فهرست مطالب

مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای - پیاپی 15 (زمستان 1391)
  • پیاپی 15 (زمستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/12/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سید هادی کهنه پوشی*، علی اکبر عنابستانی صفحات 1-20

    کالاهای قاچاق از مناطق مرزی وارد می شوند، بنابراین، مرزها از این لحاظ دارای اهمیت زیادی هستند. از مناطق مرزی مهم خاورمیانه که دست خوش حوادث گوناگونی بوده است، مناطق مرزی ایران با کشورهای همسایه اش است. قاچاق در کشور ایران به دلیل شرایط خاص جغرافیایی برای ورود و خروج کالا و نبود شرایط با ثبات در کشورهای همسایه، بسیار قابل توجه است. هدف این تحقیق، بررسی وجود یا عدم وجود رابطه بین میزان فاصله روستاهای بخش خاو و میرآباد مریوان از مرز و اثرگذاری قاچاق در آن ها است. روش پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و بنا بر روش توصیفی و همبستگی است. روستاهای بخش خاو و میرآباد شهرستان مریوان جامعه آماری این تحقیق است. برای گردآوری اطلاعات با توجه به فاصله روستاها از مرز با روش نمونه گیری طبقه بندی شده و به صورت تصادفی 5 روستا انتخاب و برای پرسشگری با استفاده از رابطه کوکران 140 خانوار به عنوان نمونه مورد سوال قرار گرفته اند. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که رابطه ای معکوس میان میزان درآمد، قاچاق کالا و فاصله از مرز با ضریب 499/0- در روش پیرسون و 580/0- در روش اسپیرمن با سطح معناداری 01/0 وجود دارد. همچنین بین تعداد افراد مشغول به قاچاق در روستاها و میزان فاصله از مرز، رابطه معناداری مشاهده شد. به این صورت که در روستاهای نزدیک مرز، تعداد افراد مشغول به قاچاق کالا افزایش پیدا می کند، تا جایی که به 100 درصد می رسد و با فاصله گرفتن از مرز در روستاهای با فاصله متوسط یا دور از مرز، این میزان کاهش پیدا می کند، تا جایی که به 3/33 درصد (حدود یک سوم) کاهش پیدا می کند. این یافته ها نشان دهنده اثرگذاری قاچاق کالا در روستاهای مرزی نسبت به روستاهای دورتر از مرز است. با توجه به یافته های پژوهش راهکارهای اجرایی مناسب فعالیت های اشتغالی جایگزین قاچاق با توجه به توانمندی های منطقه است.

    کلیدواژگان: قاچاق کالا، اشتغال، درآمدزایی، روستاهای مرزی، اقتصاد روستایی
  • مهرداد کرمی، شهلا چوبچیان، خلیل کلانتری صفحات 21-36
    ا مروزه یکی از مسایل اساسی پیش روی مدیران و برنامه ریزان تخصیص منابع به نقاطی است که پتانسیل بازدهی سرمایه را دارند و منافع اقتصادی و اجتماعی برای جامعه به همراه دارند. این نقاط با استفاده از روش های مکان یابی که در واقع استعدادهای فضایی و غیر فضایی یک سرزمین را برای انتخاب مکان مناسب کاربری خاص، ارزیابی و تجزیه و تحلیل می کنند، انتخاب می شوند. مکان یابی مناسب وقتی صورت می پذیرد که یک ارزیابی دقیق، همگون و سریع از جذابیت مکان های مختلف برای کاربری مورد نظر وجود داشته باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر انتخاب مکان بهینه برای ایجاد بازارچه های صنایع دستی در استان خراسان جنوبی است که با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی و به کمک نرم افزار Expert choice به انجام رسیده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان دهنده آن است که ایجاد چنین بازارچه هایی در مراکز این شهرستان ها، از ابعاد مختلف اقتصادی، به علت دو مقوله مهم کارایی و اثربخشی، مقرون به صرفه تر است. در این میان با توجه به نتایج حاصله شهرستان بیرجند و به تبع آن شهر بیرجند بیشترین پتانسیل برای استقرار این بازارچه ها را دارا است. و برای استقرار بازارچه ها در سطح شهر بیرجند به ترتیب: قلعه بیرجند، ارگ کلاه فرنگی و باغ شوکت آباد پیشنهاد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی فضایی، برنامه ریزی گردشگری، مکان یابی، بازارچه های صنایع دستی، استان خراسان جنوبی
  • سیداسکندر صیدایی، زهرا هدایتی مقدم، عفت فتحی، معصومه جمشیدی، علیرضا جمشیدی صفحات 37-52
    وضعیت مطلوب مسکن در نواحی شهری و روستایی یکی از شاخص های توسعه اقتصادی اجتماعی در کشورهای جهان محسوب می شود. تدوین یک برنامه جامع در بخش مسکن به منظور دستیابی به وضعیت مطلوب مستلزم شناسایی و تجزیه و تحلیل ابعاد گسترده این بخش است. از راه های مهم آگاهی از وضعیت مسکن در فرایند برنامه ریزی های منطقه ای، استفاده از شاخص های مسکن است. این شاخص ها که نشان دهنده وضعیت کمی و کیفی مساکن در هر مقطع زمانی است راهنمایی موثر برای بهبود برنامه ریزی مسکن آینده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از شاخص های مسکن به بررسی وضعیت مسکن مناطق روستایی شهرستان های استان اصفهان و سطح بندی نواحی روستایی آن با استفاده از این شاخص ها پرداخته است. روش تحقیق مبتنی بر روش اسنادی، توصیفی و همبستگی است و اطلاعات مورد نیاز از نتایج سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن سال 1385 استان اصفهان استخراج شده است که از میان 52 متغیر مربوط به مسکن، 18 شاخص استخراج شده و مناسب بودن آنها از طریق آزمون KMO ارزیابی شده است. شاخص های انتخابی با روش تحلیل عاملی به 5 عامل تقلیل یافت که این عوامل جمعا 249/86 درصد واریانس را در بر می گیرند. در بین 5 عامل فوق، عامل زیربنایی به تنهایی 414/26 درصد واریانس را پوشش می دهد که تاثیر گذار ترین عامل در مطالعه است. به منظور سطح بندی نواحی همگن روستایی از روش تحلیل خوشه ایاستفاده و نقاط روستایی استان به 7 گروه همگن طبقه بندی شده اند که بر اساس آن مناطق روستایی شهرستان اصفهان در بالاترین سطح و مناطق روستایی شهرستانهای نجف آباد، تیران و کرون، نطنز، کاشان، خوانسار، آران و بیدگل، گلپایگان و سمیرم سفلی در پایین ترین سطح از نظر برخورداری از شاخص های مسکن قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل خوشه ای، شاخص های مسکن، نواحی روستایی استان اصفهان
  • علی موحد، سعید امان پور، رضا زارعی صفحات 53-74
    اهواز یکی از کلان شهرهای کشور است که به دلیل آلودگی های صنایع وابسته به نفت، آب و هوای گرم و مرطوب، طولانی بودن فصل گرما و همچنین هوای توام با گرد و خاک، شهروندان این شهر علاقه مند به مسافرت به سایر مناطق خوش آب و هوا می شوند. بنابراین، مکانی یابی تفرجگاهی با موقعیت مناسب اقلیمی، در استان خوزستان به منظور استفاده شهروندان این کلان شهر ضروری است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی جایگاه تفرجگاهی مال آقا برای شهر اهواز تدوین شده است. روش تحقیق ترکیبی از روش توصیفی و تحلیلی با ماهیت کاربردی است. در این پژوهش سه الگوی تعیین حوزه نفوذ گردشگاهی کلان شهرها (الگوی حد نهایی حوزه گردشگاهی کلان شهرها، الگوی رابرت و الگوی مسافت استاندارد) مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و با واقعیت های موجود بین شهر اهواز و تفرجگاه مال آقا تطابق داده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان دهنده آن است که از سه مدل فوق به دلیل طولانی بودن مسیر اهواز تا مال آقا، کاربردی برای بررسی تعیین حوزه گردشگاهی شهر اهواز ندارند؛ به همین منظور استفاده از متغیر اقلیم در تعدیل مدل پیشنهاد شده است. بررسی ها نشان می دهد که متغیر اقلیم نقش مهمی در تعیین مسافت جاذبه های پیرامونی شهر اهواز دارد. بنابراین، فاصله زیاد شهر تا روستای مال آقا تاثیری بر سفر شهروندان به این مکان ندارد. در نتیجه با ایجاد زیرساخت های گردشگری در روستای مال آقا می توان این منطقه را به عنوان تفرجگا هی مطمئن با امکانات مناسب برای شهر اهواز تدارک دید.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، گردشگری روستایی، تفرجگاه پیرامونی، مال آقا، اهواز
  • حسن کامران، داود امینی *، حسن حسینی امینی صفحات 75-88

