فهرست مطالب

جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی محیطی - سال بیست و سوم شماره 4 (پیاپی 48، زمستان 1391)
  • سال بیست و سوم شماره 4 (پیاپی 48، زمستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • محمدحسین رضایی مقدم، عادل محمدفر، خلیل ولیزاده کامران صفحات 1-14
    خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی رودخانه به واسطه ویژگی پویای آن همواره دچار تغییر بوده و این تغییرات می تواند به دلیل فرسایش کناری و جابه جایی مرزهای رودخانه هر ساله سطح زیادی از اراضی کشاورزی، نواحی مسکونی و تاسیسات ساحلی را در معرض نابودی و تخریب قرار دهد. از این رو انجام هر گونه تحلیل هیدرولیکی بر روی رودخانه نیازمند دسترسی به مشخصات دقیق مورفولوژیکی به خصوص شکل آن است. بنابراین، در این پژوهش بخشی از رودخانه آجی چای در محدوده خواجه تا ونیار در شمال شرق تبریز به طول حدود 22 کیلومتر با هدف شناسایی مناطق بحرانی نسبت به فرسایش کناری بررسی شده است. بدین منظور مسیر رودخانه و لایه های مورد نیاز از قبیل فرسایش، کاربری، لیتولوژی، شیب، بستر طغیانی و جاده از روی نقشه های زمین شناسی، توپوگرافی، عکس های هوایی سال های 1335و 1374 و تصویر ماهواره IRS سنجنده pan در محیط نرم افزار GIS Arc در دو بازه و دو دوره (1335-1374 و 1374-1387) رقومی، ارزش گذاری و وزن دهی گردید و مناطق کناری در خطر فرسایش در سه بخش آسیب پذیر، بحرانی و بسیار بحرانی تعیین شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آشکارسازی تغییرات، فرسایش کناری، مناطق خطر، GIS & RS، رودخانه آجی چای
  • مسعود تقوایی، عیسی بهاری صفحات 15-38
    برنامه ریزی منطقه ای با هدف توسعه و کاهش نابرابری از موضوع های مهم در کشورهای در حال توسعه محسوب می شود، لازمه برنامه ریزی منطقه ای، شناسایی جایگاه مناطق نسبت به یکدیگر از لحاظ توسعه است. کاهش نابرابری در بهره مندی از منابع، دست آوردها و امکانات جامعه یکی از مهمترین معیارهای توسعه به شمار می آید. مفهوم توسعه علاوه بر رشد در همه جهات، توزیع متعادل را نیز در بر می گیرد، توزیع متعادل امکانات و خدمات، گامی در جهت از بین بردن تفاوت های ناحیه ای و پراکندگی متناسب جمعیت در سطح منطقه است. توسعه متوازن فضاهای جغرافیایی، نیازمند بررسی دقیق و همه جانبه مسایل اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و شناخت نیازهای جامعه و بهبود آنهاست. به همین جهت از جمله معیارهای معمول در برنامه ریزی منطقه ای، سطح بندی نواحی بر اساس برخورداری از شاخص های مختلف توسعه است. در پژوهش حاضر سعی شده با بهره گیری از دو تکنیک تحلیل عاملی و تحلیل خوشه ایو استفاده از 88 شاخص توسعه در زمینه های (اقتصادی، اجتماعی، آموزشی، بهداشتی و درمانی، کشاورزی و...) به تعیین و تحلیل سطوح توسعه شهرستان های استان مازندران پرداخته شود. رویکرد حاکم بر این پژوهش توصیفی، تحلیلی و از نوع کاربردی – توسعه ای است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که بین شهرستان های استان به لحاظ شاخص های توسعه اختلاف وجود دارد و نتیجه به کارگیری تکنیک تحلیل عاملی، شهرستان ها را در 5 سطح بسیار برخوردار، برخوردار، نسبتا برخوردار، محروم و بسیار محروم قرار داده که شهرستان های سوادکوه و رامسر به ترتیب با امتیاز 93/1 و 83/0 در سطح بسیار برخوردار و شهرستان های نکاء و گلوگاه به ترتیب با امتیاز 12/1- و 85/0- در سطح بسیار محروم واقع شده اند. نتایج نشان می دهد که 5/12 درصد شهرستان ها در سطح بسیار برخوردار، 75/18درصد درسطح برخوردار، 75/18درصد در سطح نسبتا برخوردار، 5/37 درصد در سطح محروم و 5/12درصد در سطح بسیار محروم قرار گرفته اند. با استفاده از تکنیک تحلیل خوشه ایو ترسیم نمودار دندروگرام، شهرستان های استان در 5 گروه همگن طبقه بندی شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه یافتگی، نابرابری، سطوح توسعه، تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل خوشه ای، استان مازندران.
  • مجتبی یمانی، سیروس حسن پور، ابوالفضل مصطفایی، مجید شادمان رودپشتی صفحات 39-56
    این تحقیق به موضوع فراوانی و پراکنش زمین لغزش های بزرگ و وسیع پس از احداث سدهای بزرگ کارون 1 و 2 و 3 در حوضه آبخیز کارون بزرگ می پردازد. با بررسی های به عمل آمده، عامل اصلی و فراوانی زمین لغزش های منطقه در احداث سدهای مذکور و تغییرات کاربری اراضی، زه کشی و اضافه شدن انشعابات رودخانه ها و کانال های آبیاری است. از سوی دیگر تغییرات توپوگرافی منطقه به علت جابجایی حجم عظیمی از خاک و سنگ در منطقه به عنوان عاملی دیگر در تشدید زمین لغزش ها نقش داشته است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی عوامل موثر در زمین لغزش های منطقه به روش فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و تهیه نقشه پهنه بندی خطر زمین لغزش نوین حوضه آبخیز کارون بزرگ است. در این تحقیق، ابتدا پس از بررسی ادبیات پژوهش و مطالعات کتابخانه ای، 8 عامل شامل: شیب دامنه، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، بارندگی، فاصله از جاده، فاصله از گسل، فاصله از شبکه زه کشی، کاربری اراضی و سنگ شناسی به عنوان عوامل موثر در وقوع زمین لغزش های منطقه تشخیص داده شدند. سپس لایه های اطلاعاتی این عوامل در محیط GIS با استفاده از نرم افزارهای 9،3 Arc GIS تهیه شده و وزن کلاس های هر کدام از عوامل با روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) تعیین گردیدند. آنگاه با تلفیق نقشه های لایه های اطلاعاتی در محیط GIS، اقدام به تهیه نقشه نهایی در 4 کلاس: خیلی پر خطر، پر خطر، با خطر متوسط و کم خطر صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان می دهد که نواحی خیلی پرخطر متاثر از عامل زمین شناسی منطقه به عنوان عامل اصلی(سنگ های آهکی، آهک متخلخل، آهک مارنی، مارن آهکی و مارن) و عوامل تاثیرگذاری همچون، شیب بین 5 تا 30 درصد، بارندگی بیش از 1250میلی متر، ارتفاع بین 500 تا 2000 متر، فاصله از شبکه زهکشی بین 0 تا 4 کیلومتر عوامل موثر در پراکنش زمین لغزش های منطقه هستند. با مطالعه نقشه نهایی می توان گفت، نواحی خیلی پرخطر و پرخطر اغلب در مجاورت مراتع و تپه ماهور با حاشیه دامنه های بلند و متوسط ارتفاع در مجاورت روستاها هستند. تغییرات کاربری اراضی و توپوگرافیکی ناشی از احداث سدها و جابجایی خاک در کنار عوامل جانبی همچون، فعالیت دام ها و عشایر کوچ رو به منظور دسترسی به مراتع و آب، زراعت آبی در سطوح شیب دار توسط روستاییان کمک فراوانی به تشدید زمین لغزش های منطقه می کنند. در نتیجه گیری نهایی می توان گفت که روش AHP به دلیل برخورداری از متغیرهای بیشتر و کلاس بندی اصولی و بدون اعمال نظر مستقیم کارشناسان نسبت به روش ها دیگر برتر بوده و از دقت بیشتری برخوردار است. از سوی دیگر مطالعات میدانی صورت گرفته، مشاهدات تصاویر ماهواره ای ETM+ تاکیدی بر یافته های تحقیق است. که دلیل بر مناسب بودن انتخاب مدل (AHP) برای این پروژه است.
