فهرست مطالب

دراسات الادب المعاصر - سال سوم شماره 3 (پیاپی 11، پاییز 1390)
  • سال سوم شماره 3 (پیاپی 11، پاییز 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/08/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • سید ابراهیم آرمن صفحات 9-23
    مر النثر العربی خلال تطوره بمراحل مختلفه؛ والادب العربی بشکل عام کان مهبطا لاجناس ادبیه ظهرت لها فی العصر الحاضر عناصر فنیه.یری قله من النقاد ان بعض الاجناس الادبیه نثرا – کالروایه، والمسرحیه، و... - ماخوذه من الغرب بینما إذا امعنا النظر نجد نماذج منها فی ادبنا العربی القدیم، وإن کان القدماء لم یعرفوا مصطلحاتها التی نشات حدیثا، حتی ولو ان الادباء المعاصرین فی بعض عناصرها تاثروا بالغرب.
    تعتبر التراجم والسیر من الاجناس النثریه القدیمه فی الآداب العالمیه بشکل عام والادب العربی بشکل خاص لانها قدیمه قدم الإنسان، والسیره الذاتیه شعبه من التراجم والسیر، یقوم مولفها بسرد مراحل حیاته الشخصیه بقلمه.یهدف هذا المقال إلی إحصاء الدراسات الموجوده فی هذا المجال کما یتطرق إلی مدلول السیره الذاتیه لدی الباحثین والنقاد واخیرا یقدم اهم ملامح هذا الفن الادبی وشروطه.
    کلیدواژگان: التراجم والسیر، السیره الذاتیه، الترجمه الشخصیه، النثر الفنی، العناصر الفنیه، العصر الحدیث
  • مهین حاجی زاده، فریده شهرستانی صفحات 25-47
    المشکله اللغویه فی عصرنا هی ان العربیه الفصیحه المکتوبه هی غیر العربیه المستعمله فی التخاطب وغیر اللهجات الدارجه التی لم ترق إلی لغه المثقفین، وهی فی مادتها نماذج متاخره ولیس قیام المشکله علی هذا الوجه بمستحیل الحل. وشیوع الثقافه وتیسیر المعرفه لابناء العربیه علی شکل عام کفیل برفع مستوی اللغه إلی الحد الذی کانت علیه العربیه فی مختلف عصورها، فلم یسلم عصر من عصور التاریخ اللغوی من ازدواج فی اللغه. وربما کانت العامیه الدارجه قریبه من الفصیحه لغه الکتابه ولکنها متحلله من ضوابط الإعراب؛ فالمتکلمون بها یلتزمون الإسکان فی صورها وهذا ما نصبوا إلیه فی تقریب العامیه فی الفصیح. وهذا معناه ان اللهجات العامیه تتعدل وتتهذب ویدلک الخشن فی ها فیلین، ولکنها لا ولن تغلب ویجب الا تغلب لانها المصدر ما ندعوه فصیحا من الکلام. ومن جهه اخری، إن إبدال الفصحی بالعامیه عملیه تهدف إلی تجزئه الامه الواحده إلی کیانات لغویه متباینه تعمل علی إعاقه تحقیق الوحده العربیه، وتقطیع الصلات والوشائح التی تکونت عبر الزمن بفضل اللغه الواحده. إذن، لابد لنا ان نقبل علی إتجاه یدعو إلی نوع من الملاقاه والتوحید بین الفصحی والعامیه. وهذا هو ما نحاول إلقاء الضوء علیه فی هذا المقال.
