فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue:16, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Ara Shahgholi, Ashraf Karbalayi Noori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Hossein Sourtigi Page 5
    Objective
    Individuals with schizophrenia show perceptual-cognitive abnormalities. Besides، depression and anxiety is an integral part of the disease most of the times. People with mental diseases، while under institutional care، experience lack of control and choice in their daily lives. Sensory room is an environment in which individuals can choose، control and explore the stimuli around them. So، they can organize their responses to their environment and restore and develop their skills، interacting through it.
    Method
    48 people met the study criteria، who were evaluated with Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment، Mini Mental State examination، and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Then they were randomly and equally assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention group received sensory room intervention and comparison group had their traditional therapies. After 32 treatment sessions، 14 participants in intervention group and 7 participants in comparison group were excluded from the study and the tests were repeated for the remaining ones.
    Results
    Findings did not show a significant effect of sensory room intervention on perceptual-cognitive performance and psychiatric status of people with schizophrenia (p> 0. 05). In reminding domain، however، results indicated maintenance of the skill in intervention group (p> 0. 05). and exacerbating of that in comparison group (p< 0. 05).
    Conclusion
    No significant change in perceptual-cognitive performance and psychiatric status for individuals with schizophrenia during 3 month period of sensory room intervention was found، except for reminding which did not changed significantly in intervention group، but regressed in comparison group after the intervention period.
    Keywords: Sensory room intervention, schizophrenia disorder, perceptual, cognitive performance, psychiatric status
  • Bahram Saleh Sedghpour (Phd), Sara Daazi Page 16
    Aim
    The aim of the present study was to reconstruct determining validity, and score The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test fourth edition (SDRT4) in the sixth grade students.
    Methods
    The population of the study was all sixth grades of the 19 educational districts from Tehran, 571 students (255 boys and 316 girls) were selected by using a random multi-cluster sampling. The data were analyzed. The techniques were item analysis (difficulty index, discriminative index, and loop techniques). Validity, translation validity, content validity, and construct validity (factorial analysis), and reliability (Kuder-Richardson)
    Results
    the exploratory factor analysis determined five factors: declarative knowledge, inferential knowledge, procedural knowledge and visualization knowledge. The reliability of the Stanford diagnostic Reading Test’s subtests by computing the Kuder-Richardson coefficient were 0.778, 0.732 and 0.748 for comprehension subtest, vocabulary subtest and scanning subtest in order.
    Conclusion
    By considering the results of present study, SDRT4 has good reliability and validity and can appropriately diagnose the reading disabled students in the sixth grade.
    Keywords: diagnostic reading test, reading disability, reconstruction, scoring, validity, reliability
  • Sepideh Nazi, Faranak Aliabadi, Bahare Maghfouri Page 22
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor development between Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants and Normal Birth Weight infants (NBW) at the age of 8-12 months by using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2).
    Method
    This was a non experimental and cross sectional study which was conducted on the 18 LBW infants and 14 normal infants. By referring to the profile of infants in NICU of Aliasghar Hospital, those with defined inclusion criteria was recognized (case group). The normal weight infants, randomly selected from Health Center of that hospital, matched with case group for date of birth. After completing the questionnaire about demographic variables, their gross motor development was assessed with PDMS-2. Finally the scores of the motor quotient were analyzed by independent T test statistical method.
    Result
    There was a significant difference between Fine motor quotient of groups. (p= 0.007)
    Conclusion
    This study showed that LBW infants are significantly lower than normal weight infants in attaining Fine motor skills. It means that the LBW infants are more prone to developmental difficulties.
    Keywords: LBW infants, Motor development, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale
  • Sedighe Bakhtiari Shahri Page 26
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational stress in the rehabilitation staffs of training hospitals of Tehran.
    Methods
    This was a cross- sectional study which had been implemented on a sample of 169 selected from the total of 300 rehabilitation staffs working in the training hospital of Tehran and recruited by random cluster sampling in the study. Two Questionnaires were used: The Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire designed by Petrides and Furnham and HSE occupational Stress Questionnaire. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests.
    Results
    The results showed that there is an inverse significant relationship between occupational stress and emotional intelligence (P< 0.001, r = - 0.33). There are, also, significant relationships between subscales of emotional intelligence including self-awareness (P= 0.031, r = - 0.18), social skills (P< 0.001, r = - 0.302), understanding other’s emotions (P= 0.006, r = - 0.238) and occupational stress. The results of multiple regressions indicated that the two subscales of understanding other’s emotions and social skills can be used for predicting occupational stress.
    Conclusion
    This study confirmed relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational stress. Promotion of emotional intelligence through implementing training courses may lower rehabilitation staffs occupational stress or prevent it.
    Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Occupational Stress, Rehabilitation Staff
  • Dr. Yones Lotfi, Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi Page 30
    Objectives
    Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR) is a result of eight nerve and brain stem nuclei stimulation. Several factors may affect the latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitudes in ABR especially sex and age. In this study, age and sex influence on ABR were studied.
