فهرست مطالب

Caring Sciences - Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2013
  • Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/03/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Mahin Kamalifard, Shamsi Abbasalizadeh, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Fatemeh Ghatreh Samani, Leila Rabiei Pages 89-95
    Introduction
    Fetal movement counting is a method used by mother to quantify her baby''s movements. However, the optimal number of movements and the ideal duration of counting them have not been recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the two common fetal movements counting methods by mother including «ten fetal movements counting in two hours» and «three fetal movements counting in one hour» and to compare the required mean time for counting fetal movements in the two methods.
    Methods
    300 subjects were selected by random sampling among clients with complains of decreased fetal movements referring to AL-Zahra educational curative center in Tabriz, Iran. Full training about how to perform the two methods of fetal movements counting and how to record in related tables was instructed by researcher. Immediately after counting movements, biophysical profile test was performed.
    Results
    Among a total of 291 mothers in the two groups, 99. 7% had active fetuses based on both methods of fetal movement counting. 96. 9% of these active fetuses obtained score of 10 in biophysical profile. There was a statistically significant relation between the results of both two methods of fetal movement counting and the biophysical profile as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both methods were equally 100%, 96%, 10% and 100%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study showed that fetal movement counting test can be used as an initial screening method in predicting fetal health.
    Keywords: Biophysical profile, Fetal movements, Diagnostic value
  • Nahid Dehkhoda, Sousan Valizadeh, Behzad Jodeiry, Mohammad-Bagher Hosseini Pages 97-103
    Introduction
    Re-establishing breastfeeding (relactation) is necessary in preterm infants who are deprived of breastfeeding due to hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Although NICU nurses train mothers about breastfeeding and relactation to some degree, there exists a lack of support or evaluation for restarting breastfeeding. The present study tried to determine the effects of an educational and supportive relactation program on weight gain of preterm infants.
    Methods
    This clinical trial study was performed on 60 preterm infants with mean gestational age of 29 weeks hospitalized in NICU of Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran). The infants were evaluated in two groups of 30. The mothers of infants in the control group received routine training and support about relactation while the intervention group received routine training as well as the designed educational and supportive relactation program including breast pumping, increasing milk agents and kangaroo mother care. Daily follow-up was conducted by the researcher. All the infants were weighed by a co-researcher.
    Results
    On the 14th day of the study, the mean (SD) weight of infants in the control and intervention groups was 1666.67 (136.08) and 1765.86 (156.96) g, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Providing mothers with support from the medical team and training on relactation and kangaroo mother care can lead to better weight gain of the low birth weight premature infants.
    Keywords: Relactation, Preterm infants, Kangaroo mother care, Weight gain
  • Mahnaz Shahnazi, Jila Nahaee, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Somaye Bayatipayan Pages 105-113
    Introduction
    Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.
    Methods
    This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05.
    Results
    There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms.
    Keywords: Menopausal vasomotor symptoms, Black cohosh, Herbal therapy
  • Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Mahmood Etri, Masoumeh Hosseainian, Masoumeh-Sadat Mousavi Pages 115-122
    Introduction
    The use of acupressure is growing. Several studies have applied pressure to the P6 to reduce postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain but have reported conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pressure to the P6 point on pain, nausea and vomiting after appendectomy.
    Methods
    A single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 88 patients after appendectomy. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. After the patients in the intervention group had regained their consciousness, pressure was applied to the P6 acupoint using special Acubands. In the control group, the Acubands were fastened loosely on the patients'' wrists. The bracelets were kept for seven hours and pain, nausea, and vomiting were measured hourly. Student’s t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze data. All analyses were performed in SPSS11.5.
    Results
    The two groups were not significantly different in terms of age, body mass index, duration of anesthesia, and length of incision. The mean pain intensity in the two groups was not significantly different at different times. Overall, 45.4% of the P6 group and 47.7% of the control group experienced postoperative nausea. The two groups were not significantly different in the mean intensity of nausea at different postoperative hours. In total, 12 patients in the P6 group and 18 in the control group had vomiting
    Conclusion
    Pressure to the P6 did not significantly reduce pain and nausea after appendectomy. However, the incidence of vomiting was less in the P6 group. This method can be used to reduce vomiting after appendectomy. Similar studies are suggested to apply pressure with the onset of pain or nausea and vomiting.
    Keywords: Acupressure, Appendectomy, Pain, Nausea, Vomiting
  • Fahimeh Sehhatie-Shafaie, Rafat Kazemzadeh, Firouz Amani, Reza Heshmat Pages 123-129
    Introduction
    Most women have experienced child birth and its pain, which is inevitable. If this pain is not controlled it leads to prolonged labor and injury to the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to identify the effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on delivery pain in nulliparous women.
    Methods
    This was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 84 nulliparous women in hospitals of Ardebil, Iran. The participants were divided by randomized blocks of 4 and 6 into two groups. The intervention was in the form of applying pressure at sanyinjiao and hugo points based on different dilatations. The intensity of the pain before and after the intervention was recorded by visual scale of pain assessment. To determine the effect of pressure on the intensity of labor pain, analytical descriptive test was conducted in SPSS (version 13).
    Results
    There was a significant decrease in mean intensity of pain after each intervention in the experimental group with different dilatations (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm). Moreover, the Student’s independent t-test results indicated that the mean intensity of pain in the experimental group after the intervention in all four dilatations was significantly lower than the control group. Repeated measures ANOVA test indicated that in both experimental and control groups in four time periods, there was a statistically significant difference.
