فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue:3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/11/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Mohammad Hassan Lotfi Page 131
  • Mohammad Hassan Lotfi Page 132
  • Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad Hasan Ehrampoush, Tahereh Jasemizad, Monireh Kheirkha, Reza Amraei, Fatemeh Sahlabadi Page 134
    Introduction
    Humic acids have adverse effects on the water quality, then should be removed from water resources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrate as a radical scavenger for removal of humic acid from aqueous solutions by electron beam irradiation.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, after preparation of stock humic acid solution in alkaline condition, different concentrations of humic acid (10, 25 and 50 mg/l) were prepared. Different concentrations of nitrate (25, 50 and 100 mg/l) added to humic acid samples and then absorption of samples was measured at 254 nm by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer before and after the electron beam irradiation. This study has done at pH= 8 and at different electron beam adsorbed dose of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 kGy.
    Results
    The results of this study showed that the increasing of adsorbed dose from 1 to 15 kGy, the removal efficiency of humic acid also increased. By increasing of nitrate concentration from 25 to 100 mg/l, the removal efficiency of humic acid has decreased from 43.8% to 36.6% and nitrate acts as a radical scavenger. By increasing of humic acid concentration from 10 to 50mg/l, removal efficiency decreased in all adsorbed doses. Kinetic analysis of our results showed that the results well fitted with the second - order reaction.
    Conclusion
    We can conclude from this study that electron beam irradiation could be a useful process for the treatment of natural organic matter (humic acid) from surface waters.
  • Batool Tirgari, Mansooreh Azzizadeh Forouzi, Sedigheh Iranmanesh, Sedigheh Khodabandeh Shahraki Page 144
    Introduction
    Information on the sleepiness and sleep quality is limited for Asians. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sleepiness and sleep quality among the adult population in Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    This is a descriptive and explorative design study in which 1100 participants randomly selected from the Kerman city population in South –East of Iran. Using two questionnaires, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality and prevalence of sleepiness of samples was assessed.
    Results
    Our findings showed that the prevalence of sleepiness was 34.3%. Moreover, daytime sleepiness correlated with marriage status (p= 0.048), work shift (p= 0.0001), and work hours (p= 0.004). 57.5% of the participants reported that they have poor sleep quality. The mean and standard deviation of PSQI component scores are widely ranged. The lowest score belonged to “hypnotic medication use” component (mean= 0. 38), and the highest score belonged to “sleep duration” component (1.14 ± 0.90). Sleep quality also was found to be correlated with age (p=0.045), work shift (p= 0.0001), and work hours per day (p= 0.015). Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between sleep quality and sleepiness (p=0.0001) among participants. According to Binary logistic regression results, the risk of sleepiness among participants with poor sleep quality was 4.2 times more than that among those who had good sleep quality.
    Conclusions
    The results indicate almost high prevalence of poor sleep quality and sleepiness among our study population. Therefore, improving the quality of population’s sleep requires cultural preparation and public education through the media and also by well-educated nurses.
    Keywords: Sleep, Population, Adult, Sleep Disorders
  • Mahboobeh Dehvari, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Fatemeh Fallah, Monireh Sahraee, Behzad Jamshidi Page 153
    Introduction
    Colored compounds which often are toxic and carcinogen is one of the environmental pollutants. These pollutants should be removed prior than discharge to the environment. The aim of this study was the evaluation of maize tassel powder efficiency for the removal of Reactive Red 198 dye from synthetic textile wastewater.
    Materials and Methods
    This experimental study was performed in laboratory scale by using of batch reactors. In this study, the effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration and pH had been evaluated. Maximum adsorption wavelength (λmax) and the concentration of dye were determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The adsorbent was prepared in laboratory condition and pulverized by standard ASTM sieves with the range of 40-60 mesh. The data were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.
    Results
    The result showed that increasing of adsorbent dose led to increasing of the adsorption efficiency but adsorption efficiency was decreased with an elevation of pH from 3 to 9 and increasing of dye concentration from 25 to 50 mg/l. With increasing reaction time, adsorption efficiency increased and the most adsorption occurred in first 30 min of reaction. Obtained data were in good concordance with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order equation.
    Conclusion
    Maize tassel powder is a natural and cheap adsorbent that can be used for the removal of contaminants in the environment.
    Keywords: Inflorescence, Adsorption, Kinetics, Waste Water, Textiles, toxicity, Environmental Pollutants, Coloring Agents
  • Mohammad Esmail Motlagh, Davood Nasrollahpour Shirvani, Mohammad Reza Maleki, Ibrahim Salmani Nodoushan, Reza Dehnavieh, Somayeh Noori Hekmat Page 166
    Introduction
    Identifying training needs and implementing appropriate courses is one of the important steps to empower managers and experts specialists. This has the most important role in improving organizational performance. In this study, considering the importance of training programs effectiveness, the training needs of managers and experts and their relation to individual and institutional factors was determined in the Health Departments of Universities of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    This retrospective study was conducted in spring 2010. Communities of this research were the staff of Universities'' Health Departments in the field of Health Deputy. They were selected from 13 universities by random systematic and stratified methods. All available directors and experts were responsibly elected and interviewed as the census. The questionnaire included individual and organizational variables and 28 management topics that confirmed validity and reliability.