    کلیدواژگان: پهنه بندی، زمین لغزش، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی سیستم ها(AHP)، GIS، حوضه آبخیر کارون
  • سید اسکندر صیدایی، محمدعلی احمدی شاپورآبادی صفحات 57-78
    مساکن روستایی نشان دهنده چشم انداز فرهنگی حاصل از تعامل بین انسان و محیط و دارای ارتباط دو سویه بین تحولاتفضایی – کالبدی و تغییرات در ساخت اجتماعی و اقتصادی بوده و متاثر از مجموعه ای از عوامل جغرافیایی، طبیعی و اجتماعی- فرهنگی است. از این رو به منظور برنامه ریزی توسعه پایدار سکونتگاه های روستایی و رسیدن به اهداف قابل تحقق توسعه ملی، شناخت و تحلیل الگوهای فضایی، اجتماعی سکونتی به عنوان بستر استقرار انسان از اهمیت بسیار برخوردار است. به تبع این ضرورت این پژوهش بر آن است تا به مطالعه، شناخت و تحلیل الگوهای استقرار فضایی – اجتماعی مساکن روستایی در استان قم بپردازد. این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی – تحلیلی است و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات، ترکیبی از روش های اسنادی و میدانی استفاده شده است. یافته ها نشان می دهد که الگوهای فضایی – اجتماعی استقرار ناشی از عوامل طبیعی (ناهمواری ها، منابع آب و خاک، چشمه، قنات و چاه) و هم چنین عوامل انسانی (راه های ارتباطی، تاثیرپذیری جامعه روستایی از شهر و تغییرات در ساخت های اجتماعی و اقتصادی) و در مواردی تاثیر ترکیبی چند عامل است. الگوی پراکنش عمدتا خوشه ایو خطی خوشه ایاست. تحت تاثیر تغییرات در ساخت های اجتماعی و اقتصادی دگرگونی در الگوهای اجتماعی (بافت، کالبد و ریخت مساکن روستایی) به وجود آمده و به نوعی نشان دهنده نوع فعالیت در امور اقتصادی و نگرش اجتماعی – فرهنگی و چگونگی تحول در معیشت ساکنان فضاهای روستایی استان است.
    کلیدواژگان: استقرار فضایی، الگوی اجتماعی، مساکن روستایی، توسعه پایدار روستایی، استان قم
  • ابوالفضل بهنیافر، عادل سپهر، محمدرضا منصوری صفحات 79-90
    اساس ژئومورفوتوریسم را پتانسیل های زمین شناسی و چشم اندازهای ژئومورفولوژی در هر منطقه ای برای جذب گردشگر تشکیل داده است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، بررسی پراکنش چشمه ها در سطح شهرستان کلات به عنوان جاذبه های نقطه ای واجد ارزش ژئومورفوتوریسم در واحد ارضی هر کدام از سازندهای زمین شناسی است. شهرستان کلات در دامنه های شمالی زون کوهستانی کپه داغ قرار دارد که پوشیده از سازندهای آهکی چین خورده دوره ژوراسیک است. در این مطالعه از روش زمین مختصات جاذبه های زمین شناختی و ژئومورفولوژی استفاده شده است. در ابتدا نقاط مورد نظر توسط GPS شناسایی و نمونه برداری شدند و سپس با کمک تحلیل های فضایی و منطقه بندی در ArcGIS، همبستگی میان تمرکز جاذبه ها در واحدهای ارضی هر سازند زمین شناسی ارزشیابی گردید. همبستگی بین پراکنش چشمه ها و مجموع آبدهی سالانه آنها در واحد ارضی هر کدام از سازندها طبق آزمون پیرسون نشان دهنده همبستگی قوی در بازه معناداری 95% بود (R2=0.8). منطقه بندی فضایی چشمه ها در GIS هم نشان داد که ظهور چشمه ها بیشترین تمرکز را در سازندهای شوریجه، سنگانه، تیرگان و مزدوران داشته اند و همین طور بیشترین آبدهی سالانه چشمه ها به ترتیب در سازندهای تیرگان، مزدوران، شوریجه و آبدراز به وقوع پیوسته است. مقایسه نتایج با مشاهدات میدانی هم مشخص کرد که چشمه ها و سایر مظاهر ژئومورفوتوریستی در منطقه عموما بر روی سازندهای آهکی ضخیم لایه همچون سازند مزدوران و تیرگان نمود بیشتری داشته است. چشمه ها و آبشارهای واقع در این قلمروها نیز سایت های گردشگری مهمی چون قره سو، اورتاکند، زاوین و سینی را به وجود آورده است. در پایان می توان گفت که سازندهای آهکی پتانسیل بالاتری را از نظر برخورداری از پدیده های ژئومورفوتوریستی همچون چشمه ها دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: ژئومورفوتوریسم، تحلیل پراکنش فضایی، چشمه، سازندهای زمین شناسی، شهرستان کلات
  • اصغر ضرابی، جمال محمدی، شورش آهنگری صفحات 91-108
    مدیریت مواد زاید جامد شهری در معنای کلی خود فرایندی چند وجهی است و از مولفه های متفاوتی برخوردار است. برای شناخت این نوع مدیریت باید مولفه ها و عناصر (کاهش از مبدا، تولید، ذخیره و پردازش، جمع آوری، حمل و نقل، بازیافت، دفع و مراقبت های بعد از دفع) آن شناخته شوند، تا راه حل علمی برای برون رفت از مشکلات موجود به دست آید. بنابراین، هدف از تحقیق حاضر کمک به بهینه کردن سیستم مدیریت مواد زاید جامد شهر بوکان است. روش پژوهش به صورت توصیفی، تحلیلی و پیمایشی است و روش گرد آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای، میدانی و تکمیل پرسشنامه در 3 ناحیه شهرداری بوده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از SPSS و آمار استنباطی (رگرسیون ساده خطی و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون) استفاده شده است. یافته های نشان می دهد که در شهر بوکان روزانه بیش از 150 تن زباله تولید می شود که بیشترین مواد فساد پذیر با 9/77 درصد و کمترین با 3/1 درصد مربوط به فلزات است. 1/22 درصد کل زباله ها غیر از مواد فساد پذیر است که حدود 5/12 درصد آن را زباله های قابل بازیافت تشکیل می دهد. 1/79 درصد پاسخگویان اظهار کرده اند که در زباله های تولید شده خانگی مواد قابل بازیافت وجود دارد. نتایج حاصل نشان می دهد که زمینه حضور مردم در طرح ها و برنامه های مدیریت مواد زاید جامد فراهم نشده به طوری که 7/49 درصد از سرنوشت زباله ها بی اطلاع اند. 8/58 درصد از هزینه جمع آوری زباله ها اطلاع کافی ندارند. فرهنگ سازی و بهبود زیر ساخت های مربوط به بازیافت زباله 7/56 درصد ضعیف بوده است. بنابراین، به طور کلی، مشخص می شود که شهرداری بوکان در زمینه مدیریت اصولی مواد زاید جامد، به خصوص بازیافت زباله موفق نبوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مواد زاید جامد شهری، مدیریت زباله، بازیافت، شهر بوکان
  • مژگان انتظاری، رسول شریفی، زهرا ایزدی، سمیه السادات شاهزیدی صفحات 109-120
    مفهوم فرسایش از دیدگاه ژئومورفولوژی از یک سو متوجه فرآیندهایی است که به چهره پردازی سطح زمین مشغول هستند و از سوی دیگر به عواملی که در برابر حفاظت خاک قرار می گیرند اشاره دارد. در این پژوهش سعی شده است، نوع فرسایش غالب، نواحی پر خطر نسبت به فرسایش، نرخ فرسایش و مهمترین شاخص های تاثیر گذار در بخشی از حوضه آبخیز دستکن که در شمال اصفهان و شمال شرق شهرستان میمه و بین طول های جغرافیایی«42، ''29، 51 -»11، ''19، 51 و عرض های جغرافیایی«04، ''28، 33 -»02، ''38، 33 واقع شده است، بررسی گردد. برای نیل به این اهداف از اطلاعات کتابخانه ای، عکس های هوایی و ماهواره ای منطقه، آمار و اطلاعات اقلیمی، نقشه های توپوگرافی و زمین شناسی و تکنیک های GIS و RS و همچنین نرم افزارهای surfre8 و ILWIS استفاده شده و نقشه های پایه عوامل مورد نیاز برای مدل SLEMSA، از جمله نقشه هم دما، هم بارش، پوشش گیاهی، زمین شناسی و در نهایت، نقشه نرخ فرسایش تهیه شده است. در منطقه مورد مطالعه 5 کانون فرسایش در نیمه شمالی منطقه مشاهده می شود. بررسی عوامل موثر در این مناطق نشان داده است که اصلی ترین عامل فرسایش در کانون های پر خطر در درجه اول انرژی جنبشی باران بوده و شیب زمین و پوشش گیاهی در درجات بعدی اهمیت قرار دارد. همچنین قابلیت فرسودگی خاک نیز با آن که در وسعت زیادی از منطقه مهمترین عامل موثر در فرسایش بوده ولی در کانون های پر خطر نقش چندانی نداشته است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد، نوع فرسایش غالب در منطقه، فرسایش آبی و نرخ فرسایش با میانگین 412/1 تن در هکتار، نسبت به میانگین نرخ فرسایش در کشور پائین تر است.