    Methods
    This study was performed on 120 cases (60 males and 60 females) at Akhavan rehabilitation center of university of welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran. Cases were divided in three age groups: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years old. Each age group consists of 20 males and 20 females. Age and sex influences on absolute latency of wave I and V, and IPL of I-V were examined.
    Results
    Independent t test showed that females have significantly shorter latency of wave I, V, and IPL I-V latency (P-value < 0.001) than males. Two way ANOVA showed that latency of wave I, V and IPL I-V in 51-70 years old group was significantly higher than 18-30 and 31-50 years old groups (P-value < 0.001) Disscussion: According to the results of present study and similar studies, in clinical practice, different norms for older adults and both genders should be established.
    Keywords: ABR, gender, presbycusis, central auditory pathway, brain stem time
  • Fereydoun Layeghi, Maryam Farzad Page 37
    Objectives
    Despite numerous studies, achieving the best outcome is challenging after flexor tendon repairs in zone 2. This study was done to test the hypothesis that immediate postoperative active mobilization will achieve similar outcomes to passive mobilization.
    Method
    Fifty fingers in 38 patients with flexor tendon repair in zone 2 were enrolled in this trial. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Early active mobilization and Passive mobilization. They were assessed eight weeks post-operatively. Outcomes were defined using ‘Strickland’ and ‘Buck- Gramcko’ criteria. The analysis was done according to intention-to-treat principles, using imputation for missing data.
    Results
    There were significant differences between the two groups (p<0.001). According to Strickland criteria, the results were 80% ‘excellent and good’ and 20% ‘fair’ and ‘poor’ in the early active mobilization group. In the passive mobilization control group results were: 40% ‘excellent and good’ and 44% fair and 16% poor. Mean of total active mobilization was significantly greater in the early active mobilization group.
    Conclusion
    The actively mobilized tendon underwent intrinsic healing without large gap formation. Increased ultimate range of motion confirmed that early active mobilization can be used after strong repair in zone two.
    Keywords: flexor tendon, zone 2, early active mobilization, passive mobilization
  • Hasan Sadeghi, Abbass Abolghasemi, Nader Hajloo Page 43
    Objectives
    The aim of this research was to compare cognitive flexibility and adjustment between two groups of students with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and typically developing students (TDS).
    Method
    Fifty students with DCD and 50 TDS were chosen from 12 primary schools. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q), Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used to measure the research variables.
    Results
    The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (M-ANOVA) showed that the mean scores of cognitive flexibility, emotional, educational and social adjustment were significantly higher in the students with DCD (P<001). The results of multivariate regression analysis also showed that a 25 variance in cognitive flexibility and adjustment that can explain the variance of DCD in people with such a disorder (p<.001).
    Conclusions
    The results of the present study provide further evidence on low cognitive flexibility and adjustment observed in students with DCD.
    Keywords: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), Cognitive Flexibility, Adjustment
  • Katayoun Khademi, Asghar Dadkhah, Dr Vahid Kazemi Page 50
    Objective
    During the past decades, cosmetic surgery has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to make questionnaire for screening patients with negative body image in cosmetic clinics for special need people.
    Method
    In the present study, 150 special need people in cosmetic clinics were randomly assigned to fill questionnaires for assessing body area concerns.
    Result
    Results of reliability analysis and validity have shown the effectiveness of this questionnaire for recognizing individuals with having negative body image. These preliminary results suggest that body dysmorphic disorder may be relatively common among patients seeking cosmetic surgery.
    Discussion
    A high proportion of participants in cosmetic clinics have demonstrated significant body image concerns. These relatively common body image concerns deserve more study in adolescents and people with special needs.
    Keywords: body image, body part, body dysmorphic disorder, body part concerns questionnaire, cosmetic clinics
  • Fatemeh Bazrafkan, Afsoon Hassani Mehraban, Mojgan Moghadam Page 54
    Objectives
    The role of cognitive process for postural control was shown in dual task studies. However, there was no definite evidence how verbal instructions influence the allocation of attention to postural control. This study determined whether young and elderly adult are able to deliberately control the resource allocation when performing a sensorimotor and cognitive task simultaneously and are there any differences between young and older adults in this regard.
    Method
    Cross-sectional study was performed in 16 young adults aged (23.95 ± 3.31) and 20 older adults (61± 2.21). Participants selected by non-probable sampling method. Parallel standing and tandem standing on hard surface were used as postural tasks. Force plate was used for postural performance. Postural sway was measured and the choice reaction time task was conducted as cognitive task. Dual- task performance was measured under three different instructions including pay attention to cognitive task, postural task, and equal attention to both tasks.
    Results
    for postural performance the main effect of instructions and interactions by difficulty and groups were not significant (P ≥ 0.05) for cognitive performance, the main effect of group was significant (F=5.672, P=0.023), showing that elderly adult have longer reaction time. The interaction of instruction by group effect and also interaction of instruction by postural difficulty on mean reaction time was also significant, (F=3.710, P=0.030), (F=5.242, P=0.008) respectively.
    Discussion
    Because of age related changes in brain, flexibility in older adults are less than young adults.
    Keywords: attention, resource allocation, instruction, flexibility, dual task
  • Mokhtar Arazpour, Fatemeh Zarezadeh, Monireh Ahmadi Bani Page 60
    Objective
    Patients suffering from mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis may be treated with unloader knee orthoses or laterally wedged insoles. This study aimed to identify and compare the effects of two orthoses in these patients.