    امروزه با پیشرفت های صورت گرفته در فناوری تسلیحات و تجهیزات نظامی، مناطق مسکونی شهری بیشتر در معرض خطر تهاجم قرار گرفته است. از مهم ترین عوامل افزایش دهنده تلفات انسانی در حملات نظامی به مناطق شهری، معماری غیراستاندارد و غیرمنطبق مساکن با اصولی همچون مکان گزینی و جانمایی بهینه ساختمان، پراکندگی مناسب بنا، رعایت اصول اختفاء، استتار و فریب، درجه مرمت پذیری بالای ساختمان و معماری داخلی ساختمان در ارتباط با پدافند غیرعامل است. آرایش فضاهای ساختمانی و نحوه ارتباط با پیرامون، امکانات ویژه ای را برای نجات جان افراد ایجاد نموده و باعث بهبود عملکرد سیستم و کاهش آسیب پذیری آن می شود. این تحقیق با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی به دنبال بررسی نقش پدافند غیر عامل در برنامه ریزی مسکن شهری است که نتایج کلی آن در راستای ایجاد شهر ایمن، شهر قدرت و شهر بازدارنده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که تعیین طرح هندسی بنا، موقعیت بازشوها، نحوه دسترسی و پیش بینی فضای امن به عنوان فضای چند عملکردی برای هر ساختمان در زمان صلح و جنگ از جمله مولفه های بهینه معماری ساختمان و معماری بومی از منظر پدافند غیرعامل است.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی شهری، مسکن شهری، معماری ساختمان، پدافند غیرعامل
  • نادر زالی، جواد پورفتحی صفحات 89-104
    حاشیه نشینی همواره در طول چند دهه اخیر چالش اصلی شهرها بوده است و بعد از تجربیات مختلف برخورد قهری، آنچه که اکنون توسط سازمان های بین المللی توصیه شده، رویکرد توانمندسازی است که به جای حمایت های مالی، بر توانمندسازی حاشیه نشینان با تاکید بر ماهیت درونزایی حل مشکل استوار شده است. روش این تحقیق اسنادی و پیمایشی است و با هدف تحلیل کلی از وضعیت اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی محلات حاشیه نشین شهر اهر و تلاش برای ارائه راهکارهایی برای ساماندهی آنها است. در این تحقیق حاشیه نشینان شهر اهر به عنوان محدوده پژوهش در 4 محله اصلی شناسایی و بررسی شده اند. حجم نمونه از طریق رابطه کوکران به تعداد 320 نمونه تصادفی مشخص شده و ویژگی های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، کالبدی و فضایی محلات مذکور به وسیله پرسشنامه گردآوری و با نرم ا ف زار SPSS تحلیل شده است. همچنین با استفاده از رویکرد SWOT ضمن شناسایی مشکلات، راهکارهای توانمندسازی در ابعاد مختلف کالبدی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی ارائه شده است. نتایج نشان دهنده آن است که بیش از 90 درصد ساکنان محله های حاشیه نشین از روستاهای اطراف شهرستان اهر به این محلات مهاجرت کرده اند که در شله بران این رقم نزدیک به 95 درصد است. همچنین بیش از 80 درصد مهاجرت ها به صورت خانواری است و مهاجرت انفرادی کمتر از 20 درصد است. از نظر شغلی نیز به طور متوسط 45 درصد ساکنان کارگر هستند که متوسط درآمد آنها بین 150-100 هزار تومان است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد محلا ت شله بران و نیروگاه از وضعیت اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی محرومتری برخوردار بوده و محله چلب وردی نسبت به سایر محلات از وضعیت مناسبی برخوردار است. مشکل مالکیت، وضعیت نامناسب مسکن، سیستم دفع فاضلاب و دسترسی ها از جمله مشکلات جدی ساکنان است.
    کلیدواژگان: اسکان غیر رسمی، توانمندسازی، شهراهر، حاشیه نشینی، مشکلات شهری
  • میرنجف موسوی، حسن حیدری، علی باقری کشکولی صفحات 105-122
    اهمیت سرمایه اجتماعی در فرآیند نوسازی شهری به عنوان ظرفیت های درونی و ثروت های پنهان در محلات، یک اقدام غیرمتمرکز و از پایین به بالا است. این پژوهش با هدف تحلیل فضایی رابطه میان سرمایه اجتماعی و برنامه های نوسازی و بهسازی بافت فرسوده شهر سردشت است روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری، 10 محله بافت فرسوده با 25 شاخص مختلف برای سنجش وضعیت موجود در شاخص های جمعیتی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی و تعداد 512 نفر از ساکنان محلات برای مقوله سرمایه اجتماعی در 5 مولفه است. با بهره گیری از مدل تاپسیس و روش وزن دهی آنتروپی به رتبه بندی محلات شهر سردشت در شاخص اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی و... پرداخته شده است. بر اساس نتایج بررسی ها محله 3 به عنوان پایدارترین محله و محلات 9 و 10 به عنوان محلات حاشیه ای، ناپایدارترین محلات شناخته شده اند. همچنین بیشترین میزان سرمایه اجتماعی متعلق به محله 3 که حدود 2/81 درصد و کمترین میزان مربوط به محله 10 در حدود 3/32 درصد است. با بهره گیری از مدل تحلیل خوشه ایK میانگین، محلات بافت فرسوده از نظر سرمایه اجتماعی در سه گروه سطح بندی شد که محلات 3، 6 و 8 بالاترین میزان سرمایه اجتماعی و سه محله 4، 9 و 10 در سطح پایین سرمایه اجتماعی قرار دارند. ضریب همبستگی بین تعداد جمعیت و سرمایه اجتماعی 921/0 با سطح معناداری 99 درصد است. با بهره گیری از نرم افزار SPSS و استفاده از ضریب رگرسیونی عوامل و ابعاد تاثیرگذار سرمایه اجتماعی در نوسازی و بهسازی بافت فرسوده محلات شهر سردشت مشخص گردید. نتایج نشان می دهد مشارکت اجتماعی، اعتماد اجتماعی، تعاون و همیاری دارای رابطه معنادار با نوسازی و بهسازی بافت فرسوده محلات و علاقه به جامعه، روابط خانوادگی و دوستان به دلیل ارتباط ضعیف با نوسازی و بهسازی، معنادار نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه های اجتماعی، نوسازی و بهسازی، بافت فرسوده، شهر سردشت، آذربایجان غربی
  • نجما اسمعیل پور، محمدحسن رحیمیان، سحر قربانی صفحات 123-140
    بافت های فرسوده حاشیه ای اغلب در زمره مناطق محروم شهر از نظر اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی هستند و این امر عامل نارضایتی ساکنان، عدم پویایی و رونق حیات شهری در آنهاست. محله کشتارگاه از بافت های فرسوده شهر یزد است و وجه تسمیه آن به استقرار کشتارگاه شهر و واحدهای مرتبط با آن در این محدوده بازمی گردد. اکنون کشتارگاه و بسیاری از فضاهای مرتبط از محله خارج شده اند، اما پسمانده های غیرفعال و گاه فعال، تغییر کاربری برخی از این فضاها به کاربری های ناسازگار، ادامه اطلاق نام کشتارگاه، فرسودگی بافت و... موجب استقرار گروه های فرودست در این محدوده شده و زمینه بروز مشکلات فراوان را فراهم آورده است چنانکه نه تنها گرایشی از طرف سایر شهروندان شهر به ویژه طبقات اجتماعی متوسط و بالاتر برای سکونت در آن وجود ندارد، بلکه ساکنان کنونی هم در صورت فراهم شدن شرایط مهاجرت، تمایل به ترک محله دارند. هدف مقاله حاضر که با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و استفاده از تکنیک گروه های بحث انجام شده است، جستجوی راه های ارتقاء شاخص های سکونت در این محله با تکیه بر پاسخگویی به سئوالات ذیل است: آیا پدیده فقر اقتصادی، فقر اجتماعی- فرهنگی و فقر خدماتی به طور نسبی بر این سکونتگاه انسانی حاکمیت دارد و مردم آمادگی زدودن آنرا از محیط سکونت خود دارند؟ شیوه مناسب برای ارتقاء کیفیت سکونت در محله کدام است؟ نقش مردم و دولت در این خصوص چیست؟ براساس نتایج تحقیق: اهالی محله کشتارگاه؛ مردمانی کم درآمد و فقیر هستند؛ که عزم جدی برای همکاری و مشارکت در مراحل مختلف پروژه های فقرزدایی را دارند و بالاخره راهبرد بسیج اجتماعی شیوه مناسبی برای ارتقا شرایط مردم و سکونت در محله کشتارگاه است. در این رابطه، مردم با تشکیل گروه های بحث، قادر به شناسایی مشکلات و ریشه یابی آنها در محله خود هستند تا متناسب با هر مشکل، نقش خود و سازمان های محلی را برای حل آن و ارتقای شرایط سکونت، بر عهده بگیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: بافت فرسوده، فقر، محله کشتارگاه، بازآفرینی، بسیج اجتماعی، مشارکت مردمی
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  • H. Kohnepooshi, A. A. Aanabestani Pages 1-20
    Introduction