    کلیدواژگان: فرسایش، دستکن، SLEMSA، GIS
  • عزت الله قنواتی، امیر کرم، مرضیه آقاعلیخانی صفحات 121-138
    سیلاب یکی از مخاطراتی است که امروزه بشر با آن مواجه است و هر ساله خسارات مالی و جانی فراوانی را به دنبال دارد. از آنجا که جمع آوری و دفع رواناب های ناشی از بارندگی در مسیل رودخانه در واقع نوعی اقدامات ایمنی، بهداشتی و رفاهی تلقی می شود و نیز رخداد چندین سیلاب در تهران که در برخی موارد با خسارات جانی و مالی همراه بوده است نشان دهنده ضرورت مطالعه جامع در زمینه سیلاب در حوضه های بالادست شهر تهران از جمله حوضه فرحزاد است. حوضه فرحزاد یکی از هفت رود دره ای است که در بالادست شهر تهران قرار گرفته است و با توجه به شرایط حوضه احتمال رخداد سیلاب در آن وجود دارد. در این پژوهش سعی شده تا نواحی با بیشترین خطر رخداد سیلاب در حوضه فرحزاد با استفاده از مدل فازی تعیین گردد. در این زمینه لایه های اطلاعاتی مربوط به شیب، انحنا پروفیل و پلانیمتریک، ارتفاع، تراکم زهکشی، فاصله از آبراهه، لندفرم ها و کاربری اراضی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. در نقشه نهایی پهنه بندی خطر سیلگیری نواحی با خطر بسیار بالا در پایین دست حوضه و منطبق بر دره اصلی فرحزاد هستند. بیشتر مساحت منطقه مربوط به نواحی با خطر بسیار کم با مساحت 29/14 کیلومتر مربع (11/64 درصد) است و کمترین مساحت نیز مربوط به سطوح با خطر بسیار زیاد (78/0 کیلومتر مربع) و زیاد (37/1 کیلومتر مربع) است. اغلب نواحی با خطر سیلگیری بسیار بالا در شیب های بین 0-20 درصد و واحد های دره ای واقع گردیده اند. ارتفاع این سطوح اغلب بین 2300-2650 متر است و بیشتر در فاصله 0-130 متری از آبراهه فرحزاد واقع گردیده اند. سطح وسیعی از این پهنه ها دارای پوشش درختی و درخچه ای هستند. پهنه های با خطر سیلگیری بالا در اطراف پهنه های با خطر سیلگیری بسیار بالا هستند. این نواحی شیب های بین 20-40 درصد را شامل می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پهنه بندی، سیلاب، فازی، مخاطرات، فرحزاد
  • عزت الله قنواتی، امیر کرم، مرضیه آقاعلیخانی صفحات 121-138
    سیلاب یکی از مخاطراتی است که امروزه بشر با آن مواجه است و هر ساله خسارات مالی و جانی فراوانی را به دنبال دارد. از آنجا که جمع آوری و دفع رواناب های ناشی از بارندگی در مسیل رودخانه در واقع نوعی اقدامات ایمنی، بهداشتی و رفاهی تلقی می شود و نیز رخداد چندین سیلاب در تهران که در برخی موارد با خسارات جانی و مالی همراه بوده است نشان دهنده ضرورت مطالعه جامع در زمینه سیلاب در حوضه های بالادست شهر تهران از جمله حوضه فرحزاد است. حوضه فرحزاد یکی از هفت رود دره ای است که در بالادست شهر تهران قرار گرفته است و با توجه به شرایط حوضه احتمال رخداد سیلاب در آن وجود دارد. در این پژوهش سعی شده تا نواحی با بیشترین خطر رخداد سیلاب در حوضه فرحزاد با استفاده از مدل فازی تعیین گردد. در این زمینه لایه های اطلاعاتی مربوط به شیب، انحنا پروفیل و پلانیمتریک، ارتفاع، تراکم زهکشی، فاصله از آبراهه، لندفرم ها و کاربری اراضی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. در نقشه نهایی پهنه بندی خطر سیلگیری نواحی با خطر بسیار بالا در پایین دست حوضه و منطبق بر دره اصلی فرحزاد هستند. بیشتر مساحت منطقه مربوط به نواحی با خطر بسیار کم با مساحت 29/14 کیلومتر مربع (11/64 درصد) است و کمترین مساحت نیز مربوط به سطوح با خطر بسیار زیاد (78/0 کیلومتر مربع) و زیاد (37/1 کیلومتر مربع) است. اغلب نواحی با خطر سیلگیری بسیار بالا در شیب های بین 0-20 درصد و واحد های دره ای واقع گردیده اند. ارتفاع این سطوح اغلب بین 2300-2650 متر است و بیشتر در فاصله 0-130 متری از آبراهه فرحزاد واقع گردیده اند. سطح وسیعی از این پهنه ها دارای پوشش درختی و درخچه ای هستند. پهنه های با خطر سیلگیری بالا در اطراف پهنه های با خطر سیلگیری بسیار بالا هستند. این نواحی شیب های بین 20-40 درصد را شامل می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: پهنه بندی، سیلاب، فازی، مخاطرات، فرحزاد
  • حمیدرضا وارثی، محمد قنبری، حسین پورقیومی صفحات 139-150
    طرح جامع شهری بیشتر به منظور ترویج ضوابط شهرسازی، کنترل توسعه شهرها، هماهنگ سازی بخش های مختلف شهر و شناخت حوزه های نفوذ شهر تهیه می شود. این طرح ها در کشور ما با توجه به این که برداشتی از الگوها و تجربیات کشورهای دیگر است، دارای نتایج متفاوتی بودند که بعضا با موفقیت همراه نبوده است. سابقه تهیه طرح های جامع شهری در کشور ما به اوایل دهه 1340 بر می گردد. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی و ارزیابی طرح جامع شهر جدید بینالود است و روش پژوهش به کار گرفته شده در این مقاله «توصیفی تحلیلی» است. نتایج بررسی ها نشان می دهد میزان تحقق پذیری جمعیت شهر جدید بینالود در سال 1390 که به عنوان دومین شهر اقماری مشهد در 55 کیلومتری جنوب غربی آن و با هدف توسعه ناپیوسته و جذب سرریزهای جمعیتی بالقوه مشهد ایجاد شده است، 66/5 درصد است که از علل عدم تحقق آن می توان به کاهش رشد جمعیت شهر مشهد، کمبود امکانات، تاسیسات و خدمات در شهر اشاره کرد. میزان تحقق پذیری اشتغال شهر هم برابر 36/35 درصد است. میزان تحقق پذیری مسکن هم برابر 46/9 درصد است. نتایج بررسی ها، نشان دهنده عدم تحقق پذیری مطلوب طرح جامع شهر جدید بینالود است. از علل عدم تحقق پذیری مناسب طرح جامع شهر جدید بینالود می توان به عدم تحقق جمعیت پیش بینی شده، بورس بازی زمین، کمبود امکانات، تاسیسات و خدمات در این شهر جدید اشاره کرد. در نهایت، پیشنهاد می شود که در درجه اول باید مشکلات عدم تحقق جمعیت شهر جدید بینالود که مهم ترین آن نبود خدمات و امکانات مناسب است، رفع گردد تا این شهر جدید به اهداف پیش بینی شده خود نزدیک تر شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، تحقق پذیری، طرح جامع شهری، شهر جدید بینالود، شهر مشهد
  • امیرحسین حلبیان، مهران شبانکاری صفحات 151-166
    در این پژوهش، تغییرات زمانی پرفشار سیبری (SH) در تراز Slp با استفاده از داده های روزانه فشار تراز دریا در ساعت GMT 12 پایگاه داده (NCEP/NCAR) و با تفکیک مکانی 5/2×5/2 درجه قوسی در یک دوره زمانی 55 ساله شامل 20089 روز از اول ژانویه سال 1951 (یازدهم دی ماه 1329) تا 31 دسامبر سال 2005 (دهم دی ماه 1384) بررسی شد. بدین منظور با انتخاب چارچوب پوش مناسب، میانگین فشار تراز دریا برای هر یک از روزهای تقویم خورشیدی1383- 1330 محاسبه و استانداردسازی شد. بدین ترتیب، آرایه ای به ابعاد 1×19724 با عنوان شاخص استاندارد شده شدت پرفشار سیبری (SSHI) به دست آمد که شامل ناهنجاری های فاز مثبت (نمود پرفشار سیبری) و منفی (نبود پرفشار سیبری) در هر روز بود. تحلیل سری های زمانی شاخص مزبور آشکار ساخت که شاخص مزبور سرشتی دو وضعیتی دارد. مقایسه فراوانی روزهای رخداد فاز مثبت با فراوانی روزهای رویداد فاز منفی در تراز مورد بررسی نیز نشان داد که در طی نیم سده گذشته روزهای حضور پرفشار سیبری کمتر از روزهای نبود این سامانه بوده است. در عین حال تعداد روزهای فعالیت این سامانه در نیم سده گذشته رو به افزایش بوده است. در مجموع، شاخص استاندارد شده شدت پرفشار سیبری (SSHI) که در این پژوهش تعریف و محاسبه گردید؛ این توانایی را نشان داد که به عنوان معیاری برای بررسی رفتار زمانی این سامانه پرفشار مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. اجرای روش جدول توافقی و محاسبه آماره کای دو(2 χ) در طول دوره آماری(1382-1340) آشکار ساخت که در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد، کمینه دمای روزانه در 93 درصد از ایستگاه های مورد بررسی(393 ایستگاه از مجموع 423 ایستگاه) مستقل از تاثیر پرفشار سیبری در تراز Slp نیست و به عبارتی متاثر از آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: پرفشار سیبری، فشار تراز دریا، شاخص استانداردشده پرفشار سیبری، آماره کای دو(2 χ)، دمای کمینه، ایران
