فهرست مطالب

  • سال هشتم شماره 2 (پیاپی 12، بهار و تابستان 1390)
  • 192 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 10,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Houshang Zahiri, Mohammad Sadegh Mahdavi Page 7
    The present study was carried out in order to systematically determine adolescents’ socialization styles among Iranian families based on their parents’ capital. Socialization styles were operationally defined and assessed with regard to five styles, i.e., authoritarian, democratic, free neglectful, free individualistic, and filocentric. In addition, parents’ capital was defined in terms of four categories, i.e., cultural (institutionalized and objectified), social (cognitive and external structural), political, and economic capital. In this survey research, the instrumentation comprised a self-devised questionnaire which was administered to 490 Karaji adolescents. The questionnaire enjoyed face validity and Cronbach’s alpha was used as a measure of the internal consistency or reliability of the test scores. The findings of the study revealed that parents utilized various socialization styles based on their capital. More specifically, parents’ cultural capital significantly leads to democratic style, whereas parents’ economic capital significantly identifies filocentric and free individualistic styles.
    Keywords: socialization, socialization styles in family, cultural capital, social capital, Iranian family
  • Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Amir Mohammad Shahsavarani, Zeinab Lashani, M. A Page 29
    Considering the destructive effects of Internet addiction on users’ personal, family, and social life, the purpose of the present research was to determine the family factors which play a role in students’ Internet addiction. Population of the study comprised all Iranian high school students and the sample consisted of 4155 students who were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling in 11 provinces. In each city, systematic random sampling was utilized and the sampling units consisted of classes which were selected taking proportion of gender and grade level into account. The instrumentation was comprised of Young’s Internet Addition Scale, Bell’s Adjustment Scale, and a self-devised family factors checklist. The results of the study revealed that Internet addiction had a significant relationship with the extent of family adjustment and family relationship, the degree of family’s familiarity with the Internet, family structure, birth order, number of siblings, parents’ education level, and family’s economic status. In addition, family adjustment and family relationship as well as the degree of family’s familiarity with the Internet are the factors which predict students’ Internet addiction the most and they account for 33 percent of the total variance in the Internet addiction. Based on the findings of the present study it can be concluded that various family factors have associations with students’ Internet addiction. Thus, reinforcing family structure and resolving families structural and relationship issues can be deterrents to students’ Internet addiction.
    Keywords: family, virtual space, Internet addiction, Internet, students, adolescents
  • Mohammad Reza Asadi Younesi, Mohammad Ali Mazaheri, Shahriar Shahidi, Karineh Tahmasian, Mohammad Ali Fayyaz Bakhsh Page 43
    The purpose of the present study was to determine the sources and issues of parent-adolescent conflict from the perspective of adolescents and to construct, validate, and identify the factorial structure of a scale for assessing parentadolescent conflict from adolescents’ point of view. This research was undertaken in four phases and a different sample was utilized in each phase. In the first stage, which was conducted to determine the sources or issues of conflict, the sample comprised 650 adolescents; in the second phase, i.e., the pilot study, the sample consisted of 90 individuals; in the third stage, which was carried out in order to identify and select appropriate items, the psychometric characteristics of the items and scales were investigated and a factor analysis of the questionnaire was performed; in this phase the sample was comprised of 1308 adolescents. And finally 605 participants took part in the fourth phase, which was conducted to examine and calculate the psychometric characteristics of the final version of the parent-adolescent conflict questionnaire and its subscales. It is worth mentioning that in the four phases of the study, the subjects were boy and girl adolescents in the 11-18 age range. Results of the factor analysis of the questionnaire, which was performed through Principal Component Analysis and Equimax Rotation, revealed that the scale was saturated with 14 factors. The total score for both aspects of conflict had a very high internal consistency (with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.96 and 0.98 for the frequency and intensity of conflict, respectively). Furthermore, the questionnaire’s subscales scores had an acceptable internal consistency. Testretest reliability coefficients in a two-week interval were also very high. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the two administrations for the total scores of conflict frequency and intensity were 0.72 and 0.74, respectively. In the case of subscales, the test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.51 to 0.78 for conflict frequency and from 0.67 to 0.79 for conflict intensity. The concurrent and convergent validity of the questionnaire was investigated via computing its correlation with Robin and Foster’s (1989) Conflict Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ-20). The correlation coefficient between the score of CBQ and the total score of conflict frequency was 0.31. This estimate was equal to 0.39 for the total score of conflict intensity and the obtained indexes were significant (p <. 01). In addition, evidence of construct validity of the parentadolescent conflict questionnaire came from the fact that distressed families obtained significantly higher averages than non-distressed families considering both the frequency and intensity of conflict.