    The subject of free trade and paying attention to marketing strategies and attracting customers can be considered as one of the significant factors in economic growth and development nowadays، so that many governments consider the international trade as one of the important priorities in their macroeconomic policy agenda. Currently the definition of smuggling and trafficking is not limited solely to the entry and exit within geographic borders of a country، rather، the illegal storage and distribution and transportation of goods in the country is also act of smuggling. Trafficking problem in our country due to geographical conditions for entry and exit of goods and lack of stability in neighboring countries is very significant. The aim of this research is to review and assess the existence of a relationship between the distance from border and degree of impact of trafficking in the “khav and mirabad” rural areas. The main research question thus arises: how the distance from the border has affected smuggling activities and its position in the income of rural households? Related to the general research question، the following hypotheses are offered: It seems that the distance from the borders affects the rate of employment of residents of the «Khav and Myrabad» villages in goods smuggling. It seems that the distance from the borders affects the amount of income earned by residents of the «Khav and Myrabad» villages in the goods smuggling activity. Theoretical bases: This research is based on descriptive - analytical and statistical methods. The required data were provided on the basis of documentation، literature review and field studies. The main tools used to gather the required data were questionnaires and interviews. Computer programs such as SPSS software was used for the purpose of data analysis. The study population consists of 32 villages «Khav and Myrabad» district in the township of Marivan and stratified sampling method based on the distance from the border of five villages with a population of 3،634 persons in 764 households was chosen. The sample size was determined based on Sharp - Cochran formula of the total studied rural households in 140 samples، which were distributed based on the principle of proportionality between the villages.