  • رسول قربانی، علی اکبر تقی پور، حسن محمودزاده صفحات 167-184
    ایران با دارا بودن تالاب های متعدد، که 22 تالاب آن در معاهده بین المللی رامسر به ثبت جهانی رسیده است، دارای جایگاه ویژه ای در آسیای جنوب غربی است. سه تالاب بین المللی آجی گل، آلماگل و آلاگل در دشت ترکمن صحرا از اکوسیستم های مهم جهانی بوده که در این تحقیق با استفاده از تصاویر چند زمانه لندست بررسی شده اند. تصاویر ماهواره ای سنجنده های TM و ETM+ در سال های 1987، 2000، 2005 و 2010 بعد از عملیات تصحیح اتمسفری و هندسی با نمونه های تعلیمی برداشت شده با روش طبقه بندی ماکزیمم احتمال در شش کلاس آب، اراضی نمکی، اراضی بایر، پوشش گیاهی تراکم کم، پوشش گیاهی تراکم متوسط و پوشش گیاهی تراکم زیاد رده بندی شدند و با انتقال به محیط GIS و استفاده از تابع تحلیلی Union، تغییرات رخداده در قالب ماتریس های اولیه_ثانویه طی دوره مورد مطالعه (1987-2010) ارزیابی شده اند. کاهش سطح آب تالاب ها از 8/2591 هکتار در سال 1987 به 6/1280 هکتار در سال 2010 و همچنین کاهش اراضی نمکی، کاهش پوشش گیاهی با تراکم زیاد و افزایش پوشش گیاهی با تراکم متوسط و کم، و در نهایت، بدون تغییر ماندن میزان مساحت اراضی بایر از اهم این تغییرات است، که از جمله علل اصلی این تغییرات را باید در مسائلی مانند خشکسالی های اخیر، احداث سد، برداشت بی رویه آب تالاب ها برای مصارف کشاورزی، پرورش ماهی و احداث کانال و جاده در منطقه و بین تالاب ها جستجو کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: تالاب های بین المللی، تصاویر ماهواره ای، تغییرات کاربری، آلاگل، آلماگل و آجی گل
  • محمد جمعه پور، غلامرضا نجفی، سعید شفیعا صفحات 185-200
    با توجه به انتخاب فرم شهر متراکم به عنوان پایدارترین فرم شهری و نیز موضوع جلوگیری از گسترش حومه کلان شهر تهران با عنوان ساماندهی و صیانت از محدوده و جلوگیری از هرگونه گسترش شهر، اهمیت بررسی جنبه های مختلف پایداری کلان شهر تهران با توجه به مشخصه های شهر متراکم ضروری می نماید. موضوع پایداری اجتماعی در مدل شهر متراکم، به موضوعی چالش برانگیزی در میان محققان و برنامه ریزان تبدیل گردیده است. بنابراین، تحقیق حاضر به بررسی رابطه پایداری اجتماعی و تراکم در مناطق شهرداری تهران می پردازد. در این تحقیق با استفاده از همبستگی، رابطه میان شاخص تراکم با شاخص های پایداری اجتماعی، در مناطق مختلف شهر تهران بررسی شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان دهنده این مساله است که با افزایش تراکم در مناطق 22 گانه شهر تهران، پایداری اجتماعی کمتر می شود، بنابراین ضروری است در روند متراکم سازی، ابعاد اجتماعی توسعه مورد توجه بیشتری قرار گیرند. چرا که با کاهش پایداری اجتماعی، پایداری اقتصادی و زیست محیطی و در نهایت، پایداری شهری در معرض خطر جدی قرار خواهد گرفت. نتایج تحلیل عاملی، به ترتیب وزن ها نشان می دهد که چهار عامل سطح توسعه یافتگی و برخورداری، سرانه های پزشکی – بهداشتی، توسعه یافتگی فرهنگی و مشارکت داوطلبانه، مفهوم پایداری اجتماعی شهر تهران را تشکیل می دهند. در این میان عوامل سطح توسعه یافتگی و برخورداری و توسعه یافتگی فرهنگی، با افزایش تراکم به سمت ناپایداری گرایش پیدا می نمایند و زمینه ساز ناپایداری اجتماعی به حساب می آیند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، پایداری اجتماعی، شهر متراکم، کلان شهر تهران، مناطق شهرداری
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  • M.H. Rezaei Moghadam, A. Mohammadfar, Kh. Valizadeh Kamran Pages 1-14
    Introduction
    Changes in the human environment in different periods and in different areas it is reasonable by the satellite images، aerial photographs and maps in certain forms are easily done. This is particularly important when the data becomes more critical in areas such as environment، agriculture; Natural resource management and river engineering are used (Pris and etal، 1997، 23). Therefore، in order to discover and detect changes that occur in different regions of the Earth Can ensure that remote sensing technology and satellite images in a sequence -specific forms used (Atood and al. 2005، 8) And their results in the prediction، risk maps، choosing the right strategies to deal with behaviors sudden، More Accurate and more economical operation than to past and successfully implemented projects and structures of organizations and agencies On the rivers for future use. Thus، the geometry changes، the process of depositing and important morphological changes in the organization of the river، flood control، design of linear structures (roads،…) Hydraulic (bridges، dams، …) settlements and destruction of agricultural lands on the river and its margins are evaluation of morphological changes part of river Ajy Chay between Khaje to Vanyar، north east of Tabriz 46° 23'' 55 «to 46 ° 34'' 55» along the eastern and 38 ° 07'' 1 «to 38° 08'' 40» north latitude Length of approximately 22 km with the aim of identifying risk areas to the lateral erosion investigated.
    Methodology
    How it works for this research have been carried out، the first report -required information and report about the range of research and library -based methods and field studies were collected. In the second stage، maps and aerial photos have been scanned، georefrenced، mosaic. In the third stage of the coastline extraction the River For a the time period three (years 1956، 1995 and 2008) Land and water border with digitization in eara gis To calculate the amount of surface erosion and sediment riverbank was done for three periods. To calculate the erosion and sediment to the coasts، along the river intervals of 250 meters، divided in three periods and than linear displacement due to sediment and erosion per meter on year for each period was obtained. At this stage the layer requirements such as erosion، land use، lithology، slope، floodingbed، and road digital and descriptive data were applied to each. Then all the layers due to the influence and reception of each factor over time and toward River erosion rate، converted to raster and weighting was ready. In the final stage of the layers and changes coastal The softwares environment Arc GIS 9. 3، Excel were processed and charts، tables and maps were extracted needed to determine the risk areas.
    Discussion
    Displacement of the river using three different data in software Arc GIS by comparing the coasts the river in both periods 1956-1995 (39 years) and 1995- 2008 (13 years) was carried out. This study intended to measure changes in linear sides through time and identifies areas where it has been the erosion and sedimentation. Results of the linear by specifying Areas of erosion and sediment delivery and to chart the lateral rate the changes as a function of distance along the coasts (every 250 m) were mapped in the software Excel.