    Conclusion
    Acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points decreases the labor pain. Therefore, this method can be used effectively in the labor process.
    Keywords: Acupressure, Sanyinjiao, Hugo, Labor pain, Nulliparous women
  • Soheila Bani, Shirin Hasanpour, Leila Farzad Rik, Hadi Hasankhani, Seiedeh Hajar Sharami Pages 131-140
    Introduction
    The use of alternative therapies for the treatment of menopausal hot flashes has increased due to the serious risk of hormone therapy. Most alternative therapies have not been accepted by women. Therefore, conducting a study to find effective treatment, which has a low rate of complications and is more acceptable, is necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of folic acid on menopausal hot flashes.
    Methods
    In the present study 70 menopausal women were placed into two groups of 35 with random allocation, and were treated with folic acid 1 mg tablets and placebo tablets once a day during four weeks. Information was gathered by questionnaire, interviews, and hot flash diary during five stages. Comparisons of within-group Results were performed by ANOVA and between-group results were performed using ANCOVA. Data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows.
    Results
    There was a significant difference between mean severity, duration, and frequency of hot flashes before and after treatment within both groups. In comparing the results between the groups, mean hot flash severity in second, third, and fourth weeks were significantly different. The mean hot flash frequency was significantly different in third and fourth weeks, and the mean hot flash duration was significantly different in the fourth week.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study indicated that folic acid was effective in reducing the severity, duration, and frequency of hot flashes during menopause. Therefore, it can be recommended as an affordable and accessible method for treating menopausal hot flash for women.
    Keywords: Menopause, Hot flash, Folic acid
  • Jamileh Malakoti, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Ahdieh Maleki, Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili Pages 141-146
    Introduction
    There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components.
    Methods
    This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center). The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The participants’ sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire).
    Results
    Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance’s components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers.
    Keywords: Breast feeding, Women, Sexual function
  • Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Jamileh Malakoti, Faramarz Sohrabi, Nafiseh Shokranian Pages 147-155
    Introduction
    Postpartum depression is a common disorder. Systematic reviews emphasized the need to conduct more trials about interventions to prevent postpartum depression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postpartum telephone support on maternal depression.
    Methods
    366 postpartum women with no history of known depression were randomly assigned into control (244 subjects) and intervention (122 subjects) groups. The control group received only routine postpartum care. In the intervention group, telephone support was provided twice in the first week and once a week during the second to sixth week of postpartum by a trained midwife in addition to the routine care. In order to meet their unpredicted needs, the mothers could contact the consultant 24 hours a day. Postpartum depression was assessed using the self-administered Edinburgh Depression Scale at 60 to 65 days of postpartum. Mothers with scores of 13 and above were considered to have depression. Logistic regression and Student’s t-test were used for the data analysis.
    Results
    There was no significant difference regarding frequency of depression between the intervention and control groups (29.9% vs. 31.6%; Odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.49). Mean of depression score was not significantly different between the groups [9.2 (6.1) vs. 10.4 (5.8); mean difference -1.19, 95%CI -2.5 to 0.13].
    Conclusion
    This study did not provide evidence to show that telephone support of a midwife during postpartum period have a preventive effect on postpartum depression.
    Keywords: Postpartum depression, Support, Telephone, Midwife
  • Leila Valizadeh, Abolghasem Amini, Eskandar Fathi-Azar, Shahrzad Ghiasvandian, Bahareh Akbarzadeh Pages 157-164
    Introduction
    In recent decades, nursing instructors have tended to use simulation rather than traditional methods due to benefits such as increased self-confidence. However, little academic literature is available to verify this claim. The procedure of establishing peripheral venous catheterization in pediatric patients is of great importance. Therefore, the researchers attempted to review the effect of the simulation teaching method on nursing students'' self-confidence related to peripheral venous catheterization in pediatric patients.
    Methods
    In this trial, 45 students in the 5th and 6th semester of nursing school in the first half of school year 2012 from the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were randomly assigned to three groups (a control group, and two intervention groups). They were trained in establishing peripheral venous catheterization in pediatric patients through simulation teaching method and practical training. The students'' self-confidence was assessed by C-Scale before and after the intervention.
    Results
    The students’ self-confidence score showed a significant increase in the simulation group after the intervention in comparison to other groups (p = 0.03).
    Conclusion
    Results revealed a significant increase in self-confidence of nursing students related to peripheral venous catheterization in pediatric patients by simulation. This substantiates the assertion that simulation can improve self-confidence. Due to the low sample size, further studies with larger population are suggested.
    Keywords: Simulation method, Students, Pediatric nursing, Peripheral venous, catheterization
  • Mahin Kamalifard, Hossein Ebrahim, Mahnaz Rahmat Pages 165-167
    Pre-pregnancy care is considered as preventive medicine related to pregnancy and delivery. This Questionnaire based study upon 384 women in the first half of the pregnancy showedthe scope of pre-pregnancy care in the area of physical health was either weak (75%) or average (25%). All women declared that they had not received mental health-related care during the pre-pregnancy care. The scope of pre-pregnancy care in the area of life-style was categorized as weak, average, and good by 69.79%, 29.69%, and 0.52% of the studied women, respectively.