فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Mohammad Hassan Pipelzadeh Page 53
  • Heibatullah Kalantari, Mohsen Rezaei, Maryam Salehcheh, Mehrnoosh Moosavi, Golnaz Varnaseri Page 55
    Background
    Traditional medicines are among the oldest medicines and their extensive use in the recent years reflects the public’s interest in alternatives to conventional medicine..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of Dillsun herbal medicine in DNA damage of rat hepatocytes compared to sodium dichromate using a comet assay technique..
    Materials And Methods
    Male Wistar rats were caught and their liver was washed with a perfusion buffer, followed by another wash with collagenase buffer. Hepatocytes were isolated and transferred on to a petri dish which contained a washing buffer. Hepatocytes were then separated and the cells were filtered and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 3 minutes. The hepatocytes were counted using neubauer slides and kept in a bioreactor for 30 minutes. Cells were then exposed to different doses of Dillsun such 0.2, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/mL. Sodium dichromate was the positive control and incubated buffer was used as a negative control. Cell suspensions were placed on slides pre-coated with low melting point agarose and were covered with agarose gel. Agarose gels were then lysed and electrophoresis was done, followed by neutralization and staining. Slides were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. The size and extent of DNA damage visualized by this technique was evaluated by examining cells. Migration behavior was classified according to the Kobayashi pattern..
    Results
    The results indicated that with an increase of Dillsun dose, the mutagenicity index slightly increased but compared to the positive control, there were significant differences, which suggests that the crude extract of Dillsun in vitro did not have mutagenic effects..
    Conclusions
    In conclusion the results showed that Dillsun has no mutagenic effects when compared to the positive control. Although by increasing the Dillsun dose, DNA damage also increased but this increase was not significant..
    Keywords: Toxicity Tests, Comet Assay, Herbal Medicine
  • Annahita Rezaie, Ali Fazlara, Mojtaba Haghi Karamolah, Ali Shahriari, Hossein Najaf Zadeh, Marzieh Pashmforosh Page 60
    Background
    Nitrites are mainly used in food preservation. These materials could change to nitrosamine due to the effect of heat and gastric acid. Nitrosamine is absorbed in intestine and enters the liver and hepatocytes by portal venous system, and hampers the detoxification system of liver by interfering in cytochrome P450 enzymes, so, the liver gently proceeds to cirrhosis and cancer..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to investigate the hepatic and renal protective effects of aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN)..
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups were as follow: Control group (normal saline), DEN (200 mg/kg, IP, a single dose), EPE (100 mg/kg, orally, daily) and DEN + EPE which received as group DEN and EPE. After 30 days, Blood samples, and liver and kidney tissues were taken for further examination. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), BUN, Creatinine and total and direct bilirubin were estimated in serum..
    Results
    DEN induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in all the treated animals by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and BUN, creatinin and total and direct bilirubin levels. AST, BUN and total and direct bilirubin significantly decreased in DEN + EPE compared to DEN group. After 30 days of DEN administration, histopathological investigation revealed proliferation of hepatic stellate cells and early fibrosis which were partly improved by EPE administration..
    Conclusions
    The current study findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract played an important role in the protection against DEN toxicity in rats..
    Keywords: Diethylnitrosamine, Echinacea, Rats, Liver, Kidney, Toxicity
  • Milad Iranshahy, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpoor, Mohammad Hassanzadeh, Khayyat, Mehrdad Iranshahi Page 65
    Background
    trans-Resveratrol (t-Res) is a natural phenolic compound with various biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, cancer chemopreventive, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective..
    Objectives
    There is no comprehensive study about the stability of t-Res in human plasma. With respect to extensive use of t-Res in clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies, in this study, we aimed to measure the plasma stability of t-Res at different conditions of lighting, pH, and temperature, and in the presence of routine antioxidant agents (BHT and VIT C)..
    Materials And Methods
    t-Res stability in human plasma was evaluated at different conditions of lighting, pH and temperature, and in the presence of routine antioxidant agents (BHT and VIT C), and quantitatively determined using HPLC-UV method at 306 nm..
    Results
    Our findings revealed that t-Res was quite stable in different temperatures ranging from -70 °C to 25 °C, and acidic pH conditions in plasma for a month, when protected from light, but it was unstable in alkali pH and in lighting conditions..
    Conclusions
    In lighting conditions, most of t-Res was isomerized to the other isomer cis-resveratrol. t-Res is unstable in alkali pH and when exposed to light. t-Res was quite stable at other conditions, and several freeze-thaw cycles did not have any effect on its stability..
    Keywords: Resveratrol, Stability, Antioxidants
  • Farzad Esavand Heydari, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Saied Soflaei, Abdolhosein Dalimi Page 70
    Background
    It is necessary to develop novel, affordable, and accessible drugs with few side effects as alternatives of the currently available chemical agents for leishmaniasis..
    Objectives
    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on L. major under in vitro conditions..
    Materials And Methods
    In the current study, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL concentrations of aqueous extract of Artemisia sieberi and chemical artemisinin were tested on promastigotes of Leishmania major (L. major), uninfected macrophages, and infected macrophages with intracellular amastigotes of L. major, by direct counting and 3-(4 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromid methods..
    Results
    The results obtained for each drug were compared with other drugs and also with the results of the control groups. The results related to promastigote and amastigote assays showed that when the dose of both drugs increased, the parasite number is reduced in comparison with the control groups. Moreover, the parasitic burden in the test cultures decreased significantly. Macrophage assay results showed that the effects of both drugs on uninfected and healthy macrophages were very low..