    Conclusion
    The results of maps and charts show that in both periods right bank of erosion more than left bank and the second term right down the bank deposit and left the bank deposit has increased. Considering that the second term on the right bank more erosion than deposition but also increase the deposition in left bank the erosion can be seen that this phenomenon is due to the high sensitivity right bank to erosion، less shrub cover، accumulation of sediment erosion in the left bank and the relative resistance to against erosion is on the left bank. Cause an increase in vulnerable areas and right bank of the critical in the second period than in the first period and less vulnerable areas، the critical and very the critical left bank in the second period than in the first period can be understood that it was already too much discharge and erosion on the left bank to slip and fall are also effective but with a little discharge due to the uneven impact of the lower left of the bank and the right bank، mostly in left bank sediments have accumulated. But the right bank due to flow in alluvial deposits still contain high erosion potential. Obviously، the results of this research by other professionals can be effective in preventing disaster. In this study، merely the river Lateral changes over time has been and comment on its applications to professional experts in various fields of environmental and engineering.
    Keywords: Detect changes, Side erosion, Risk areas, GIS, RS, AjiChay River
  • M. Taghvaei, I. Bahari Pages 15-38
    Introduction
    Changes in the human environment in different periods and in different areas it is reasonable by the satellite images, aerial photographs and maps in certain forms are easily done. This is particularly important when the data becomes more critical in areas such as environment, agriculture; Natural resource management and river engineering are used (Pris and etal, 1997, 23). Therefore, in order to discover and detect changes that occur in different regions of the Earth Can ensure that remote sensing technology and satellite images in a sequence -specific forms used (Atood and al. 2005, 8) And their results in the prediction, risk maps, choosing the right strategies to deal with behaviors sudden, More Accurate and more economical operation than to past and successfully implemented projects and structures of organizations and agencies On the rivers for future use. Thus, the geometry changes, the process of depositing and important morphological changes in the organization of the river, flood control, design of linear structures (roads,. ..) Hydraulic (bridges, dams, ...) settlements and destruction of agricultural lands on the river and its margins are evaluation of morphological changes part of river Ajy Chay between Khaje to Vanyar, north east of Tabriz 46° 23' 55" to 46 ° 34' 55" along the eastern and 38 ° 07' 1" to 38° 08' 40" north latitude Length of approximately 22 km with the aim of identifying risk areas to the lateral erosion investigated.
    Methodology
    How it works for this research have been carried out, the first report -required information and report about the range of research and library -based methods and field studies were collected. In the second stage, maps and aerial photos have been scanned, georefrenced, mosaic. In the third stage of the coastline extraction the River For a the time period three (years 1956, 1995 and 2008) Land and water border with digitization in eara gis To calculate the amount of surface erosion and sediment riverbank was done for three periods. To calculate the erosion and sediment to the coasts, along the river intervals of 250 meters, divided in three periods and than linear displacement due to sediment and erosion per meter on year for each period was obtained. At this stage the layer requirements such as erosion, land use, lithology, slope, floodingbed, and road digital and descriptive data were applied to each. Then all the layers due to the influence and reception of each factor over time and toward River erosion rate, converted to raster and weighting was ready. In the final stage of the layers and changes coastal The softwares environment Arc GIS 9.3, Excel were processed and charts, tables and maps were extracted needed to determine the risk areas.
    Discussion
    Displacement of the river using three different data in software Arc GIS by comparing the coasts the river in both periods 1956-1995 (39 years) and 1995- 2008 (13 years) was carried out. This study intended to measure changes in linear sides through time and identifies areas where it has been the erosion and sedimentation. Results of the linear by specifying Areas of erosion and sediment delivery and to chart the lateral rate the changes as a function of distance along the coasts (every 250 m) were mapped in the software Excel.
    Conclusion
    The results of maps and charts show that in both periods right bank of erosion more than left bank and the second term right down the bank deposit and left the bank deposit has increased. Considering that the second term on the right bank more erosion than deposition but also increase the deposition in left bank the erosion can be seen that this phenomenon is due to the high sensitivity right bank to erosion, less shrub cover, accumulation of sediment erosion in the left bank and the relative resistance to against erosion is on the left bank. Cause an increase in vulnerable areas and right bank of the critical in the second period than in the first period and less vulnerable areas, the critical and very the critical left bank in the second period than in the first period can be understood that it was already too much discharge and erosion on the left bank to slip and fall are also effective but with a little discharge due to the uneven impact of the lower left of the bank and the right bank, mostly in left bank sediments have accumulated. But the right bank due to flow in alluvial deposits still contain high erosion potential. Obviously, the results of this research by other professionals can be effective in preventing disaster. In this study, merely the river Lateral changes over time has been and comment on its applications to professional experts in various fields of environmental and engineering.
    Keywords: Detect changes, Side erosion, Risk areas, GIS, RS, AjiChay River
  • M. Yamani, S. Hasanpoor, A. Mostafaei, M. Shadman Roodposhti Pages 39-56
    Introduction
    We have done this research in order to study frequency and transmissivity on big and widespread landslides in Great Karoon aquifer basin due to establish Great Karoon no 1,2,3 dams Purpose of this research is mapping landslide hazard zonation in Conformity with the new area activities and changes after: 1. Dams establishment, 2. land cover changing due to irrigation, drainage, river branches and irrigation canals. 3. Topography change of the zone due to harvest, moving huge amounts of soil and excavation process. In this research after considering previous researches and library studies we have found out 8 effective factors as essential items in occurring landslides: slope, altitude, rainfall, and distance from road, distance from fault, and distance from drainage basin, land cover and petrology. Then we made information layers of these factors by using Arc GIS9.3 softwares in GIS environment. after it we allocated classe's weight of every factor by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. We made ultimate map by compounding the different layers, and then categorized it in 4 classes; extremely hazardous, fully hazardous, middle hazardous and less hazardous. The extremely hazardous zones are affected by area geology conditions and it's known as main factor in the landslide transmissivity, and other effective items are: the slope between 5% to 30%, the drainage more than 1250 mm, the height between 500 to 2000 m and the distance from drainage basin between 0 to 4 km. Most of the extremely hazardous zones are pastures and plains that villagers and immigrant tribes use them and their water for grazing live stocks and especially for water cultivation in the slope zones. Eventually we came to this conclusion that AHP method is more accurate and better than other methods because it contains more variables and principled classifications without any expert's direct ideas.
    Keywords: zonation, landslide, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method Geographic Information System (GIS), Great Karoon aquifer basin
  • S.E. Seydaei, A. Shapoorabady Pages 57-78
    Introduction
    Rural settlements can be studied based on the ir shape and type, the natural factors such as climate, soil and water, social and cultural factors influencing the texture and morphology and the spatial -social patterns originating from them and even based on the degree of their development. Therefore, in order to plan for sustainable development of rural settlements and for realization of national development goals, it is important to identify and analyze the spatial -social patterns of residence at the context of human settlement. Disorder in the function of spatial system of rural settlements in Qom province along with polarization of the population, activities and services in the metropolitan city of Qom and also lack of adequate attention to the various aspects of rural life can lead to challenges in the development plans of the province. Due to the above requirements, this research intends to study, understand and analyze the spatial and social patterns of rural houses in Qom province. So that in addition to finding natural factors affecting the rural human settlements, developments and changes in the economic and social structure (in this study changing rural areas to cities and economic centers and service deployment and etc.) of rural human settlements in terms of the ways cities are kept, population stabilization and function and morphology of rural houses should be investigated.
    Methodology
    The research method is descriptive and analytical and data collection method is field study and documentary. In conducting the study, first existing data on the topic and the region were gathered from the information contained in the books, documents, journals and basic maps and then the required information about the province were prepared through field studies including observations, interviews and referring to the region. Consequently, using computers and GIS software, analysis and combining data layers took place. It should be noted that in this study the information obtained to draw maps were related to the data layers of the last census conducted in 2006. In the first stage, they were analyzed in the Excel software and then they were analyzed in the GIS software.
    Discussion
    Findings show that spatial -social patterns of rural housing are due to natural factors (altitude, soil and water resources, springs, canals and wells) as well as human factors (roads, service centers, the way rural community is influenced by the urban community and changes in the social and economic construction) and in some cases, the effect is a combination of several factors. The distribution pattern is largely cluster and linear cluster. In addition, considering the geographical features of Qom province, a kind of spatial relation and settlement hierarchy governs there, in which dichotomy in terms of space (the urban population in the metropolitan city of Qom) and peripheral (rural areas and the rural – urban areas) is clearly evident. So that an imbalance in the spatial structure and population polarization and gradual depletion of rural houses are the challenges and factors of instability and increasing undermining of the rural areas despite the regional power and capabilities. In addition, the findings of this study with regard to social and economic factors such as the social foundations of human geography and proximity to the major city of Qom, creating small cities, existence of animal and agriculture pole, trade and economic areas, linking roads, construction of towns and industrial areas in the establishment and maintenance of activity and sustainability of settlements have different effects in terms of positioning mode and rural human settlements in spatial, social and economic dimensions. However, in this respect, small cities do not have significant effects on retention and recruitment of rural population in comparison to the metropolitan of Qom.