    کلیدواژگان: اللغه العربیه، ابناء العرب، اللهجات العامیه، اللغه الفصحی، التخاطب، الکتابه
  • حسین شمس آبادی، فرشته افضلی، غلامرضا گلچین راد صفحات 49-69
    القصه القصیره مبنیه علی القصه الواحده التی لها تاثیر واحد وهی تفصیله قصیره من حیاه الإنسان. إن طول القصه القصیره وزمن قراءتها لایاخذ من المستمع والقاریء إلا وقتا قصیرا. وهی من الفنون المستحدثه التی ظهرت فی العصر الحدیث ولم یعرف العرب هذا النوع من القصه فی العصور الماضیه. ولیس لها جذور فی التراث القصصی وفی الحقیقه اخذها العرب من الادب الغربی بعد احتکاکهم واتصالهم بالغرب. وإن القصه المصریه القصیره نمت فی اعقاب احداث الحرب العالمیه الاولی وظهرت مع ظهور وتولد الکثیر من الصراعات فی العالم وما تبعها من ثوره1919، بعد فتره من المترجمات القصصیه الفرنسیه والاقتباسات الصریحه.
    ومن رواد القصه العربیه الاوائل جرجی زیدان رائد القصه التاریخیه، وجبران رائد الاقصوصه، ومیخائیل نعیمه الذی تکتمل عنده عناصر الاقصوصه الفنیه، والصفه الغالبه علی الاستاذ محمود تیمور وهو کاتب القصه القصیره.
    کلیدواژگان: مصر، الادب، الروایه، القصه القصیره، میزات، الإبدع الادبی، الفن
  • حسن شوندی، زهرا محمود اصفهانی صفحات 67-80
    قبضت الادیبه السوریه نادیا خوست علی جمر الإبداع، ولونته بثقافتها بقدره وطرفه. فوفرت لقصصها حساسیه فریده جعلتها واحده من المبدعات اللواتی یعتز اتحاد الکتاب العرب بانتمائهن إلیه. فنادیا خوست تفوح بعطر بلاد الشام، فحناوها لیس دمشقیا فقط.لعب المکان فی الروایه الفلسطینیه دورا وظیفیا واضحا، وارتبطت بمراحل الصراع العربی الصهیونی. فنلاحظ وجود نمطین للمکان فی الروایه السوریه هما: المکان المغلق والمکان المفتوح، ولکل منهما خصائص ومیزات تعکس الطبیعه الفکریه والنفسیه للشخصیه التی تعیش فی ها.
    لقد وعی الروائیون الفلسطینیون الاهمیه الکبیره للزمن. فهی تعود إلی الوراء لتسترجع احداثا تکون قد حصلت فی الماضی. او علی العکس من ذلک تقفز إلی الامام لتستشرف ما هو آت، او متوقع من الاحداث.وفیما یلی یدرس البحث واقع الروایه، واهم القضایا والمفاهیم والافکار التی تناولوها بهذا الصدد، ومن ثم یخلص إلی دراسه الروایه فنیا، فیقف علی علاقتها بالمکونات الروائیه: المکان والزمان.
    کلیدواژگان: نادیا خوست، اعاصیر فی بلاد الشام، الروایه، المکان، الزمان، فلسطین
  • مظهر مقدمی فر، حمیرا حمیدی صفحات 81-96
    ترجع اهمیه هذا الموضوع إلی إیداع الله الإنسان إحساسا فطریا بالزمن.واعطی القرآن اهمیه بالغه للزمن، فقد ارتبطت معظم العبادات فی التشریع الإسلامی بمواعید زمنیه محدده وثابته کالصلاه، والصیام، والحج، بحیث إن اداءها لایتحقق إلا عن طریق الالتزام باوقاتها حسب الیوم، والشهر، والسنه. وعلی هذا الاساس احتاج الإنسان إلی سجل زمنی یعتمده فی تقدیره وتنظیم ظروف حیاته المادیه والمعنویه، فاهتدی بعد بحث شاق وطویل إلی تسجیل زمنی لان السنوات واجزاءها تحتاج إلی ظاهره طبیعیه، حتی یرتکز علیه الإنسان فی برمجه اوقاته.والواصخ ان التقویم الطبیعی هو الذی یعتمد علی الشمس والقمر؛ وجاء فی القصص القرآنیه ان العظماء فی التاریخ من عرفوا الوقت وقیمته وهم من الانبیاء، ولهذا نجد ان الانبیاء هم رواد الناس فی هذه الامور الاربعه، فی الإیمان والعلم، وفی العمل الصالح، والدعوه إلی الله ، والصبر علی الاذی، فهولاء هم الفائزون الرابحون فی الدنیا والآخره.یهدف هذا المقال إلی دراسه موضوع الزمان فی القرآن لنتعرف علی اهمیته.