    Methods
    56 patients with medial compartment knee OA were evaluated when wearing an unloader knee orthosis and insoles with a 6° lateral wedge which were randomly assigned. Testing was performed at baseline and after 6 months of use with the two types of orthoses. The KOOS score was used to assess outcomes in this study. A paired T test was used for comparing base line and the 6th month post interventions KOOS sub scale score. An independent T test was used for analyzing the efficacy between the two orthoses.
    Results
    Each of the interventions improved all the parameters comparing to the baseline condition (P=0.000). However, in comparing the effect between these orthoses, we did not find significant differences in activities of daily living (P=0.871), or sports and recreational activities (P=0.351). The pain and symptoms (P=0.000) were, however, significantly different between the two interventions.
    Conclusion
    The unloader knee orthoses were more effective than lateral wedge insoles in reducing pain and symptoms.
    Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, conservative treatment, knee unloader orthoses, lateral wedges
  • Monire Nobahar Ahari, Dr Vahid Nejati, Seyed Ali Hosseini Page 66
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to identify the role of attentional process in postural control using choice reaction time task while changing the visual and proprioceptive cues under difficult balance task (standing on one-leg).
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted by participating 20 young people (22.75± 2.29). Each subject performed one-leg standing as balance task for each of the following 2 test conditions: free balance position (single task), and balancing while performing secondary cognitive task (choice reaction time task). Each test was carried out for each of the following 3 sensory conditions: on hard surface with open eyes, on hard surface with closed eyes and on foam surface with closed eyes. One way ANOVA was used for analysis.
    Results
    Analyses of the task conditions didn’t show significant difference between single and dual task under two sensory conditions, in open and in closed eye on hard surface (P > 0.05), but there was significant difference between single and dual tasks on soft foam with closed eyes [t(19) = -2.391, P = 0.027].
    Discussion
    Findings revealed that significant difference in balance performance of individuals under three different sensory conditions caused by reduction in base of support and this effect can be seen in dual task condition as well. Therefore it can be concluded that the nature of the primary task have the most influence on balance performance and this is not the effect of dual task condition.
    Keywords: Balance, Attentional Process, Dual, Task
  • Kasra Mirhosseini, Abbas Rahimi, Hessam Soutakbar Page 72
    Introduction
    Improvement in cancer care increases life expectancy of patients with cancer, most of whom have experienced prolonged episodes of fatigue during and after their treatment. This has been found to reduce the quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality of such patients. Therefore, additional interventions are beneficial to improve overall quality of life as well as longevity. There is growing evidence that exercise is beneficial for oncology patients though improvements in their physical, physiological abilities and functions.
    Objectives
    The purpose of the present article is to evaluate the current evidence to determine if exercise could be used as a safe and effective medicine to reduce fatigue and improve quality of life in these patients. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL search engines were electronically searched and 21 empirical studies, published between 1995 and 2009, were located.
    Discussion
    There is accumulative data in the literature supporting the effectiveness of exercise interventions on the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients with cancer. Exercise can improve muscle mass and strength and whole body oxygen uptake which are reduced during bed rest, infection and cancer treatments. Growing evidence is now supporting the effectiveness of exercise on specific populations such as women suffering from breast cancer. However, the effect of exercise on other populations such as children and patients suffering from other types of cancers is vague. Therefore, more research is needed to define scientific evidence based rehabilitation protocols for oncology patients with different types of cancer.
    Keywords: Cancer, Exercise, Quality of life, Fatigue, Rehabilitation
  • Dr Arash Mirabzadeh, Dr Mohammad Reza Khodaei Page 76
    Depression is a common symptom and a major public health problem in the elderly. Despite its prevalence and seriousness, depressive disorder in older people remains under-treated. The optimal treatment of depression in later life is crucial, and requires appreciation of several age-related factors such as comorbidity, polypharmacy, altered drug kinetics, variable treatment response and increased predisposition to side effects. Although sometimes difficult to diagnose because of concurrent stressors medical illness, or dementia, depression in elderly patients responds readily to appropriate therapy. When untreated, this disorder may result in increased morbidity and mortality or suicide. Effective therapeutic options for late-life depression, as in younger patients, include psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Because of their favorable adverse effect profiles and safety in cases of overdose, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have, in most cases, replaced tricyclic antidepressants as first-line therapy when antidepressants are indicated. SSRIs considered to have the best safety profile in the elderly are citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline. Finally, electroconvulsive therapy offers a safe and effective alternative for patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antidepressant medication
    Keywords: Polypharmacy, depressive disorder, older people
  • Nazila Akbarfahimi, Masoud Gharib Page 92
    Apert syndrome is a genetic defect which was first described by Eugene Apert in 1906. it''s incidence is approximately one in 50000 births. This syndrome is many abnormalities in your body and Central Nervous System. rehabilitation can increase children and their parent''s quality of life.We report a case of Apert syndrome and his occupational therapy program.
    Keywords: Apert syndrome, Rehabilitation