Furthermore, the levels of creatinine in the plasma of 1.4 and 2.8 mg/kg C. tinctorius groups showed a significant increase in comparison with the control group (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    It is concluded that C. tinctorius extract exposure at doses of 1.4 and 2.8 mg/kg has harmful effects on the renal tissue and therefore, popular consumption of this plant should be reconsidered.
    Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius, Electron microscopy, Histology, Kidney, Mice
  • Somayyeh Vosooghi, Maryam Mahmoudabady, Ali Neamati*, Heydar Aghababa Page 279
    Objective
    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory airways distinguished by edema and infiltration of inflammatory immune cells. To test our hypothesis about the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron, we examined effects of Crocus sativus (C. sativus) extract as a prophylactic anti-inflammatory agent in sensitized rats.
    Materials And Methods
    To induce experimental asthma, rats were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA). Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8 for each): control, sensitized (asthma), and sensitized and pretreated with three different concentrations of extract, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 2 times a week (group asthma+50EX, group asthma+100EX, and group asthma+200EX). After 32 days, total white blood cells (WBC) counts, red blood cells (RBC), and platelet counts in blood were examined.
    Results
    Total WBC number and eosinophil and neutrophil percentage in blood were increased, but lymphocyte decreased in sensitized animals compared with those of control group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). We observed also elevated levels in RBC and platelet counts after sensitization in the asthma group. Pretreatment of sensitized rats in all concentrations decreased WBC count which was significant in first two concentrations (p<0.01 compared with group asthma). All concentrations of extract decreased eosinophil percentage significantly (p<0.001 compared with group asthma), however, for neutrophil percentage this improvement was not significant. Lymphocyte percentage increased in group asthma+100EX compared with group asthma (p<0.05). Moreover, in all concentrations, the extract reduced RBC and platelet count in pretreated sensitized rats compared with group asthma (p<0.01 to p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Our findings indicated that the extract of C. sativus could be useful to prevent asthma as an anti-inflammatory treatment.
    Keywords: Asthma, Crocus sativus, Inflammation, Rat, Sensitization, WBC
  • Mohammad Moshiri, Leila Etemad, Soheila Javidi, Anahita Alizadeh Page 288
    Objective
    Peganum harmala (P. harmala), “Espand” in Persian, has small seeds and has been used in traditional medicine as emmenagogue and an abortifacient. It has various pharmacological effects such as antifungal, antibacterial, hypothermic, anticancer, antinociceptive, and reversible monoamine oxidase inhibition. Case details: This case was a 45 years old woman who ingested about 50 grams seed of P. harmala for hypermenorrhae. She suffered nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tremor, ataxia, and confusion. On physical examination, she had hypotension (BP=90/60 mmHg) with normal heart rate (60 beat/min) and impaired knee to heel test. Her consciousness was reduced without any hallucination. Her laboratory test was normal. She was discharged at good condition 18 hours later.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, physicians working in Iran and other regions that P. harmala is prescribed or used illegally, should know signs and symptoms of its toxicity in order to be able to deal with the emergencies, however, prognosis of these toxicity is not bad.
    Keywords: Case report, Espand, Harmalin, Iran, Peganum harmala