    Conclusion
    Spatial -social patterns of rural housing of Qom province are due to natural factors as well as human factors and in some cases, a combination of all these factors. The distribution pattern is largely cluster and linear cluster. Small cities of the province, as artificial agents in attracting the population in rural settlements, do not have significant effects on retention and recruitment of rural population especially in comparison to the metropolitan of Qom. However, influenced by the impact of changes in social - economic structures, rural houses through the relationship between the urban and rural areas and providing economic and social services have undergone changes in the tissue anatomy and morphology of rural houses (as a symbol of how human interact and relate with the surrounding natural environment) and in some way represents the kind of economic activity and social - cultural attitudes of villagers and the development way and use of technology, and ultimately represents the level of income and livelihood of the residents. In other words, there is a mutual relationship between spatial patterns and social patterns originating from the spatial dimensions of rural houses.
    Keywords: spatial settlement, social pattern, rural housing, rural sustainable development, Qom province.
  • A. Behniafar, A. Sepehr, Mr. Mansoori Pages 79-90
    Introduction
    Geomorphotourism has become an increasingly important and widely discussed sub-sector of the global tourism industry, and despite debate over its definition, it is now broadly accepted that geotourism entails three main criteria. Firstly, geotourism should involve a nature-based element in which its attractions are primarily based in the natural environment and geomorphic features. Secondly, there should be an element of education, learning or appreciation between the geotourist and the attraction. Finally, geotourism should appear to be Environmentally and socio-culturally sustainable, in a way which ‘enhances the natural and cultural resource base of the destination and promotes the viability of the operation’. Geomorphotourism considering the geomorphic landforms of region causes sustainable development in the region.
    Methodology
    The studied area located in Khorasan Razavi, with 3500 km2 area. According to the location of this area in the folded mountain of Kopeh-dagh unit, natural features and geomorphologic landforms of this region including erosional phenomena, karst features have been caused the high geotourism potential for the studied area. The studied region located in 36 25 to 37 19 latitudes and 59 18 to 60 29 longitudes. Figure 1 shows the location of studied area.
    Results And Discussion
    The correlation of each geological formation by Pearson test showed that there is a strong and significant correlation (R2=0.8). The analysis indicated that spring density of Shorijeh, Sanganeh, Tirgan and Mozdooran is high. Also the highest discharge concentration is in relation to Tirgan and Mozdooran geology units. Areas with slopes greater than 15% have high potential to emergence geomorphic attractions which cover 66% of south and south west of Kalat region. Based on the findings, southern regions of Kalat Mountain have high potential of geomorphotourism comparison to north regions which located hill geomorphic type. Limestone and dolomite facies of Mozdoran geologic unit include most geomorphic attractions which back to sensitivity degree of this unit to erosion process. Karst and lime stone features have high geomorphotourism potential in the studied area.
  • A. Zarrabi, J. Mohammadi, Sh. Ahangari Pages 91-108
    Introduction
    Mankind has always paid attention to the management of waste for millennia. In early times, waste wouldn’t cause a problem entering environment because humans’ population was low and lands were abundantly accessible. But cities emerged and population density increased which caused waste to increase per unit area. Consumables increased in number which caused waste to increase and enter environment. Humans must take into consideration the accurate methods of management as well as the engineering and economic principles in order to fight such infections. Although there’re various methods for dumping waste, the recovering of waste is of the utmost importance nowadays because this method not only decreases the amount of waste and prevents further environmental pollution but also saves money, energy and natural resources. The average daily amount of waste made in the city of Boukan is 150 tons. The amount of waste is never separated and is dumped in a hazardous manner.
    Methodology
    The method for this applied study is descriptive, analytical and evaluative; and the data is collected from libraries, field studies, and 330 questionnaires conducted utilizing a random sampling method in 3 areas of the city. The city was divided into three parts for data to be analyzed. Then 30 samples of garbage were gathered from homes in each area and were analyzed physically, also hypothesis including two independent variables (the condition and improvement of management), and one dependent variable (the amount of waste decreased) were analyzed using SPSS and inferential statistics (simple linear regression, Pearson's correlation).
    Discussion
    The total amount of waste made in the city is 150 tons per day. The waste is mostly consisted of decaying materials which comprises 77.9 per cent of the total waste on the average, and metals comprise a total percentage of 3.1. The amount of waste expected to be made in the city in the next 20 years i.e. 2009 to 2028 was analyzed and estimated an amount of 1296856050 kg taking into consideration the rate of population growth of 1.18. In the city, home waste comprises the most amount of the total waste which consists of food waste and decaying materials (77.9 per cent), and can be used as compost or organic material. About 12.5 per cent of the remaining 22.1 per cent is recoverable. One of the most important actions taken for carrying out the separation and recovering processes of waste is to foster a culture of it. According to the produced results, no necessary and satisfactory actions have been taken yet, as the training received in the decrease of waste; and seminars and training workshops held on the recovering of waste have been evaluated 52.4 % and 69.4 % weak, respectively, also legal prosecution of violating citizens has been weak 60 % weak, but local and national media and also the city's authorities have acted appropriately 17.8 %. Also no actions have been taken to let private sector participate as 49.1 % evaluated this as a weak action.
    Conclusion
    In the city, 150 tons waste is made per day, 77.9 per cent of which comprises organic and decaying materials which is estimated an amount of 133 tons. Hence the amount of total waste made initially can be decreased adopting policies, and conducting cultural programs. Therefore carrying out such programs and policies and also launching plans for using compost must be the main priority of respective organization. Also the process of collecting waste and garbage throughout the city is not carried out by a sole manager as various decisions are made in different parts of the city by the authorities. These have caused citizens to participate less in the management and recovering of waste in the city. Hence people must be provided with proper basis in order to participate in the management of urban waste holding training workshops and installing information boards with the result that the plans are launched easily.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste, waste management, recovery, Bukan
  • M. Entezari, R. Sharifi, Z. Eizadi, S.S. Shahzeydi Pages 109-120
    Introduction
    In geographical studies, soil is not only considered as a natural resource, but also it is exposed to a corrupted danger called erosion, so it needs study, guarding and control. On one hand, the concept of erosion, from geomorphological point of view, is referred to processes which shape the earth surface, and on the other hand, it is related to the factors of soil guarding. The fact is that different results are derived from evaluating erosion risks through various methods, and quantity and type of soil erosion also vary from one place to another. These quantities would be very useful for planning. First Elwell (1978) applied the SLEMSA Model to assess rates of erosion in Zimbabwe. Her research showed that this strategy is acceptable for the study of soil conservation in the country. After Elwell and Stocking (1984 and 1982), this model was used for assessing erosion in North Africa. Igwe et al (1997) to estimate the potential risk of erosion in South West Nigeria compared the USLE and SLEMSA methodology for mapping erosion and indicated the positive consequences of SLEMSA methodology. Josefine Svorin (2003) examined three models of USLE / RUSLE, SLEMSA, Morgan and Morgan- Finney. Mouinou Igue Attanda (2002) Quality of water erosion in lowland humid Benin using the two models, USLE and SLEMSA assessed and has concluded that the model SLEMSA due to the similarity of the results with the results of projects carried out, fit better with tropical there. Igwe et al (1997) examined the use of models to estimate the potential risk of erosion USLE and SLEMSA in mapping erosion in South West Nigeria have paid. The purpose of this study Dastkan watershed erosion rates, erosion, and identify categories of factors are.
    Methodology
    In the first, boundary of the study area was determined, and then through statistical techniques the factors interact in the SLEMSA model were examined. Collecting information and the primary consideration of factors models, and the combination of digital layers, were done.