    کلیدواژگان: القرآن، الدین الإسلامی، القصه، الزمان، الانبیاء، الاهمیه، النقد
  • مهدی ممتحن، سیدجواد حسینی ننیز صفحات 97-112
    یعتبر الاستاذ الادیب الشاعر عبدالعزیز المقالح احد اشهر ادباء الیمن المعاصرین وخارجها، خاصه فی مجال الشعر، والنقد الادبی، والتدریس الجامعی، وله ایضا اعمال ادبیه وکتابات فکریه وسیاسیه وله اعمده فی الصحف والمجلات الیمنیه والعربیه الاخری. کما انه انشد شعرا فی مختلف الاغراض الشعریه، لذلک نجد دواوینه تتناول مواضیع متنوعه مثل: المدیح، والرثاء، والوصف، والزهد، والتصوف، والمسرحیه، والدرام، والوطنیات، وقصیده النثر، وما إلی ذلک من الاغراض الشعریه، کذلک نلاحظ تاثیر القرآن، وعلوم الدین، والبیئه التی یعیش فی ها علی قصائده، حیث استخدم التلمیح، والاقتباس خیر استخدام.
    ومن ناحیه اخری، کان الشاعر عبدالعزیز المقالح ملحمی النفس، اجتهد فی الاجتیاز بشعره من الغنائیه إلی شعر میتافیزیقی وطنی یختار حب الوطن تحت إخفاء المعانی المباشره السطحیه لهذا الحب والارتقاء بها، وبالحدث التاریخی إلی الحلم العمیق، من خلال الحنین إلی الماضی وبعثه ونظر إلیه علی انه فردوس مفقود کطفولته الضائعه.
    کلیدواژگان: الادیب، الحب، الشعر، المقالح، الوطن، الیمن، الادب المعاصر
  • صمد مومنی صفحات 113-130
    إن الذین تناولوا بعد الوطن الاجتماعی انقسموا إلی فئتین: الاولی، هم الذین تناولوا المراه والوطن من منظور عاطفی داخلی، فنری اهتمامهم إلی الوطن ساذجا حسیا، والثانیه، هم الذین جعلوا بعده الفکری اساس تجربتهم فنری اهتمامهم إلی الوطن وقضایاه الإنسانیه اعمق واکثر، وترکوا اهتمامهم الرئیس إلی المراه والطبیعه، وجعلوه فی خدمه الوطن والإنسان خاصه.ونشط اکثر شعراءها فی مضمار الإصلاح الاجتماعی، والدینی، والسیاسی، والاخلاقی، واشتغلوا بالتربیه والتعلیم، نذکر منهم عبدالله زاید صاحب اول جریده فی البحرین، وعبدالرحمن معاوده، وقاسم الشرقاوی، وسید رضی الموسوی، وملاعطیه جمری، ومبارک خاطر، والشیخ منصور الشهابی، والآخرین الکثیرین، وجدیر بالذکر ان نعد میزات تجاربهم الشعریه، منها: الاسلوب الخطابی، متابعه الوقائع، والمناسبات السریعه، وهدفها التعلیمی والاخلاقی.یهدف هذا المقال إلی دراسه ابعاد الوطن الفنیه والاجتماعیه فی شعر الشعراء الذین ذکرناهم آنفا.
