فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:38 Issue: 2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/03/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
|
  • Surena Vahabi, Bahareh Nazemi Salman, Anahita Javanmard Page 76
    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.
  • Keivan Saeb, Gholamreza Sarizade, Mohammad Khodadi, Esmaeil Biazar Page 84
    Background
    Various regions in Iran, especially the Khuzestan Province, have been covered by dust and dirt during the past two years due to environmental changes in the Middle East. We sought to evaluate the effect of these pollutants on the coagulant factors of people residing in Abadan and Khoramshahr, two major cities of Khuzestan Province.
    Methods
    One hundred twenty-nine healthy individuals were enrolled into this study, and their prothrombin time as well as fibrinogen, platelet, and Factor VIII levels were measured before and after climate changes
    Results
    After climate changes, the mean prothrombin time decreased, while the fibrinogen, platelet, and Factor VIII levels rose.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study suggest that the pollutants deployed in the Middle East can affect prothrombin time as well as fibrinogen, platelet, and Factor VII levels considerably and increase coagulant state. The pollutants can, consequently, increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It seems that cooperation at government levels between Iran and its neighboring countries is required to reverse desertification and avoid inaccurate usage of subterranean water resources so as to lessen air pollution.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Prothrombin time, Middle East
  • Mohammad Hassan Nemati Page 89
    Background
    For all the reports on the association between seasons and coronary artery disease, there is a paucity of information on the possible effects of seasonal variations on the outcome of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to assess the short-term outcome of post-CABG patients in the four different seasons to find any correlation between seasonal variations and the outcome of such patients.
    Methods
    Data on patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. In-hospital mortality, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay in the four different seasons were considered as outcome measures. The EuroSCORE was calculated for all the patients, and the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Student t, and chi square tests were used as appropriate.
    Results
    Of a total of 402 patients, who underwent CABG during the mentioned period, 292 patients were male (M/F ratio=2.65). There were no differences in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and mean EuroSCORE of the patients between the seasons. The mean length of ICU stay was significantly more in the spring than that of the other seasons (P<0.001), while the difference between the four seasons regarding the mean length of hospital stay did not constitute statistical significance (P=0.22). No effect of seasonal variations was found for the lengths of ICU and hospital stay in the presence of the EuroSCORE after multiple logistic regression analysis (P=0.278, 0.431).
    Conclusion
    Psychological mood changes caused by regional cultural differences rather than environmental factors should be considered in the optimal management of patients after CABG
    Keywords: Coronary artery bypass graft, Seasonal variations, Iran
  • Mohammad Karamyyar, Shahsanam Gheibi, Mehran Noroozi, Ali Kord Valeshabad Page 93
    Background
    To assess the therapeutic effects of oral zinc supplementation on acute watery diarrhea of children with moderate dehydration.
    Methods
    All 9-month to 5-year-old children who were admitted with acute watery diarrhea and moderate dehydration to the Children Ward of Motahari Hospital, Urmia, Iran in 2008 were recruited. After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group to receive zinc plus oral rehydration solution (ORS) and the other one to receive ORS plus placebo. All the patients were rehydrated using ORS and then receiving ORS for ongoing loss (10 ml/kg after every defecation). Additionally, the patients in the intervention group received zinc syrup (1 mg/kg/day) divided into two doses. A detailed questionnaire was filled daily for each patient by trained pediatrics residents; it contained required demographic characteristics, nutrition and hydration status, and disease progression. The primary outcome (frequency and consistency of diarrhea) and the secondary outcomes (duration of hospitalization and change in patients’ weight) were compared between the two groups.
    Results
    The mean diarrhea frequency (4.5±2.3 vs. 5.3±2.1; P=0.004) was lower in the group receiving zinc +ORS; however, the average weight was relatively similar between the two groups (10.5±3.1 vs. 10.1±2.3; P=0.14). The qualitative assessment of stool consistency also confirmed earlier improvement in the treatment group in the first three days of hospitalization (P <0.05). The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly lower in the patients receiving zinc supplements (2.5±0.7 vs. 3.3±0.8 days; P=0.001).
    Conclusion
    Our results imply the beneficial effects of therapeutic zinc supplementation on disease duration and severity in patients with acute diarrhea and moderate dehydration in Iran. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201201241580N2
    Keywords: Zinc, Diarrhea, Dehydration, Children, Acute gastroenteritis
  • Fatemeh Sari Aslani, Mojgan Akbarzadeh, Jahromi, Farideh Jowkar Page 100
    Background
    In addition to the well-defined histological criteria for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), immunohistochemical techniques can be used in difficult cases for their differentiation. As differential diagnosis between trichoepithelioma (TE) and BCC is sometimes difficult for the clinician and the pathologist, CD10 may be a useful marker for definite diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this marker in the differentiation between SCC and BCC and also in the differentiation between BCC and TE.
    Methods
    Fifty-five BCC cases, 50 SCC cases, and 20 cases of benign adnexal tumor with follicular differentiation were retrieved from the archives of the pathology departments of hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Immunohistochemistry for CD10 was performed on the sections obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks. CD10 immunoreactivity in the stroma and/or tumor cells was determined as follows: negative (0); 1+(10-50% positive cells); and 2+(>50% positive cells).
    Results
    Comparison of CD10 expression between the BCC and SCC groups showed a significant difference (P<0.001) in each of the tumor and stromal cells. Comparison of CD10 expression between the BCC and TE groups demonstrated a significant difference in both the tumor and stromal cells (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in CD10 expression between the stromal and tumor cells of the BCC subtypes.