    Discussion

    Research findings show that 43. 8 percent of income is coming from smuggling activities; while activities such as agriculture and animal husbandry have not significant role in the economy of rural households. The Pearson correlation coefficient of -0. 299 and also Spearmen correlation coefficient of -0. 380 at the significance level of 0. 01 was indicated for the relationship between the amount of income by smuggling and the distance from border. This means that with increasing distance from border، the smuggling and the amount of income from these kinds of activities decreases and vice versa.

    Conclusion

    Trafficking and especially goods smuggling has different effects in the border villages. This problem has different impacts in different places and times and therefore requires a coherent strategy to tackle this issue and eliminate it. Test of the first hypothesis indicates that، in general، the main job or sub-70 percent of the respondents constitute smuggling. This means that 70 percent of rural households rely on smuggling revenues and this activity has a positive influence on income of households residing in this area. Althogh this amount varies amongst villages studied based on the distance from the border. This indicates that، in villages near the border، this amount increases to 80 to 100 percent and in villages far from the frontier، severely reducing the amount of people involved in smuggling goods to come forward and 33. 3% decreases. But for the second hypothesis، the Pearson correlation coefficient of -0. 499 and also Spearmen correlation coefficient of -0. 580 at the significance level of 0. 01 was obtained for the relationship between the amount of income by smuggling and the distance from border. This means that، with increasing distance from border، the smuggling and the amount of smuggling income decreases and vice versa. Therefore impact of distance from border on the amount of income earned by residents of the «Khav and Myrabad» villages from smuggling activity is confirmed. Suggestions: Some suggested guidelines for the optimal use of available resources in order to reduce unemployment، creating jobs and decreasing the impact of smuggling activities in rural households economies can be mentioned below: Reducing the state intervention in production activity in the studied area. Investing in rural small industries that have high employment potential. Developing agriculture in the studied area with wells and exploitation of underground water resources. Activating cross-border market in this district for the development of trade between Iran and Iraq.