    Discussion
    The SLEMSA model divides the soil erosion environment into four physical systems: crop, climate, soil and topography. Major control variables are then selected for each system on the basis that they should be easily measurable and the dominant factor within each system (Stocking, 1980). These control variables are subsequently combined into three sub-models; the bare soil sub model, topographical sub model, and the crop sub model. The main model is then simply the three sub models multiplied together. The SLEMSA equation is as follows:
    Conclusion
    The present study shows that medium erosion class (5to 40 tonnes per hectare per year) Dastkan watershed is the most of the area. In general we can say the area is low to moderate ability erodible. SLEMSA model for estimating erosion, environmental conditions are examined. These factors in watershed erosion rates in different influence, its role in the model represent different values. In the region, 5 erosion focuses in the north part were observed. Considering influential factors on these regions showed that the main erosion factor at the risk focuses was at first rain energy and the other factors were the ground gradient and plant covering. In addition, soil fatigue capability, which was the main erosion factor in the region, did not play so much role at the risk focuses. The research finding showed that water erosion is the dominant type of erosion in the region and erosion rate of average 1.412 ton per hectare is lower, compared to erosion rate of the country.
    Keywords: Erosion, Dastkan, SLEMSA, GIS
  • E. Ghanavati, A. Karam, M. Aghaalikhani Pages 121-138
    Introduction
    Flood event is very important in humanities center and urban because they are effective on Capabilities production of runoff in this area and increase the financial and human losses due to its population density and infrastructure. As respects Collection and dispose of runoff from the rainfall in the river stream in fact are safety، public health and utilities and several flood events in Tehran that in some instances are financial losses and damages to human lives indicate necessity integrate study are about flood in the basins upstream of Tehran. So the purpose of this study determines areas with highest flood risk in the Farahzad basin. Basin Farahzad is located in upstream of the city of Tehran and the area is 22. 29 km2. It is located in latitude ''47 ◦ 35 to ''5 ◦ 35 north and longitude ''19 ◦ 51 to ''21 ◦ 51 east. Considering the fact that phenomena as flooding are affected by many factors that these factors are not certain and exact and these are affecting probabilistic and inconclusive، so a method to Fuzzy model used for the areas in the flood risk.
    Methodology
    According to research purposes، data and information layers slope، profile and planimetric curvatures، elevation، drainage density، distance from the river، landforms and land use were assigned as effective parameters to flooding. To prepare the these data and layers are used the Tajrish topography map with scale 1:50000، NI 39-3 number، K551 Series، page 2661I، Tehran geology map with scale 1:100000، Tehran Resource evaluation and land capability map scale with 1:250000، satellite image landsat ETM+ and satellite image IRS-LISS III. To analyze satellite images، according to the capabilities Erdas software used according to the capabilities of this software in image processing and modeling also full adaptation with the ArcGIS software. After providing information’s mentioned above and determining kind of their relation with the flood appoint membership function for each of the parameters. After applying membership function to layers in Arc GIS software، all layers have values between zeros to one، then layers entered to fuzzy model. To perform fuzzy technique، it is necessary to use operators as union، Subscription، Gama، algebraic multiplication and sum. In this research Gama، algebraic multiplication and sum is used. In this study used Gama، algebraic multiplication and sum operators. First algebraic sum and multiplication operators applied to the layers which amount of membership is determined، then to find the final map of flood zonation and to adjust prepared maps according to algebraic sum and multiplication are used Gama 0. 9، Gama 0. 7 and Gama 0. 5 operators، more over because field data was not existed to determine the most appropriate Gama in flood zonation، amount of correlation between primary info layers and Gama final maps are concluded in SPSS software. Discossion: Gama 0. 7 Map has had the highest correlation with the primary info layers، therefore Gama 0. 7 Map chose as the final map of flood zonation which is classified in to five levels according to natural break method. Zones with very high risk of flood are located in downstream parts of the basin. Upstream parts of the basin and ridges are provided zones with low risk. As a matter of fact risk of flood becomes more if we move from the upstream parts of the basin to the downstream or south. Most area of the region is related to the zones with low risk of the flood which has 14. 29 square kilometers area and smallest area is related to zones with very high risk of flood (0. 78 square kilometers) and high risk (1. 37 square kilometers). Valleys with concave slopes have the most effective surfaces to produce flooding zones in the basin. These surfaces mostly have slope between 0 to 20 percent and height between 1600 to 1950 meters and located between 0 to 1300 meters distances from rivers. Drainage density of this area is between 6 to 9. These surfaces mostly are located in the Units valley with mid slope and these are covered with trees and plants. Ridges and crests with concave slopes have the lowest effective surfaces to produce flooding zones in the basin. These surfaces mostly have slop between 40 to 60 percent and height between 2300 to 2650 meters and located between 130 to 260 meters distance from rivers. Drainage density of this area is more between 0 to 3. These surfaces are mostly located in mountainous units with high slop and covered with pastures.
    Conclusion
    With considering final maps of flood zonation and along of static development، construction should be stopped in very high and high risk zones، more over it is Recommended to change the place of traditional restaurants located in this area which did not consider river bank to level with 1700 meters elevation which is computed of final map overlaying with topographic map. Results show the capability and efficiency of this model to flood zonation and probable mistakes and differences occurred in other maps is determined in this model which related to various methods of layers of fuzzy production and the kind of Gama operator. The other property of this model is its capability to use in Arc GIS software.
    Keywords: zonation, flooding, fuzzy, Farahzad, risk
  • H. Varesi, M. Ghanbari, H. Poorghayoomi Pages 139-150
    Introduction
    As a direct result of migrations rising and population growth, particularly in developing and undeveloped countries, the population of cities was increased. Different results and problems such as density, pollution, unemployment, housing shortage and urban services, have been caused by the fast population growth across the developing countries during last three decades (Atash & Shirazi Beheshtiha, 1998:1). First and foremost, developing of living in cities following with its special problems has necessitated finding some solutions in order to optimize citizen’s life (Zarabi & Ghanbari, 2010: 1). In the majority of historical periods, from the first civilization, new towns have been built across the world (B, Leonard; 1993:23). Construction of new towns in Iran could be surveyed before and after the revolution (Ziari; 2006:412). In this article will be tried to investigate the success degree and performance of new town’s master plan of Binalood.
    Methodology
    The descriptive- analytical method has been used in this research. The main aim of this survey is the evaluation of implementation degree of master plan of new town of Binalood. This new town is located 55 Km away of western south of Mashhad and it has been built in order to absorb Mashhad’s extra population.
    Discussion
    The master plan of Binalood was approved by the law established the Supreme Council of Architecture, in 2002.2.28 (International magazine of Asian economic; 2009: 7). In follow, implementation of four main factors of this master plan will be evaluated the population, employment, housing and land uses of Binalood new town.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of this research, it has been investigated that, master plan of Binalood was unsuccessful in order to achieve its aims by the end of 2011. The investigations on assessed factors show that, none of them have been implemented completely. It should be emphasized the, the population, employment, housing were 5.66%, 35.36% and 9.46% of anticipated values, respectively. This was follow with, employment and housing and population implementation, 5.66%, has inefficient position. Finally, it should purpose that, the most important problems of implementation of this town including, insufficient infrastructures, required installations and shortage of different services must be solve.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Implementation, Master Plan, Binalood New Town, Mashhad City
  • A.H. Halabian, M. Shabankari Pages 151-166
    Introduction
    Siberian high is a large synoptic system in planet scale that considers the most important center of atmosphere action for cold period in Eurasia. This high that depend on the coldest and the most condensed air mass in north hemisphere, concentrate itself as a seasonal and semi – permanent synaptic system between Baykal and Balkhash lakes, and it’s western tongue affect the climate of extensive regions of Iran. Therefore, the goal of this synoptic study is to explain key interactions between the atmosphere and surface environment and in other words exploration of the relationship between the circulation patterns of Siberian high pressure and minimum temperatures in Iran. Up to now, many studies about Siberian high have been done by several individuals that we will refer to some studies which have been done in Iran and world. In the world, Lydolph (1977), Ding and Krishnamurti (1987), Sahsamanoglou et al (1991), Zhang et al (1996), Mokhov and Petukhov (1999), Choen et al (2001), Haghton et al(2001), Gong et al(2001,2002), Takaya and Nakamura (2004), Panagiotopoulos et al (2005) and Lingis and Thompson(2005) are individuals that have carried out investigations about siberian high. In Iran, the investigations have been done too which can point to investigations of Abdolhoseini (1358), Alijani (1369), Balighi (1375), Chokhachizadeh (1376), Jahanbakhsh et al (1378), Azizi and Yousefi (1384) and kaviani et al (2007). This research try to reveal the climatic impacts of pressure systems on Iran climate by using the statistic and synoptic methods study the role of Siberian high system at the Slp in spatial distribution of the minimum temperatures in Iran.
