فهرست مطالب

Crop Protection - Volume:2 Issue:3, 2013
  • Volume:2 Issue:3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/05/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Abbas Mohammadi, Khoramabadi, Ali Asghar Talebi, Kees Zwakhals Pages 241-261
    The fauna of the subfamily Diplazontinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the north central parts of Iran was studied during 2010-2011. A total of 933 specimens were collected in 30 localities at different altitudes using Malaise traps. Sixteen species belonging to 7 genera were identified of which twelve species, are new records for Iran: Diplazon annulatus (Gravenhorst)*, Diplazon laetatorius (Fabricius), D. pectoratorius (Gravenhorst)*, D. tibiatorius (Thunberg)*, Enizemum ornatum (Gravenhorst), Homotropus nigritarsus (Gravenhorst)*, Homotropus pictus (Gravenhorst)*, Promethes sulcator (Gravenhorst), Sussaba flavipes (Lucas)*, Sussaba pulchella (Holmgren)*, Syrphoctonus tarsatorius (Panzer)*, Syrphophilus bizonarius (Gravenhorst)*, Tymmophorus obscuripes (Holmgren)*, Woldstedtius biguttatus (Gravenhorst), Woldstedtius citropectoralis (Schmiedeknecht)* and Xestopelta gracilima (Schmiedeknekht)*. Detailed morphological characters and a key to the genera and species are provided. Flight periods and distribution in relation to altitude on two slopes of the Alborz mountains are discussed.
    Keywords: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae, taxonomy, new record, identification key, Iran
  • Mohammad Javad Ardeh Pages 263-269
    Various molecular techniques are available to make differences and to study the genetic divergences among species and populations, among which the most efficient ones are PCR-based markers. One of these methods, molecular fingerprinting, enables the distinction of closely related populations. ISSR-primers are universal primers that can be used for such studies. The utility of these primers were tested for three populations of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hym, Aphelinidae), a primary parasitoid of the whiteflies. From 60 ISSR primers, that were checked, as many as 64 bands obtained from 16 primers. The bands size ranged from above 200 to 1000 bp for different primers. The rate of divergence among the bands was strong enough to make a clear different among the studies specimens; however the intricacy of using these primers is too much for studying the divergence among several populations. Therefore, sequencing of specific regions of DNA could bring more success to find out divergence among populations of these tiny parasitoids.
    Keywords: Genetic divergences, biocontrol, molecular techniques, whitefly parasitoid
  • Ahmad Nadimi, Ali Asghar Talebi, Yaghoub Fathipour Pages 271-283
    A survey on the megachilid bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) fauna of northern Iran, between 2010 and 2011, led to the identification of eleven species of the genus Coelioxys Latreille belonging to subgenera Allocoelioxys (6 species), Boreocoelioxys (2 species), Coelioxys (2 species) and Liothyrapis (1 species). Of these, six species and one subgenus (Liothyrapis) are new to the fauna of Iran. Detailed illustrations of morphological characters, a key to the species of the genus Coelioxys and an updated checklist of Iranian species of Coelioxys are provided.
    Keywords: Coelioxys, cleptoparasitic bee, Megachilidae, new record
  • Ehsan Borzoui, Ali Reza Bandani, Seyed Hossein Goldansaz Pages 285-296
    The carob moth is one of the most devastating pest of pomegranate and some other products. Various pest control measures have been undertaken in order to control this pest but none of them has been successful so far. So, in the current study the effects of cereal seed proteinaceous extracts including triticale and three wheat cultivars (MV17, Aflak, and Zare) have been studied on α-amylase and protease activity of salivary glands of this insect.Initial screening showed 38, 44, 28 and 76% inhibitory effect for triticlae, MV-17, Aflak, and Zare cereal seed extracts respectively.on α-amylase activity. were Further studies were performed with Zare wheat cultivar using various concentrations including 13, 6.5, 3.25, 1.625 and 0.8125 µg protein on the enzyme activity and results showed that they inhibited the enzyme activity by 76, 75, 68, 60, and 42%, respectively. Gel assays confirmed the spectrophotometric data i.e the effect of the seed extract on the enzyme was dose dependant. The same trend was observed when seed extracts were tested against proteinase activity. These data suggest that plants produce different proteins with different specificity toward herbivores digestive enzymes which some of them could be used for insect control in IPM program.
    Keywords: Carob moth, α amylase, proteinase, cereal seed extract
  • Sohrab Moradi, Forough Sanjarian, Naser Safaie, Amir Mousavi, Gholam Reza Bakhshi Khaniki Pages 297-304
    One of the important technical obstacles in the study of many filamentous fungi is the development of efficient transformation system. Transformation of filamentous fungi is difficult because they have a cell wall and for most frequently used approaches preparing of protoplast is necessary. Protoplast preparation is batch-dependent and frequently frustrating work. In this study, a modified method was introduced for gene transfer to the plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight disease in small grains. This protocol was based on protoplast-PEG method. Age of mycelia, enzymes exposure time and mycelium/enzyme ratio were optimized for the purpose of protoplast preparation. The outcome showed that the best result for protoplast preparation was obtained when 1.5 × 105 spores germinated for 6 h then exposed to 10 ml of enzyme solution for 3 h. The effect of other parameters that might enhance transformation yields including PEG concentration, DNA quantity and number of protoplasts was also examined. The most efficient condition of transformation involved the use of 106 protoplasts, 20 µg DNA and 30% PEG (w/v). In the course of this study, a simple and appropriate modified protocol for transformation of F. graminearum was established. The method introduced is also more economical and faster than other current methods.