    Conclusions
    These results indicate that both drugs have anti-Leishmania effects, which was higher in Artemisia sieberi compared with artemisinin. Thus, carrying out further studies on the effects of Artemisia sieberi in infected animals with L. major is recommended..
    Keywords: Artemisinin, Leishmania major, In Vitro
  • Ali Asghar Hemmati, Annahita Rezaie, Pegah Darabpour Page 76
    Background
    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and many antioxidant agents have been used for the treatment of this disease in animals..
    Objectives
    To evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate seed extract (PSE) on bleomycin treated rats..
    Materials And Methods
    Male Spraque – Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: rats in groups I (bleomycin) and II (control) were given a single dose of bleomycin (7.5 IU/kg, intratracheally) in the bleomycin group and same amount of saline in the control, respectively. Treatment groups (III-V) were given PSE (100,200,400 mg/kg) orally a week before the bleomycin injection and this was continued for 3 weeks. At day 28, animals were sacrificed and lungs were removed for histological investigation..
    Results
    Histological analysis showed that PSE could prevent pathological changes that were seen in the bleomycin group..
    Conclusions
    Results of the present study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate seeds had a significant protective effect against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by its antioxidant properties. The highest protective effect was observed for the 400 mg/kg dose..
    Keywords: Pulmonary Fibrosis, Bleomycin, Antioxidants
  • Neda Adibpour, Maryam Ahmadnasr, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Saeed Rezaee Page 81
    Background
    Recently, biuret derivatives have been reported as showing moderate to good cytotoxic effect against certain cancer cell lines. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of 1-(2-phenylethyl)-5-(quinaldin-4-yl) biuret (PEQB) in rat plasma to use in future studies on this compound and related derivatives..
    Objectives
    In this study, we describe a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection for determination of 1-(2-phenylethyl)-6-(quinaldin-4-yl) biuret (PEQB) in rat plasma..
    Materials And Methods
    Separations were performed on a Nucleosil-100 CN HPLC column (125 × 4.0 mm) (5 µm), using a mixture of acetonitrile: methanol: potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 3.5) (10:10:80) as mobile phase delivered at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute. Detection of PEQB and internal standard (1-([[3-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)propyl]carbamoyl]amino)-N-phenylformamide) was performed at 235 nm and ambient temperature. Plasma samples (200 µL) were prepared by addition of 40 µL internal standard (100 µg/mL), and 400 µL acetonitrile. After vortex mixing and centrifugation at 10000 g, 50 µL of the clear supernatant was directly injected onto the chromatography column. Calibration curves were constructed by fitting the peak area ratio of the biuret to internal standard against concentration of biuret to a power model using generalized least squares nonlinear regression method..
    Results
    Under the above chromatography condition, biuret compound (PEQB) and the internal standard were detected at 4.5 and 13.5 minutes, respectively. Limit of quantitation of the PEQB was 0.1 µg/mL. Accuracy of the method over the concentration range of 0.1-100 µg/mL was between 88-109%. Inter- and intraday precisions were 4-19% and 6-8%, respectively. A good relationship in the form of a power model was found for two separate concentration ranges of 0.1-1 and 2.5-100 µg/mL (R 2> 0.99)..
    Conclusions
    The presented simple HPLC method is sufficiently accurate, precise and sensitive for the quantitation of 1-(2-phenylethyl)-5-(quinaldin-4-yl) biuret in rat plasma..
    Keywords: High, pressure Liquid Chromatography, Biuret, chromatography
  • Abbas Akhgari, Mohammadreza Abbaspour, Meysam Moradkhanizadeh Page 86
    Background
    Different methods have been studied for targeting drugs to the colon, such as pH-based, time dependent and bacterially degradable systems. However, due to variations in physiological conditions of patients, one system alone could not be completely reliable on colonic drug delivery..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was preparation and evaluation of a novel colon-specific drug delivery system for 5-ASA (mesalazine) pellets using pectin as a microbially degradable polymeric carrier and Eudragit RS (ERS) and Eudragit RL (ERL) as time-dependent polymers..
    Materials And Methods
    Formulations were constructed based on a multilevel full factorial design. Pellets were prepared via extrusion - spheronization and evaluated for physicochemical properties, image analysis, SEM, FT-IR, DSC and in vitro drug release studies in the simulated gastric fluid with pH = 1.2 (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid with pH = 6.8 (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid with pH = 6.8 in presence of pectinolytic enzyme (SCF)..
    Results
    It was shown that in the presence of pectin, formulations without ERL had a relative resistance to drug release in SGF. Pellets containing pectin and the least amount of ERS had the highest burst release effect in SCF. On the other hand, increasing in amount of ERS in the formulations caused a sustained drug release. Presence of pectin in formulations containing ERS and ERL caused sensitivity of formulations to pectinolytic enzyme which can suitable for a colon specific drug delivery system..
    Conclusions
    It was shown that combination of pectin and eudragits can relatively control drug release in the upper GI. On the other hand, pectin degraded in the presence of pectinase and formulations were susceptible to the colonic media..
    Keywords: Pectin, Methylmethacrylate, methacrylic Acid Copolymer, Colonic Diseases, Drug Delivery System
  • Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar, Noorolah Moallemi, Nazanin Abdolah Zadeh Page 93
    Background
    Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income..
    Objectives
    In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated..
    Materials And Methods
    In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications..
    Results
    The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments..
    Conclusions
    Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment..
    Keywords: Plant Shoots, Benzylaminopurine, Plants, Medicinal