    کلیدواژگان: الشعر، البحرین، الوطن، المراه، الطبیعه، البعد الفنی والاجتماعی للوطن
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  • Seyyed Ebrahim Arman Pages 9-23
    Arabic prose passed during its development through different stages; and Arabic literature in general was a pad of the types of literary that emerged for it in the present era in the field of principles and rules. Some believe that the literary genres and systems prose are taken from the West. While if we look closely, we find models of them in the old Arab literature, though contemporary men of letters were affected by the West in some of its elements. The biographies and memoirs are considered of the old prose types in the world literature in general and in the Arab literature from the special viewpoint because it is as old as the human, and The CV is one of the divisions of biographies and memoirs, the author of what lists the stages of his/her personal life with his/her pen. This article aims to study this prose art over its originality in Arabic literature pointing to the most outstanding models for this literary art and its pioneers since the past centuries until the modern era.
    Keywords: Biographies, memoirs, Curriculum Vitae, Biography, Artistic Prose, Modern age
  • Mahin Hajizade, Farideh Shahrestani Pages 25-47
    As the Arabic formal language is the national unifier that unites the sons of the Arabs, so that it is a common language and the one of the Holy Quran, ideological inherited, and the language of science and knowledge, vulgar dialects in different Arab countries, however, differ to the extent that, for example, a man from one of the eastern Arab countries isnt able to find out the accent of an Arab from Algeria or Morocco. And the linguistic problem in our era is that the formal written Arabic differs from the one applied in conversation and from vernacular dialects which dont live up to scholar's tongue and which are late models in substance and this problem isnt insoluble in this manner. And The prevalence of culture and facilitating knowledge for the people of Arab in the general form is sponsor to raise the level of language to the extent that Arabic was at that level in diverse eras, Did not recognize periods of history from the era of linguistic duality in language. And perhaps the colloquial dialect, close to the formal language, was writing language and That is for the safety of its structures and the choice of its wording that was accurate in Arabic But it was released from the restraints of expression; so its speakers committed to housing in pictures and this is what they aspired in making the colloquial dialect close to the formal language. And this means that colloquial dialects may alter and be reformed and indelicacy guide you in it but it will soften but it will never be overcome and it must not be overcome because it is the source what we call eloquent of speech. On the other hand, replacing the formal language with the colloquial dialect is a process that aims to break down the one nation indivisible to different linguistic entities which act to impede the achievement of Arab Unity, and to cut links and close ties that formed over time thanks to one single language. Consequently, we must accept the direction that calls to a type of linkup and unification between the formal language and the vernacular one. And this is what we are trying to clarify in this article.
    Keywords: Arabic, Vernacular dialects, Formal language, Conversational language, Writing
  • Hossein Shamsabadi, Fereshteh Afzali, Gholamreza Golchinrad Pages 49-69
    Short story is built on a single story that have a single impact and it is a short detail of human life.The length of the short story and the time to read does not take from the listener and the reader but a short time. And that is one of the updated arts that have emerged in the modern era and Arabs did not know this kind of story in past ages and it has no roots in the heritage of storytelling and in fact, the Arabs took it from Western literature after their relationship and their contact with the West.And the Egyptian short story has grown following the events of the First World War and it appeared with the emergence and generation of numerous conflicts in the world and the subsequent 1919 revolution after a break from French translations of short stories and explicit excerpts.And among the pioneers of the story of the early Arab is Jorji Zeydan, the forerunner of the historical story, and Jebran, the forerunner of the stories, and Mikhael Naemah, with whom have been completed the elements of the artistry stories and the pioneer character, Professor Mahmood Teymoor, the prominent short story writer.
    Keywords: Egypt, Literature, short story, Features, Literary Creativity, Art
  • Hassan Shavandi, Zahra Mahmood Esfahani Pages 67-80
    The Syrian writer Nadia Khost, captured the embers of creativity and painted it with ability and anecdote. Then she provided to her stories, sensitivity of the unique that made her one of the authoresses of that the Arab Writers Union is proud of their membership. So Nadia Khost smells the scent of the land of Al Sham, and her camphire isnt only Damascene. Location played a functionally clear role in the Palestinian narrative and associated with the stages Arab-Zionist conflict.We note the existence of two types of place in the Syrian novel that are: closed place and open place and each has characteristics and features that reflect the intellectual and psychological nature of the personality in which she lives.Palestinians novelists have the awareness of big importance for the time and this comes back to retrieve events that have occurred in the past. Or on the contrary, of that jumps forward to anticipate what is coming, or unexpected events. The following research examines the reality of the novel and the most important issues, concepts and ideas which they covered in this regard and then it studies the novel technically, then it stands on its relationship with narrative components: Place and time.