    Keywords: smuggling, employment, generating income, border villages, rural economy
  • M. Karami, Sh. Choobchian, Kh. Kalantari Pages 21-36
    Introduction
    Today، one of the essential issues facing managers and planners is allocating resources to the spots which have the potentials to reserve the capital and provide the society with social and economic interests. In addition، finding a suitable spot has been the main concern of managers and planners، i. e. managers and planners، because of the resource deficiency، prefer to allocate the resources to the best places. In this regard، planners since a long time ago have tried to find out methods of choosing the best spot to centralize the industries and activities. Finding a scientific location finding method has always been a main concern of the planners. In this regard، selecting effective criteria in choosing the best spot and using suitable models to modulate data are considered as significant. In the paper، using modern methods of spotting (Hierarchical Analysis) and taking economic، social aspects into account، some spots to establish markets for handicrafts in South Khorasan Province were suggested. Theoretical bases: Simultaneously with the development of industry and its social and economic aftermaths، spotting theories to increase productivity of industrial activities and decrease their negative results and economic losses were offered. The theories have been proposed by thinkers such as: August Losch، A. Weber، Walter Isard، Greenhut، Smith، Palander، Lanhard، Christaler and Micheal Rawstron. Affected by the systemic approaches to the late 1970s issues، spotting theories had a try at concurrent modulation of two previous theories. In this approach activities and industries must be located in a way that it generates the difference between costs and incomes (profit) as large as possible for the economic managers. The AHP method، as one of the most modern methods of spotting industry، made the proposed statement so easy by changing attitude، not very unexpectedly، so that it can be certainly used as the most efficient and unmistakable method (Fernandez، 2009).
    Discussion
    The process of selecting optimal spots to locate the handicrafts market in South Khorasan Province The first stage in locating markets of handicrafts in South Khorasan Province includes establishing hierarchy، weighting and selecting، which is described as follow: Establishing hierarchy Creating a graphic display is the first stage in the process of hierarchical analysis، in which، the objectives، criteria and options are showed (Ramanathan، 2001). Figure 1 shows hierarchical choices of suitable townships in order of priority for locating handicraft markets over the province. The criteria include:
    Conclusion
    Studies indicated that firstly، regarding the abovementioned components as well as efficiency and effectiveness as the two important components، these markets in the townships are more economical and can facilitate its development. This is due to a great part of the tourism attractions and the necessary facilities which were located in the townships. Secondly، according to table 2 Birjand enjoys a higher importance rate than the other spots of the Province. In this regard، based on the results of the mentioned indicators and the in-depth interviews conducted with the experts of Tourism، Cultural heritage and Handicrafts of the Province and other related experts، three spots were suggested to locate markets for handicraft industry in Birjand، which are mentioned below. Suggestions: Based on the results of the hierarchical analysis، three sites are suggested to establish markets in Birjand، which follow in order of priority: First priority: Birjand Castle Second priority: Akbariyeh Garden Third priority: The market located at Modarres Street.
    Keywords: Tourism, Markets for handicraft industry, Hierarchical analysis, South Khorasan Province
  • S. E. Seidaiy, Z. Hedayati Moghaddam, E. Fathi, M. Jamshidi, A. Jamshidi Pages 37-52
    Introduction
    Nowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley، et al.، 2005:237). Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor، 2010:125). In Iran، the issue of rural housing، on different aspects، has been affected by urban housing. housing provision has always been one of the problems of many people، especially low-income families in rural areas. Non-availability of suitable and standard housing، which is an index of rural development، causes psychological and social damage in rural people''s lives، interruption and irregularity in rural housing structures، and ultimately social and economic crises in national level. Therefore، the issue of appropriate planning and policy making for housing and access to a desirable model for rural residents is a major concern of rural planners (Lotfi، 2010:105). One of the important ways of having knowledge of rural condition in the process of rural planning is the use of rural housing indicators (Azizi، 2006:26). Theoretical bases: Rural housing is a coordinated structure consistent with economic، social and cultural structure of rural area that has essential differences with urban housing. In fact، the expectations of two urban and rural societies from housing are not the same. In cities، nowadays، houses mostly have the role of dormitory or resort، while in rural areas people expect more from the housing. For a rural person، housing، besides being a resort unit، is also considered as an economic functional unit (Papoliyazdi، 1994:490). Based on the policies enforced and the amount of government intervention in the housing issue، there are two distinct lines of thought among housing scholars and researchers: market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy، housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick، 1987:88، Ziyari، et al.، 210:4). In planned economy government has the role of planner، designer and manager (Aghasi، 1996:201، Chadwick، 1987:88، Shucksmith، 2003:213). In Islam''s ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency، and eradication of poverty in the society.
    Discussion
    To evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province، first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1); then، in line with goals of research، we will go through the following steps: Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators، Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators، And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators. Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis)، analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed.
    Conclusion
    According to the research objectives، in the first phase، of the 52 variables related to housing، 22 indicators were extracted. Before conducting factor analysis، the suitability of data set for this analysis was evaluated through KOM [1] and BTS [2] tests. At the end 18 indicators were used in the calculations. Selected indicators reduced to 5 through the factor analysis and the total variance accounted for by these indicators is 86. 249%. Among these 5 factors، one named fundamental factor with 26. 314% variance alone is the most influential factor in this study. In order to classify homogeneous rural areas، cluster analysis has been used، by which، the rural areas of the province were classified into seven homogeneous groups; based on which، the rural areas of the city of Isfahan have the highest level and Najaf Abad، Tyran-Va-Karvn، Natanz، Kashan، Khansar، Aran-Va-Bydgl، Golpayegan and Semirom Sofla have the lowest level of housing indicators. Suggestions: Considering the importance of housing issue، to achieve the desired situation and eliminate the heterogeneity، it is necessary that lower level areas be given higher priority. Also considering the reality of different climatic conditions in different areas of the province، areas in each homogeneous group have not necessarily the same natural environment; therefore، it is necessary to provide suitable model for each area so that effective and practical planning towards improvement of housing situation be achieved.
    Keywords: factor analysis, cluster analysis, housing indicators, rural areas of Isfahan province
  • A. Movahed, S. Amanpoor, R. Zarei Pages 53-74
    Introduction
    Today، the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable. Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution، oil-dependent industries، hot and humid weather، having a long hot and dusty season، the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore، it is necessary to locate a place with appropriate climate in the province. In this study، we use the descriptive combination and analytical method and this research is applied. We aim to examine three patterns: the final level pattern walkway areas of major cities، Robert pattern and standard distance pattern. Results show that، because of the long distance between Ahvaz and Malaga، the above-mentioned models could not determine Ahvaz walkway field. Theoretical bases: The Tourism has expressed as the specific spatial patterns. One of them is spatial patterns of urban tourism. Urban areas are important tourism places because they have historical and cultural attractions. The major cities have many diverse attractions، including museums، monuments، theaters، sports stadiums، parks، toy city، Shopping centers، and places of historical and architectural sites of important events with famous people. Moreover، if the tourist attractions are located in rural areas، urban movement supports the objective location. To examine the influence of large urban parks، three methods are used that are: A - The final model of the metropolitan park B - Robert pattern C - Standard distance model
    Discussion
    There are three different variations of climate in Khuzestan province: desert climate، semi desert climate and mountainous climate that are suitable for tourism. Ahvaz city has taken in desert climatology; therefore، there is a need for amusement places at mountainous climates. As map 2 shows there is a 200 km distance between Ahvaz and Malagha; thus، it can be a suitable place to attract tourists in Ahvaz city. In the previous issue of the metropolitan area of the walkway in Ahwaz based on Robert، it was found to be 39 km. It seems that the proposed index for the city of Ahvaz is not generalizable to all seasons. So that، in the longest period of tourism (summer)، according to the climate characteristics of the region، the index reaches to more than 100 km. To determine the influence of travel distance، the standard model of distance is used to determine the pattern of metropolitan Ahvaz. For this purpose، a moderate center in the metropolitan area is selected.
    Conclusion
    We aimed to examine three patterns: the final level pattern walkway areas of major cities، Robert pattern and standard distance pattern. Results show that، because of the long distance between Ahvaz and Malaga، the above-mentioned models could not determine Ahvaz walkway field. Because of four-season climate of Iran، more recreational and tourism travel is based on climatic differences between regions of the country. The positive point regarding Malaqa region tourism attractions is that citizens are not forced to leave the province because Malaqa is the most proper place in the province. Ahvaz region''s climate is different from Malaga; Ahvaz is a desert region and many citizens like mountain regions; so، they choose Malaqa for tourism. The far distance (186 km) is accountable. Statistical analysis show that Ahvaz citizens welcome this region and they spend part of their time in Malaqa. Tourism infrastructure is undesirable in Malaqa but this recreation place can be enough for citizens if infrastructures are provided in this region.
    Keywords: Tourism, Rural tourism, nearby resorts, Malaqa, Ahvaz
  • H. Kamran, D. Amini, H. Hossaini Amini Pages 75-88
    Introduction