    Keywords: Filamentous fungi, Fusarim graminearum, PEG, Protoplast, Transformation
  • Moloud Gholamzadeh Chitgar, Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei, Mohammad Ghadamyari, Mahbobe Sharifi, Vahid Hosseini Naveh, Hadi Sheikhnejad Pages 305-318
    The rose sawfly, Arge rosae Linnaeus, is one of the most destructive pests of rose bushes in the north of Iran. Nowadays, many attempts have been made in reducing pesticide application by inventing new methods for pest control. A non chemical method for controlling insect pests including A. rosae can be achieved by using genetically engineered plants expressing carbohydrase inhibitors. Therefore, in present study we characterized biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases in the gut of A. rosae for achieving a new method for control of this pest. The specific activity of α-amylase in the digestive system of last larval instars of A. rosae was obtained as 9.46 ± 0.06 μmol min-1 mg protein1. Also, the optimal pH and temperature for α-amylase found at pH 8 and 50 °C, respectively. As calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots, the Km and Vmaxvalues for α-amylase were 0.82 mg/ml and 7.32 µmol min-1mg-1protein, respectively, when starch was used as substrates. The effects of ion on amylolytic activity showed that Mg2+ and Na+ significantly increased amylase activity, whereas SDS and EDTA decreased the enzyme activity. The highest activities of α-/β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase were obtained at pH 5.0. By the native PAGE, three, one, one and two bands were clearly detected for α-amylase, α-/β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase, respectively. No bands found for α-galactosidase that confirmed the absence or low activity of this carbohydrate in the digestive system of A. rosae. These results could provide knowledge needed for making transgenic plants for control of this pest.
    Keywords: Arge rosae, α amylase, α, β glucosidases, β galactosidases
  • Bita Valizadeh, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Arash Zibaee, Marzyeh Oftadeh Pages 319-330
    The elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of elm (Ulmus spp.) throughout Iran. In the present study, Lethal and sublethal effects of neem, Achook® containing 0.03% azadirachtin, were assessed on mortality, growth, larval weight and feeding deterrence as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities of third instar larvae of the elm leaf beetle. LC50 and LC30 values of the third instar larvae 48 h post treatment were estimated to be 3.3 and 2.25 ppm respectively. Observations showed higher mortality, increase in larval duration, sterilization of adults, reduction in weight and feeding deterrence after LC30 and LC50 treatments. Biochemical analysis showed changes in the amounts of biochemical components in the treated larvae after 48 h. In the treated larvae, activity level of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and α-amylase as enzymatic components and urea and cholesterol as non-enzymatic ones changed significantly in LC50 and LC30 treatments. Aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, glycogen, and glucose levels decreased in these treatments. The activity level of detoxifying enzymes such as esterase A, esterase B and glutathione S-transferase were significantly affected. Hence, neem is suggested as a safe product may have the potential use as a bioinsecticide in integrated pest management of urban elms where chemical insecticides use are discouraged.
    Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Mortality, Achook®, Neem, Xanthogaleruca luteola
  • Jabraeil Razmjou, Ali Golizadeh Pages 331-341
    The Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is a serious threat to several cereal crops. Host-plant resistance to this aphid could be especially valuable in cereal crops pest management. Therefore, we evaluated the development, survivorship, reproduction and population growth parameters of R. padi as resistance indices among six wheat cultivars, including Gaskojen, Tajan, Falat, Saysonz, Kras and Sardari at 25 °C under laboratory conditions. The development time and fecundity of aphid differed significantly among the tested wheat cultivars. The rm values were highest for aphids reared on Sardari and lowest on Goskojen and intermediate on Tajan, Saysonz and Kras cultivars. Aphid showed the longest development time and the lowest fecundity, reflecting in the lowest rm value on Gaskojen cultivar. Consequently, Gaskojen showed more positive characteristics and was relatively not susceptible cultivar for planning a comprehensive IPM program of R. padi.