    Keywords: parent, adolescent conflict, conflict issues, parent, adolescent conflict assessment
  • Maryam Hosseini, Nargess Arab Moghaddam, Maryam Soroush, Behnam Jamshidi, M.A Page 71
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate youth and adolescents’ needs and their relationship with family cohesion and flexibility. In this survey research the instrumentation consisted of questionnaires. Population of the study comprised all Shirazi adolescents and youth and the sample size was computed to be 888 based on Lin’s Table (with a 95% confidence interval and a margin of error of 3%). The questionnaires were administered to the subjects who were selected through multi-stage stratified-random sampling method. Factor analysis was used for primary analysis of the data and validation of the questionnaires. The results indicated that adolescents and youth’s needs can be classified into 5 and 8 factors, respectively. Moreover, the findings revealed “esteem and cognitive” needs among adolescents and the “need for confidence in future” among the youth obtained maximum means. In the case of adolescents, there was a positive significant relationship between family cohesion and the “belonging/love need” and there was a negative significant relationship between family flexibility and “esteem and cognitive” needs. In the case of the youth, family cohesion had a positive association with cognitive, aesthetic, and altruism needs; whereas there was a negative significant relation between family flexibility and “belonging, altruism, and esteem” needs.
    Keywords: needs, adolescents, youth, family cohesion, family flexibility
  • Mohssen Niazi, Ali Reza Ghobadi Page 91
    Family, as the first and most significant social institution, is indispensable to the formation of children’s personality and their acculturation. Hence, in today’s world, the role of family and parenting styles has attracted scientists and scholars’ attention in the fields of humanities and social sciences. Meanwhile, researchers are endeavoring to investigate parents’ religious training as well as parenting styles and the role they play in children’s social health. Therefore, in the present study children’s social health and its relation with parents’ religious training and parenting styles have been surveyed. More specifically, the main purpose of this study was to determine the present status of parents’ religious training, to find out the extent to which authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles are prevalent, to indentify the degree of children’s social health, and to specify the relationship between each of the aforementioned variables with children’s social health. This research was a social survey and its data were collected via administering questionnaires and interviews. For assessing parenting styles variable, the related items were utilized on a Likert Scale. The validity and reliability of these scales were examined and confirmed through Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. The statistical population of the study comprised all Kashani high school students in 2010-2011 academic year. For the purpose of sampling Cochran’s sampling formula was used and 367 individuals were selected through simple random sampling method. Results of the study revealed that there was a significant, positive relationship between parents’ religious training, the extent of families being authoritative, and children’s social health at 0.01 level of significance. In addition, the findings showed a negative relationship between parenting styles and children’s social health at 0.01 level of significance. Furthermore, the results of multiple regression analysis and the obtained β coefficients showed the effect of families’ religious training, parents’ authoritarian and authoritative styles on children’s social health to be 0.23, -0.19 and 0.16, respectively,
    Keywords: social health, religious training, authoritarian style, authoritative style, permissive parenting style
  • Ali Akbar Pirzad, Abolfazl Bakhtiari Page 121
    The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of family education classes for parents of high school boy students in district 2 of Shahre-Rey in 2009-2010 academic year. The population of the study comprised 2400 individuals. Stratified-random sampling method was utilized and as a result 333 parents were selected. This descriptive research is of ex-post facto design and the instrumentation consisted of a self-devised questionnaire whose validity was approved by the supervisor and advisor of the study as well as the Institute for Parents and Teachers (Family) Research resource persons and professors. Findings of the study revealed that the family education course promoted parents’ awareness and knowledge. Hence, it can be concluded the family education classes enjoyed the expected effectiveness. In addition, the course was effective for enhancing parents’ awareness and understanding of religious educational methods, adolescents’ physiological needs, adolescents’ growth and their emotional-psychological needs. Furthermore, the classes were an effective way of promoting the coordination between home and school educational methods as well as teachers-parents’ relationship. The findings also indicated that there was no significant difference between the opinion of participating men and women as to the extent to which the classes led to the promotion of their awareness of adolescents’ physiological needs. No significant association was observed between the two components of the coordination between home and school educational methods and parents’ educational level. In fact, there was a negative relation between the two variables. And finally, there was no significant relationship between the components of students’ psychological-emotional needs and the grade in which they study.
    Keywords: family education, effectiveness, education, upbringing, religious education, need, physiological needs, coordination between home, school educational methods
  • Mohssen Golmohammadian, Seyyed Jalal Younesi, Parisa Yasemi Nejad Page 157
    The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating the role of group training of mothers with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing conduct disorders among 6-10-year-old boys. The research method was semiexperimental with control group pretest post-test design. The population of the study consisted of all mothers who sought advice due to conduct disorders of their sons at the counseling department of Tehran's Health Cultural Center within a period of 6 months. The instrumentation consisted of the Rutter Parent Scale A2 and a structured interview. Purposive and convenience sampling methods were utilized and the sample comprised 16 mothers who were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Each of these two groups included 8 individuals. The experimental group received 7 training sessions in how to modify and improve behavior through CBT. Each session was held for about 120 minutes per week. The control group had no training within this time interval. Data analysis was carried out through descriptive statistics and comparison of the difference between pretest and posttest scores using T test for independent groups. The results of hypotheses testing revealed that some were confirmed (P<0.01) and they indicated that group training of mothers with cognitive behavior therapy can reduce some of the symptoms of conduct disorder. Furthermore, the findings showed that the techniques had more effect on increasing children's social adjustment. Despite the fact that mothers exaggerate the symptoms of their children (according to the literature), the findings were indicative of the significance of training of mothers in reducing children's conduct disorders.
    Keywords: group training of mothers, cognitive behavior therapy, conduct disorder