    Methodology
    In this research, for analyzing the temporal variations of the Siberian system have been applied the daily data of sea level pressure at 12GMT in NCEP NCAR database with spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 in a 55 years period including 20089 days from Dey, 11th, 1329 to Dey, 10th,1384). To recognize and analyze the temporal patterns of Siberian high system and by considering the mean position of this system and it’s spatial developing relative to Iran and the maximum of it’s action intensity in sea level that often is conformity with surrounding and middle limits of Balkhash and Baykal lakes (Lingis and Thompson,2005, Gong et al 2002, Sahsamanoglou et al, 1991, kaviani et al, 1386 and Chokhachizadeh, 1376) we have selected the suitable framework of 62.5 – 120o east and 40 – 62.5o north for this system. Then, calculation and standardization of mean daily of sea level pressure have been done from 1330 to 1383. Thus, a matrix with size 19724 1 was obtained as standardized Siberian high index (SSHI) that included the anomalies of positive phase (Siberian high presentation) and negative phase (absence of the Siberian high) in each day. To analyze and interpret the effect of Siberian high system on minimum temperatures in Iran, have been applied the information of 663 synoptic and climatology stations in Iran with statistical period of 1961 – 2004 from minimum daily temperature data of stations that at least had statistical period of 10 years. On this basis, the data of minimum daily temperature of 423 stations have selected and analyzed. At first, the value of minimum daily temperatures was standardized for analyzing the effect of Siberian high on minimum temperatures of Iran. After standardization, two calendars have been conformed as standardized value of daily minimum temperature and standardized Siberian high index and selected a temporal period from 1340 to 1382 consist of 15705 days from 16071 days for studying the effect of Siberian high system on daily minimum temperature in Iran. Then, for understanding how effects of the Siberian high system on daily minimum temperature in Iran, the contingency table method and the 2 statistic calculated in math-lab soft ware were appleid.
    Discussion
    The study of time series of index value for intensity of this high system in studied time period indicate that the lowest anomaly was equal to -2 and the highest anomaly in studied period was equal to +3/5. The lowest anomaly of negative phase has occurred on Tir, 25th, 1335 and the highest anomaly of positive phase was on Azar, 5th, 1366. The results of study the time series of intensity index indicated that the nature of index behavior at mentioned level vary alternately and tendency to change between two positive and negative phase is evident in the half -year time periods. In addition, it indicates the decreasing and increasing behavior in itself internal-year variability continuously. The anomaly of negative phase relate to non Siberian high and predominance the Asia low in hot period of year and the anomaly of positive phase of index indicate predominance the Siberian high in cold period of year. The average of positive phase intensity for Siberian system is 0.88 and the average of negative phase intensity is -0.80. The frequency of occurrence days of positive phase is 9469 days and the frequency of occurrence days of negative phase is 10255 days. Therefore, in mentioned statistical period, the positive phase (Siberian high) was dominant in 48% of period and the negative phase (non Siberian system and Asia low presentation) was dominant in 52% of period. The study of time series of average the Siberian high intensity index in positive phase indicate that the most violent positive anomaly was occurred in 1335 and 1355 and the most weak of it were in 1357 and 1370. In addition, the study of time series for days frequency of existence and absence of the Siberian high in occurrence the negative and positive phase indicate that the average of negative phase dominant was nearly 190 days and the average of positive phase dominant was about 175 days. The least period of dominant for positive phase was 143 days (1338) and the greatest was 210 days (1370). The period of dominant for negative phase wasn’t shorter than 155 days (1370) and longer than 222 days (1338). By study the time variations of the frequency of Siberian high activity days in positive phase occurrence that had ascending behavior during recent 50 years, it seems that in spite of relative decrease of the frequency of days for Siberian high activity in 1930’s, totally, the frequency of days for activity of this system have been increased during recent 50 years.
    Conclusion
    This research indicated that standardized intensity Siberian high index is able to revealing the time variations of Siberian high. The analysis of time series of standardized intensity Siberian high index in positive phase period (predominance and presentation the Siberian high) indicated that intensity of Siberian high activity have the alternate behavior. Comparison between frequency of positive phase occurrence days and negative phase event days in the studied level showed that during recent 50 years the appearance and activity days of SH were definitely less than absence days of this system. At he same time, the frequency of activity days for this system was increasing during recent 50 years. In the other hand, this study indicated that the frequency of presentation days Siberian high have tendency to increase. The study of obtained results by using the contingency table method at time period (1340 – 1382) for revealing the effect of Siberian high system on occurrence of daily minimum temperatures in Iran showed that at the 95% confidence level, daily temperature minimum in about 93% of studied stations (393 out of 423) isn’t independent of influence of Siberian high pressure at the Slp. this subject indicate the strong relationship and connection between daily minimum temperatures in extensive regions of Iran and Siberian high at the Slp.
  • R. Ghorbani, A. A. Taghipour, H. Mahmoudzadeh Pages 167-184
    Introduction
    According to the Ramsar Convention, wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters. According to recent estimations, world wetlands account for 6.2 to 7.6 percent of earth’s surface.
    Methodology
    To achieve the main objectives of the study, available TM and ETM satellite sensor imagery for 1987, 2000, 2005 and 2010 Alma gol, Aji gol and Ala gol international wetlands were selected. In preprocessing stage, after preparing the multi temporal images of region, radiometric, Geometric and normalization techniques were applied. In processing stage, the visual interpretation of images related to the study area and the reflective properties of water in the infrared band that is almost zero, the separation of land and water in the wetland area was identified. In addition to the visual methods, other digital image processing techniques like the ratio of bands, bands subtraction, and principal component analysis were used to identify areas of change. In post processing stage, the field survey and using GPS device in the study area with picking up required training samples the Envi software environment was applied to the MLC method.
    Discussion
    In the present study, with field survey and using GPS device and considering to the distribution of land covererage, six classes of usage in the areaof mentioned wetlands were selected as follows: Water, saltlands, arid lands, low vegetation density, average and high vegetation. It was attempted to regard distribution of sample areas in selecting training samples with overlapping training samples and creating false color composite images so that normal distribution of samples is obtained.
    Conclusion
    Results show that during the research period (1987-2010) many changes in land use area has occurred which these changes include reduction in wetlands area from 2591.8 hectares in 1987 to 1280.6 hectares in 2010, reduction of salt lands, reduction in vegetation with high density, increase in vegetation with low/average density, and finally stability of thearid land area. The main causes of these changes should be explored in issues such as droughts, dam construction, extra wetlands water consumption in agriculture, fish farming and construction of canals and roads.
    Keywords: Ala, Gol, Alma, Gol, Ajay, Gol International Wetlands, multi temporal Satellite images, Change detection
  • M. Jomehpoor, Gh. Najafi, S. Shafia Pages 185-200
    Introduction
    Issue of sustainable development and especially sustainable urban development has been one of the most important concerns of policy makers and planners since the Rio Conference. This point of view was given form environmental, economic, managerial and social comments that have collected from all field s of university studies about cities. With assuming “compact city form” as the stable urban form and also regarding to prevent suburbs spread of Tehran metropolis subject entitled as “organizing and protecting the city’s boundary and prevent ing any spread of span area”, the various aspects of Tehran sustainability, according to the characteristics of compact city, is necessary to study. Issue of social stability in the compact city model has become a challenging subject among researchers and planners. Some of them believe that if cities become more dense then social stability decreases. But others argue that denser cities have more social stable positions.
    Methodology
    Due to the necessity and importance of social stability in Tehran metropolitan and also according to its planned vision, this study discussed about the social stability in various area of Tehran. In addition, social stability level in some regions with different population density are investigated and a nalyze d. T his study is not pursuing t o establish relationship between density and social stability. Also, factor analysis was used for defining of primary factors of the research and expert's comments and factor's load were used for naming these new factors.
    Discussion
    This research showed that social sustainability contains, Development and access to facilities, Medical and health's share, Cultural development and Voluntary participation, in order. The Correlation shows that there is negative and significant relationship between "Development and access to facilities" and " Cultural development ". Result of that correlation was about -0.881 which is intensive relationship. Clearly, it means that we will lose social sustainability. However, this result is not reliable reason to accept or reject of positive or negative correlation between density and social sustainability because analysis have done in one city where it has not had clear organized plans for compressed constructions. Perhaps if social, economic, technical and environmental prerequisites of Compression are provided in Iranian's cities, different results will be achievable.
    Conclusion
    However, results of this study indicated that increasing density at 20 district s of Tehran caused to decrease the social sustainability. Therefore, more attention must be paid to social aspects of development because with reduction of the social sustainability in societies, economic and environmental sustainability and finally in total city sustainability will be at risk. From other vision we can understand that history of urbanization and cultural attitudes is the most important reason for this result. If we want to find affect of something in their social position we have to know their feelings and needs about that change.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, social sustainability, compact city, Tehran regions, Tehran metropolis