    Keywords: Biological attributes, plant resistance, Rhopalosiphum padi, wheat cultivar
  • Mohamed Azab, Ahmed Darwish, Refaat Mohamed, Marwa Sanad Pages 343-353
    Effect of controlled atmospheres (CAs) at various concentrations of CO2, N2 and O2 on the lethal times of Tribolium castaneum and Trogoderma granarium was investigated at 20 and 30 ºC. Experiments were performed using a recirculatory multi-flask apparatus. The results revealed that, the shortest times (0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 day for adults, larvae and pupae, respectively) required to obtain 50% mortality of T. castaneum stages were at 100% CO2 followed by 75% CO2, 50% CO2, 99% N2 + 1% O2 and 25% CO2, at higher tested temperature (30 °C). Adults were more sensitive to the different treated CAs than larvae, pupae the most tolerant stages. Diapausing larvae of T. granarium were the most tolerant to all treated CAs at tested temperature degrees. The effectiveness of CAs to decrease its LT50 values were 100% CO2 followed by 99% N2 + 1% O2 and 98% N2 + 2% O2 at 30°C. It may be concluded that diapausing larvae are more difficult to control with CAs than normal larvae. A treatment with N2 relying on the absence of O2 will take a longer treatment time to control the diapausing larvae and in late winter, exposure times needed for control may be even longer. If CAs were to be applied under such circumstances, a high content of CO2 would be the best option to achieve control in a comparatively short time.
    Keywords: Controlled atmosphere, Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium, Recirculatory multi, flask apparatus
  • Khadijeh Madahi, Ahad Sahragard, Reza Hossieni Pages 355-368
    Life table gives the most comprehensive explanation of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. The life table parameters of an aphidophagous midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza were studied on different densities (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80) of third instar nymphs of Aphis gossypii as prey in a growth chamber (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D h). The pre-ovipositional period of female A. aphidimyza was reduced as prey density increased with no significant difference. The oviposition period was 3.833 ± 0.401 and 5.5 ± 0.463 days in lowest and highest prey density, respectively. Fecundity increased significantly with increasing prey density. The lowest fecundity was obtained at density of 5 preys/day (49.667 ± 6.053 eggs) and the highest was at density of 80 preys/day (104.25 ± 7.78 eggs). Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) ranged from 0.110 ± 0.016 to 0.166 ± 0.014 d-1 with increasing prey density. Net reproductive rate (R0) was positively dependent on prey density. The peak reproductive values showed that female aphidophagous midge at ages of 17, 18, 19, 22 and 25 days made the highest contribution to the population when reared on 5 to 80 preys in a day, respectively. However, mean generation time (T) ranged from 22.42 ± 0.55 to 24.47 ± 1.04 days. It was concluded that the increase in the density of third instar nymphs of A. gossypii significantly affected the demographic parameters of A. aphidimyza and it had a better reproductive performance in higher prey densities.
    Keywords: Aphis gossypii, intrinsic rate, prey density, reproductive values, Aphidoletes aphidimyza
  • Fariba Byrami, Seyed Akbar Khodaparast, Hassan Pedramfar Pages 369-374
    Sooty molds are a group of fungi with dark-coloured hyphae, which grow saprophytically on various living plant organs and sometimes on non-living substrates and produce brown to black superficial colonies, black pellicles or pseudoparenchymatous crust. In north of Iran including Guilan and Mazandaran provinces, sooty molds are common on living leaves of a great variety of plants especially Citrus spp. There are a few sporadic reports of sooty mold fungi from Iran in the literature. In continuation of an earlier investigation on sooty molds from different citrus species collected from western parts of Mazandaran province and specimens obtained from fungal collection at University of Guilan were studied. As a result, five mitosporic species viz., Chaetasbolisia falcata, Cylindroxyphium virginianum, Fumiglobus citrinus, Fumiglobus foedus and Polychaeton tenellum, and one ascomyceteous species Phaeosaccardinula epicarpa, were identified as causal agents of sooty mold on citrus plants in this region. According to the literature, all of the above mentioned taxa are new to Iran mycobiota.
    Keywords: Cylindroxyphium, Fumiglobus, Chaetasbolisia, Phaeosaccardinula, Polychaeton, taxonomy
  • Maryam Sobhani, Hossein Madadi, Babak Gharali Pages 375-385
    One of the most important predator-prey interactions is functional response that its type and parameters are affected by different factors including host plant characteristics. In this research, the influence of leaf surface on functional response and prey consumption rate of 3rd instar larvae of the Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776) (Diptera: Syrphidae) to third instar nymphs of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were studied on sweet pepper and cucumber leaves. The results demonstrated that leaf surface of host plants; different prey densities and their interaction had significant effects on the number prey killed by a predator. Logistic regression indicated type Ш functional response on both host plant leaves. The values of b constant were 0.00231 and 0.00351h-1 while handling time (Th) estimates was 0.14 h and 0.095 h on cucumber and sweet pepper leaves respectively. Moreover, plant leaves and different prey densities had significant effect on the prey consumption rate and voracity of predator. The maximum voracity value reached 180.73 ± 7.71 and 282.25 ± 11.71 nymphs on cucumber and sweet pepper leaves respectively. These results stress on the importance of physical traits of host plant surface on the performance and searching efficiency of natural enemies that should be considered for optimizing their application in aphid biological control.
    Keywords: Physical traits, trichomes, predation rate, handling time, syrphids