    Keywords: Nadia Khost, Hurricanes in the land of Al Sham, narration, Place, time
  • Mazhar Moghaddamifar, Homeyra Hamidi Pages 81-96
    The importance of this subject returns to God deposited with man an inherent sense of time. And Koran gave great importance to the time, and most acts of worship in Islamic law have been associated with specific and fixed time-bounds such as prayer, fasting and pilgrimage, so that their performance can only be achieved through a commitment to its times up to day, month and year. And on this basis, human has needed to record the time so that he relies on its assessment and organization of the conditions of his material and moral life, so he was directed to record the time after a hard and long research, because years and their parts need a natural phenomenon, so that man focuses on it in programming his times. And it is clear that the natural calendars the one that supports the sun and the moon to calculate the time as he said: "He it is Who created the night and day and the sun and the moon, all travel along swiftly in their celestial spheres."(The Prophets Sura,33) And according to the Quranic stories that great men in the history were who knew the time and its value and who were prophet sent for this, we find that the prophets are the pioneers of the people in these four areas, in faith and science, and in good deeds, and in calling people to Allah, and in the patience to harm in calling to Allah, and these gainers are the winners in this world and the Hereafter.
    Keywords: The Quran, Story, time, The Prophets, Importance
  • Mehdi Momtahen, Seyyed Javad Hosseini Naniz Pages 97-112
    The writer and professor Abdulaziz AlMaqaleh is considered one of the most contemporary writers of and outside Yemen and especially in the field of poetry and literary criticism and teaching university but he also has other literary works and intellectual and political writings and has columns in newspapers and magazines in Yemen and other Arab countries. He also sang a verse of poetry in various purposes of the poetry, therefore, we find his divans, poetry collections, dealing with a variety of topics such as: praise and lamentation and the description and asceticism and mysticism, and the play and dram and the patriots and the prose poem and that to the purposes of poetry, we also note the influence of the Koran and the sciences, religion and the environment in which he lives on his poems where he used the allusion and the quotation best. On the other hand, the poet, Abdulaziz AlMaqaleh, was an epic self who worked hard in the passing of his poetry from lyrics to metaphysical poetry, a patriot who chooses a national patriotism by hiding the direct superficial meaning of this love and improving it, and from historic event to the deep dream through nostalgia for the past and its resurrection and he regarded it as a lost paradise like his lost childhood.
    Keywords: Writer, love, poetry, AlMaqaleh, Homeland, Yemen
  • Samad Momeni Pages 113-130
    Those who took home after social were divided into two categories: First are the ones who took the women and the home from the perspective of internal passionate, we see their interest in the home naive and emotional, and the second are those who have made its intellectual aspect the basis of their experiment, so, we see their interest in the home and its humanitarian issues deeper and more and they put their main interest in women and the nature, and especially made it in the service of the homeland and human; And most of their Poets got active in the field of social, religious, political, and ethical reform and worked in education, we name among them Abdollah Zayed, the owner of first newspaper in Bahrain, and Abdorrahman Moaawedah, and Ghasem Ashsharghawi, and Sayyed Razdi Almoosawi, and Molla Atdyyah Aljamry, and Mobarak Khatder, ans Alshshaykh Mansoor Ashshahabi and many other ones, and it should be noted that we count the features of their poetry experiences, including: Declamatory Style, Facts Follow-up, Quick occasions and their educational and ethical aim. This article aims to a study of the artistic and social aspects of the homeland in the poetry of the poets whom we have named above.
    Keywords: poetry, Bahrain, Homeland, Women, Nature, Artistic, social aspects