    Today، with advances in the technology of weapons and military equipment، urban areas are most at risk of invasion. Among the most important factors in enhancing human casualties in military attacks on urban areas، one can point to the unrealistic architecture of houses which does not conform to principles such as optimal site selection and layout of the structure of human settlements، proper distribution، principles of concealment، camouflage and deception، the high degree of vulnerability of buildings and interior architecture of buildings with regard to passive defense. Structural arrangement of spaces and their connection with surrounding areas has created great opportunities for saving lives And improves system performance and reduces its vulnerability. This study with a descriptive-qualitative approach، investigates the role of passive defense in urban housing planning and the conclusions are used to create safe city، strong city and deterrent city. Results show that determining the geometric design of house، pop location، availability and predictability of secure spaces are regarded as multi-functional space for each building in times of peace and war are among the optimal components of building architecture and vernacular architecture from the perspective of a passive defense. Crises، threats and disasters are classified into two main categories: natural، including earthquakes، floods، landslides، droughts and human category such as war، accidents and diseases which are more than 50 types. The main objective of this study is investigating crisis caused by war in residential areas. In the full-scale military conflicts، one of the ultimate goals of the parties involved is making an effort to bring the breadth and scope of the battlefield to civilian centers especially to urban centers، which is usually accompanied by heavy air strikes. This act is one of the most effective strategies in the fate of wars. Dragging wars to residential areas is usually accompanied by extensive damage and high human casualties and if there is no planning at macro measures in peacetime، during the war casualties would be double and it would bring terrible psychological burden for politicians and top military commanders. Among the main factors increasing the number of people killed and injured in the military attacks we can point to security attacks and natural and unexpected disasters occurring in urban areas and the high vulnerability of buildings which are resulted from the improper planning of housing، inadequate spatial layout and structured problems، construction engineering problems (unsafe structures and fortifications)، inappropriate architecture (not anticipating the shelter، open spaces، etc.)، non-standard communication networks and etc. Thus، regarding key principles underlying passive defense in buildings can be considered as bedrock for the development of sustainable security in urban areas. Another major cause of casualties in urban warfare is the population growth in urban areas due to excessive migration and unplanned growth of non-standard and unsafe human settlements in the margin of urban areas (e. g. Tehran metropolitan). So that in 1900، 29% of the world population lived in urban areas and in 1950، this rate increased to 49% and according to UN statistics; in 2010 this percentage was more than 75% (Vautravers، 2010، p. 438). Theoretical bases: The main objective of this study was to investigate and analyze structural and architectural factors affecting patterns of planning and design of housing in urban areas in order to deal with the effects of enemy invasion to residential areas and based on this، the hypothesis of the study has been developed which seems that the optimal pattern of planning of urban settlements and giving priority to housing planning based on defensive architecture and passive defense principles are among the major factors in reducing casualties and financial losses in residential areas during the crisis. The research method was descriptive - analytical. Data were gathered and analyzed through sources and documents available in libraries.