    Results
    In total 293 managers and expert specialists were studied, the average require education based on 26 (92.9 %) out of 28 subjects review, was respectively more than 3.5 (total score 5). Declaring level of training needs in a few cases had significant difference with type of universities, sex, age, work experience, educational level, MPH courses, headquarters units and the current location of the people. (P<0.05)
    Conclusion
    According to the very high level of announced requirements, it is suggested to have short term and long term management training courses.
    Keywords: Needs assessment, Health Facility Administrators, Allied Health Personnel, Education
  • Gholamhossein Halvani, Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh, Hossein Fallah, Nadjme Hajian, Morteza Mortezavi Mehrizi Page 176
    Introduction
    Psychological and social health is the main problems of workers population, which can increase productivity at work and physical and mental health and provide or decline in these aspects.
    Materials And Methods
    this study was descriptive and crosses - sectional and has been performed on 388 Iranian central iron ore company workers. The tool of study was standard GHQ-28 question are that has been measured under social performance scale.
    Results
    49.3 and 49 percent of the people have favorable and average score from the state of the social function condition and 1.8 percent of people have severe social dysfunction and besides the employees have less work experienced that have more social dysfunction and there is a relationship between the P = 0.026. With satisfaction with the status of social dysfunction (P = 0) and with the consent of the income (P = 0) there is significant relationship.
    Conclusion
    In this study, a significant percentage of mineworkers were not in good condition from health, social functioning. It reveals the importance of addressing health issues and vulnerable working class, Intervention studies conducted by employers to improve job satisfaction and increased income and received social support from him, can increase the health indicators related to the body and mind.
    Keywords: Public Health, Mental Health, Occupational Health, Social Work
  • Ali Jafari Nodoushan, Naser Mohammadi Ahmadabad, Tayyebe Barfe, Reza Jafari Nodoushan Page 185
    Introduction
    Presence of mentally retarded children in every family affects on the structure and mental health of family specially parents. The purpose of this research is the comparison of the mean of psychological well-being, mental health and self-esteem between parents of normal and educable students.
    Materials and Methods
    This was causal- comparative and retrospective study and the instruments were three questionnaire of self-esteem, public mental health GHQ and psychological well-being. Self-esteem questionnaire is including three scales of academic performance, social evaluation and external evaluation. The GHQ questionnaire is consisted of 28 items while psychological well-being questionnaire include 19 item for life satisfaction, 13 item for happiness and optimism, 8 item for growth and development, 8 item for positive relationship with others and 10 item for autonomy. The results were analysed by SPSS software.
    Results
    This research showed that normal students parents have more psychological well-being than educable students’ parents, moreover two groups of educable and normal students parents are equal in mental health and self-esteem structure and there isn''t significant difference between them.
    Conclusion
    This research showed that psychological well-being in educable students’ parents is lower than normal students’ parents. Thus it is suggested that educational organization of exceptional children arrange courses for improving psychological well-being of educable students’ parents.
  • Saeid Saeida Ardakani, Shahnaz Nayebzadeh, Fatima Motamedi Zade, Mahmood Reza Rakhshani, Mahdi Rakhshani, Nadjme Hajian, Ibrahim Salmani Nodoushan, Reza Dehnavieh Page 192
    Introduction
    Cost estimation is a important tool which assist the managers to plan and to control the economic functions of the organization. The present study aims to identify the cost of a cesarean surgery in one of the first class public hospitals in Iran.
    Methodology
    Reviewing all expenses of the hospital documents in the financial unit, the cost of a cesarean surgery was determined through real costing.
    Results
    the findings revealed that the cost of such a surgery is 1812636 rials, among which the highest level was related to the direct labor possesses with 63 percent and overhead costs with 37 percent of the total costs.
    Conclusion
    Reducing the number of women who like cesarean surgery causes a reduction in costs of the surgery. Mitigating the tendency toward this surgery is possible through changing in the women’s beliefs about the vaginal delivery along with the enhancements in facilities and standards of the vaginal delivery. It is suggested to educate and consult with the families through health centers and media.
    Keywords: Hospitals, economics, Costs, Cost Analysis, Cesarean Section, Economics, Medical, Hospital Costs
  • Mehdi Behjati Ardakani, Mehdi Zare, Sakineh Mahdavi, Mohsen Ghezavati, Hossein Fallah, Gholamhossein Halvani, Shahram Ghanizadeh, Alireza Bagheraat Page 198
    Introduction
    Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH) and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction.
    Results
    In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01). In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest.
    Conclusion
    This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.
    Keywords: job Satisfaction, Workplace, Stress, Psychological, Occupational Health, Industry