    Conclusion
    CD10 is a useful adjunct marker in distinguishing TE from BCC. CD10 is suggested to be one of the useful immunohistochemical markers to differentiate BCC from SCC.
    Keywords: Squamous cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma, Trichoepithelioma
  • Elham Aliabadi, Fatemeh Karimi, Tahereh Talaei, Khozani Page 107
    Background
    The glycoconjugate content of sperms indicates their physiological and fertility properties. Lectin reactivity is indicative of intact, capacitated, and acrosome-reacted sperms. In the epididymis, sperms experience maturation, glycoconjugate modification, and simultaneously, higher L-carnitine (LC) concentrations. The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of LC and Pentoxifylline (PF) on the integrity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction of sperms by studying their lectin reactivity.
    Methods
    Mouse testicular sperm samples were divided into three parts. Each sample was added Ham’s F10 (control) or media containing 1.76 mM LC or PF. At 30 and 90 minutes after incubation, sperm motility was assessed. Peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Concanavalin A (Con A) were used to detect non-acrosome-reacted, non-capacitated, and acrosome-reacted sperms, respectively and the frequency was evaluated by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA.
    Results
    Sperm motility increased after 30 and 90 minutes of incubation in the LC- and PF-treated cultures (P=0.001). LC administration created a significant increase in the percentage of the non-acrosome-reacted sperms compared to the control sperms after 30 and 90 minutes (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively). The frequency of the non-capacitated sperms in the LC-treated group increased compared to the control sperms after 30 minutes significantly (P=0.01).
    Conclusion
    Although the administration of LC and PF enhanced sperm motility, LC also impacted glycoconjugates on the sperm surface. Glycoconjugates are involved in the interaction between the sperm and the zona pellucida and subsequently fertilization, thereby probably influencing the male fertility state.
    Keywords: Glycoconjugates, Spermatozoa, Lectin, L, carnitine, Pentoxifylline
  • Mojtaba Keshavarz, Alireza Showraki, Masoumeh Emamghoreishi Page 116
    Background
    There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure.
    Methods
    Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod.
    Results
    Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group.
    Conclusion
    These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure.
    Keywords: Guaifenesin, Anticonvulsant, Pentylenetetrazol
  • Fariba Hemmati, Neamat Allah Kiyani Rad Page 122
    The gold standard to assess jaundice in neonates is the serum bilirubin measurement. Blood sampling for the determination of total serum bilirubin (TSB) is painful for newborns and stressful for parents. The Bilicheck®, a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer, is considered as a more accurate measurement of bilirubin compared to the previous bilirubinometers courtesy of its advanced technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements using the Bilicheck® device and TSB in some Iranian neonates and to determine the most reliable cut-off value with the highest sensitivity and desirable specificity for bilirubin measured by the Bilicheck® on the forehead. This prospective observational study was conducted in 2011 on 560 healthy neonates with jaundice. TcB was measured using the Bilicheck® (Respironic, USA) within 30 minutes of TSB measurement via direct spectrophotometry. The results were assessed by simple linear regression analysis and receiver operative characteristic curve. There was good a correlation between TcB and TSB (r=0.969, r2=0.94), and this was not affected by sex, gestational age, postnatal age, and birth weight. TSB can be calculated through the measurement of TcB and use of the linear regression equation: TSB=-0.99+1.06TcB. Sensitivity and specificity of the Bilicheck® at the most reliable cut-off value (15 mg/dl) were 96.6% and 99%, respectively. The findings of the present study indicate that the Bilicheck® is a non-invasive, simple, easy, and reliable method for bilirubin measurement in neonatal jaundice, especially in neonates with bilirubin levels? 15 mg/dl.
    Keywords: Neonatal jaundice, Hyperbilirubinemia, Transcutaneous
  • Shahbaz Habib Faridi, Bushra Siddiqui, Mohd Amanullah Khan, Afzal Anees, Syed Asmat Ali Page 129
    We encountered a 55-year-old man, who presented with an orifice in the suprapubic region, through which fecal material was discharged. On physical examination, the patient was unstable. After resuscitation, thorough evaluation, and laboratory and imaging investigations, he underwent an exploratory laparotomy. The ileum was entrapped at the deep inguinal ring, and there was some pus in the pelvic cavity. The purulent material was cleaned, and anastomosis was done after the resection of the defective ileal segment. In view of the rarity of this presentation and the paucity of published articles, this case is reported here.
    Keywords: Inguinal ring, Hernia, Cellulitis
  • Tasleem Arif, Javid Ahmad Malik, Sheikh Shoib Page 132
    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is a type of non-immunologically mediated asthma-like disease. It usually occurs after a massive exposure to an irritating substance in the atmosphere in the form of smoke, fumes, gases, and vapor. Unlike bronchial asthma, there is no latency to the symptoms seen in RADS. A number of agents are known to cause RADS, but tile dust, as an etiological agent, has not been previously reported. We report a 45-year-old male laborer, who presented with an acute onset of cough, chest tightness, breathlessness, and audible wheeze after his first time exposure to porcelain tile dust within 5 hours of exposure. Lab tests, including, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, air blood gas analysis, and serum IgE, were unremarkable. Spirometry showed a mild obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)=72% of predicted], while the bronchodilator reversibility test was significant(14% increase in FEV1 above the baseline).Bronchial biopsy revealed a chronic inflammatory reaction with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration and more importantly a striking absence of eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RADS as a result of exposure to tile dust (porcelain ceramics).
    Keywords: Porcelain, Dust, RADS