    Discussion

    Urban housing Housing is one of the affect ive indicators in the mortality caused by military invasion to the cities. Since housing is known as the basic of urban fabric. The housing issue is broad and complex and has various dimensions. Housing has a physical location and is regarded as a shelter، basic and primary need of individuals. In this shelter، some of the family or individual''s primary needs such as food، rest، and protection against environmental conditions are met (Pourmohammadi، 2009، 3). Housing planning is part of the urban planning in which residential units are considered as part of the deformed and adopted spaces which will be considered with regard to their subjects in the housing planning framework. Based on this، housing planning deals with allocating habitable spaces to needs of residential housing and paying attention to the limitation of resources and the use of special techniques، theories with social، cultural، political and economic frameworks. Passive defense principles in the design and construction of urban human settlements Defensive architecture of the building is presented in order to get ready for more attacks against military and other natural disasters. Passive defense considerations in housing are crystallized in three categories of architecture، structural strength and installations. In architecture، attending principles such as optimal site selection and layout of buildings، the proper dispersion، observing such principles as camouflage، concealment and deception principles and high-grade restoration of interior architecture of buildings is important (Faraji Mollaei and Azimi، 2011، 998). The structural arrangement and connection with surrounding areas has provided great resources to save lives and has improved the system performance and reduced its vulnerability. Determining the geometric design، pop location، availability and predicting secure spaces as multiple performance spaces for each building in peacetime and war are the responsibility of architects. Architects should design the space to suit the needs of the user so that in addition to the defensive performance in the time of war، it has appropriate use in time of peace (21st issue of the National Building Regulations، 2009، 3-4). The structural aspect of buildings deals with how to design the building to resist the explosive loads. This work is the responsibility of Structural Engineers. In order to have the right structural system and choosing the appropriate section of the building for secure space، architectural plans must be coordinated with the structural issue. In the facility sector، it is to prevent the damage caused by the blast effects، such as gas leaks، flooding، electrical hazards، fire and installing alarm system. Limited utilization capacity or variability of building facility systems consistent with the desired performance is considered by facilities engineers.

    Conclusion

    Urban housing planning must be designed and implemented under this title. In addition to attending the social، economic and security issues، it should seek to achieve the goal of increasing the nation''s capacity to deal with threats and potential harms and to promote empowerment and national tolerance for dealing with emergency situations. From the discussed issue، we can conclude that it is possible to decrease the severity and extent of damage caused by enemy attacks during crises cassette through applying appropriate architecture measures with a defensive approach، considering the 16 principles of passive defense consistent with the physical and special properties of cities and especially in urban residential areas، while creating beautiful spaces without compromising space and their functionality and without spending too much cost. This work involves the national resolute determination of relevant organizations which is possible with the cooperation and synergy of organizations. Suggestions: In order to reach housing programs with an appropriate level of safety based on passive defense principles the following suggestions are offered: Comprehensive housing plan for the development of quality of buildings along its quantitative development. Considering the safety of the buildings. Preparation of passive defense guidelines based on safe housing planning. Compilation of architectural document requirements in the design of buildings with passive defense approach. Planning for reducing physical instability of residential buildings in the historic fabric and marginal areas. Paying special attention to textures and old residential areas in central cities، and granting support from government facilities for strengthening، upgrading and refurbishment of old buildings.

    Keywords: Urban planning, urban housing, building architecture, passive defense
  • N. Zali, J. Poorfathi Pages 89-104
    Introduction
    Over the last few decades، urban marginalization has been a major challenge in the metropolitan and large cities. After various experiences of forcible contact، what is recommended by international organizations is an empowerment approach which focuses on the empowerment of squatters instead of financial support. In this study، Ahar squatters were identified and investigated in 4 neighborhoods. Using Cochran formula، 320 samples were chosen randomly and their economic، social، physical and spatial characteristics of neighborhoods were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS software. Besides، using SWOT approach and identifying problems، strategies of Empowerment in different dimensions was presented. Results showed that Shileboran and Nirugah neighborhoods have more problems regarding socio-economic and physical status، whereas Chalabverdi neighborhood has better situation than other neighborhoods. Ownership issue، poor housing conditions، access problems and poor sewage system were serious problems for residents of these neighborhoods. Theoretical bases: In the second decades of 1980s، empowerment strategies along with improvement in informal habitat settings are recommended to overlook the poor economic condition of families and also the inability to use the collective power. Therefore، a great leap was created in modern approach which is based on the improvement of local communities and macro policies. The entity of the empowerment approach is based on the reduction of poverty and in human-oriented sustainable development it is based on the citizen participation.
    Discussion
    The problem of informal settlements in Ahar city because of its geographical location as a city in northeast of Azerbaijan province and its situation in the middle of bundles of small and big villages has been accelerated to the extent that solving the problem has been a real challenge. Investigation of the situation of these districts shows that economic، social and physical situation of these districts aren’t in a good condition. Due to poor sanitary condition and free flow of sewages، keeping animals in some residential units، the possibility of infectious diseases and their development to other parts of the city are increasing.
    Conclusion
    The results show that more than 90% of the residents of these neighborhoods immigrated from near villages which in Shileh-boran involves nearly 95% of residents. Furthermore، more than 80% of the immigrations are of familial form and individual immigration is rare in these areas. Considering the occupational status of these immigrants، 45% are workers with the average salary of 100-150 thousands tomans. In addition، results show that Shileh-boran and Nirougah neighborhoods have poorer economic، social and physical conditions. The problems of ownership، poor housing situation، sewage system and access can be regarded as the important problems in these areas. The analysis of the results of the SWOT show that despite the serious threats and fundamental weaknesses such as high percentage of workers in primary jobs، hidden and seasonal unemployment، high dependency ratio، limited role of women in economy of the family، poor intensity، lack of financial facilities in improving neighborhoods، disorder of streets margin space، lack of balance in void and solid spaces، narrow passages، compression of texture، inefficiency of network access، weak and inappropriate studding، facade and form، low educated ratio، migration of majority of residents، bad sanitary condition، high rate of crime between young people، there are some opportunities for empowerment of the residents and improvement in neighborhood. These opportunities can be the inclination of the municipality in improving neighborhood، government''s attention to organizing the informal habitat، international aids for empowerment activities، the existence of the sense of public participation of the residents for improvement and support of the government in creating local loan boxes، can be one of the solutions for neighborhoods problems.
    Keywords: Slum dwelling, informal settlements, Ahar, empowerment
  • Mn. Mousavi, H. Heidari, A. Bagheri Kashkooli Pages 105-122
    Introduction
    Old contextures include restricted areas that are the subject of municipalities'' certain activities due to space certain quality، social condition، immunity against accidents and the shortage of public services. The importance of social wealth in urban renewal process is more felt from this point of view and consequently the interference of old contextures are accomplished on the local position. Thus، on the one hand، social wealth can have a good show off with regard to the concept of local and due to the common interests and face to face relationships of the residents. On the other hand، considering the values like social confidence، social correlation and social integrity as internal capacities and hidden wealth in locals، it promises an uncentralized and bottom-up effort. This study intends to determine the social wealth of Sardasht and oldness of its old contexture and more importantly their relationships. Theoretical bases: Urban renewal as a purely physical perspective، resulting from a lack of understanding of physical and spatial attractiveness of old context، is regarded as the only factor of their oldness in the majority of cases. While the extra-skeletal components like social structures of the contextures، i. e. the quality and quantity of relationships and the participation of the residents، could be a more desirable and acceptable tool and motive for the renewal. Considering the role of social wealth in the discussions relating to urban instauration، this policy believes in people participation in instauration process and in this regard، the social wealth of societies is considered as primary assets to reach to instauration goals.
    Discussion
    Gerde Sour district (3) with 5786 population is the most populated local and the district No. 9 has the minimum population rate in the old contexture. The findings of the current status of Sardhasht old contexture show that about 60 % of the population of this area have a degree close to diploma، its immigration rate is equal to 18. 5 %، 30. 40 % of residents have been living more than 15 years، 91% of the individuals have collaborative sense and 72. 42 % of them are intended to instaurate residential agencies in the case of granting facilities and encouragement policies.
    Conclusion
    Applying Topsis Model and Anthropy weighting، we found that Gerdesu (district 3) is the most stable local and districts 9 and 10 are known as the most unstable ones. Also، using Pearson Correlation Coefficient، the relationship among social، economic and population variables and instauration was equal to 0. 518. In other words، till the social، economic and population situation of Sardasht local old contextures is not in a good condition، its instauration status would be in the same condition. According to the findings، social wealth in Sardasht local old contextures is 3. 18 (71. 30 %) in average and its ranking through applying clustering analysis with regard to social wealth shows that districts 3، 6 and 8 have the highest degree of capital. Using regression coefficient to investigate the effect and dimension of social wealth in the instauration of old contexture of Sardasht showed that social participation، social confidence، cooperation and mutual assistance have a meaningful relationship with instauration of old contexture. Multiple regression variance analysis and F scale also confirm the meaningfulness of social wealth in explaining instauration of Sardasht old contexture local plans. Suggestions: Strategic approach to the renewal and development of urban old contexture with an emphasis on social wealth is followed by transforming potential sources to actual performance and increasing opportunities as well. In this respect، some suggestions as increasing physical interferences in local level to improve the quality of area in order to increase the residents'' encouragement for continuation of habitation and strengthening potential aspects of social wealth، reliance on actual aspects of social wealth in improving physical interference pattern and planning according to people''s requirements and participation، assigning a legal role for local consultative for instauration and structure making and supporting public formations are made.
    Keywords: Social Wealth, Renovation, improvement, old contexture, Sardasht City, West Azerbaijan
  • N. Esmailpoor, M. H. Rahimin, S. Ghorbani Pages 123-140
    Introduction
    Nowadays، paying attention to the capacity development within cities as a new and suitable policy in urban planning، together with sustanable development، becomes very popular. The capacity of develpoment in different regions of the city and inside the rusty textures has been devided to two categories. The first one is human capacity and the other one is physical capacity such as infra- and ultra- structure facilities and equipments. Athough these facilities and equipments do not have suitablie quality and quantity; a lot of expenses are spent on making them. Therefore، they should not be ignored due to managerial، environmental and economic reasons. Furthermore، the first category of the develpoment capacity inside the local region that is the human forces (the residents of that region) can have an efficient role in promoting the physical capacity. In conclusion، development should lead to independence. In other words، it should not rely on governmental supplies and services. Therefore، this article is going to have some suggestions for environmental progress and make a background for the residents of slaughter house district to use more different urban facilities and precedence by using people’s potential. Theoretical bases: Different factors can be effective in the recreation of rusty textures. In this research، on the one hand، slanghter house district in Yazd is considered as a poor district. On the other hand، encouraging people for direct participation in these gatherings by authorities is considered as a serious suggestion for promotings their residential environment; two factors of “rehabilitation” and “Community-based development“are described with an emphasis on strategy such as “basic needs of develpoment” and “social funds”. In addition، the results of experimental experiences related to the ways، conditions and people’s paticipation for recreating the regions and rusty textures are offered.
    Discussion
    In this part، first the subject of poverty in slaughter house district that is economic، social، cultural and service poverty is described by using related indicators. Then، the amount of residentʼs participation is discussed. By using the discussion group’s technique، the problems of this district and their reasons were recognized and categrized based on priorities. After that according to the discussion group، people and local organizations'' role in solving three major local problems- lack of social safty، unemployment and unsuitable condition of local sanitary- were scheduled.
    Conclusion
    Although slaughter house district has different kinds of poverty، the residents are ready for cooperation with each other and with the local organization for removing this problem from their district. Accordingly، social development is a suitable aproach. Suggestions: Rusty texture recreation of slaughter house needs a two movement bilateral. The first movement is from up to down which means giving opportunity and conservation partnership in macro-level of society. The other one is the movement from down to up which is the participation of both people and local organization in solving the problems of this district. For achieving the latter one، which is the main subject of this research، capacity development and preparation by the local organization as the first step is suggested.
    Keywords: Rusty textures, Poverty, Slaughter house district, Recreation, Social mobilization, People participation