فهرست مطالب

Cell Journal - Volume:15 Issue: 3, 2000
  • Volume:15 Issue: 3, 2000
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1378/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Zahra Armand, Gholamreza Najafi, Farah Farokhi, Ali Shalizar Jalali Pages 198-205
    Objective
    Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont) group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr) group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software package for Windows.
    Results
    Cs treatment caused a significant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells. We observed significant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters.
    Conclusion
    Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.
    Keywords: Cyclosporine, Sperm, In Vitro Fertilization, Crataegus monogyna
  • Esmail Fattahi, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Mossa Gardaneh, Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony Pages 206-211
    Objective
    8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is a photoactive compound widely used in the treatment of proliferate disorders. The present study investigates the effects of 8-MOP on ovary function and pituitary-gonad axis in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental analytical study, 45 female Balb/C mice were divided into three groups (n=15), control, sham (olive oil injection) and experimental. The experimental group were received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the LD50 dose of 60 mg/kg 8-MOP. At 30 days after injection, the animals were sacrificed while in the proestrus stage and examined for morphological and histological changes their ovaries. Blood samples were collected and estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the t test.
    Results
    The mean levels of estrogen and progesterone in the experimental group significantly decreased (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in LH and FSH levels in this group compared to the control groups (p<0.001). The mean number and diameter of the corpus luteum (CL) and the number of growing follicles in the experimental group significantly reduced compared to the control and sham groups (p<0.001). The mean granulosa thickness in the experimental group also significantly decreased compared to the control and sham groups (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Our data indicated that 8-MOP can affect the levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone. Our findings further suggest that consecutive doses of 8-MOP may impair the female reproductive tract (or development).
    Keywords: 8, Methoxypsoralen (8, MOP), LH, FSH, Ovary
  • Hamid Reza Momeni, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Mohammad Ali Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz Haddadi Pages 212-217
    Objective
    Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342) and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 μM) and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used.
    Results
    After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours.
    Conclusion
    Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Caspase, Dorsal Root Ganglia, Sensory Neurons
  • Nowruz Delirezh, Ehsan Shojaeefar, Parva Parvin, Behnaz Asadi Pages 218-223
    Objective
    It is believed that monocyte isolation methods and maturation factors affect the phenotypic and functional characteristics of resultant dendritic cells (DC). In the present study, we compared two monocyte isolation methods, including plastic adherence-dendritic cells (Adh-DC) and magnetic activated cell sorting- dendritic cells (MACS-DC), and their effects on phagocytic activity of differentiated immature DCs (immDCs).
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, immDCs were generated from plastic adherence and MACS isolated monocytes in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in five days. The phagocytic activity of immDCs was analyzed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated latex bead using flow cytometry. One way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis of differences among experimental groups, including Adh-DC and MACS-DC groups.
    Results
    We found that phagocytic activity of Adh-DC was higher than MACS-DC, whereas the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of phagocytic cells was higher in MACS-DC (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    We concluded that it would be important to consider phagocytosis parameters of generated DCs before making any decision about monocyte isolation methods to have fully functional DCs.
    Keywords: Monocyte, Dendritic Cells, Phagocytosis, MACS, Adherence
  • Ali Neshasteh-Riz, Ali Mahmoud Pashazadeh, Seyed Rabie Mahdavi Pages 224-229
    Objective
    To assess relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 131I radiation relative to 60Co gamma rays in glioblastoma spheroid cells.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, glioblastoma spheroid cells were exposed to 131I radiation and 60Co gamma rays. Radiation induced DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Samples of spheroid cells were treated by radiation from 131I for four different periods of time to find the dose-response equation. Spheroid cells were also exposed by 200 cGy of 60Co gamma rays as reference radiation to induce DNA damage as endpoint.
    Results
    Resulted RBE of 131I radiation relative to 60Co gamma rays in 100 μm giloblastoma spheroid cells was equal to 1.16.
    Conclusion
    The finding of this study suggests that 131I photons and electrons can be more effective than 60Co gamma rays to produce DNA damage in glioblastoma spheroid cells.
    Keywords: RBE, Glioblastoma, Spheroid, Photons, Electrons
  • Mohammad Reza Badiee, Zahra Abdolazimi, Parisa Amdjadi Pages 230-237
    Objective
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine involved in angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and stimulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The present study assesses the effects of a local injection of bFGF on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.
    Materials And Methods
    In this laboratory animal study, we randomly divided 50 rats into 5 groups of 10 rats each. Rats received 0.02 cc injections of the following doses of bFGF: group A (10 ng), group B (100 ng) and group C (1000 ng). Group D (positive control) received an orthodontic force and injection of 0.02 cc phosphate buffered saline whereas group E (negative control) received only the anesthetic drug. A nickel titanium spring was bonded to the right maxillary first molar and incisor. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and the distance between the first and second right molars was measured by a leaf gauge with 0.05 mm accuracy. ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD statistical tests were used for data analysis.
    Results
    The greatest mean value of orthodontic tooth movement was 0.7700 mm observed in group C followed by 0.6633 mm in group B, 0.5333 mm in group A, 0.2550 mm in group D and 0.0217 mm in group E. There was a significantly higher rate of tooth movement in the test groups compared to the control groups (p<0.05). Among the test groups, the rate of tooth movement in group C was significantly higher than group A (p<0.05). Weight changes after the intervention were not significant when compared to the baseline values, with the exception of group E (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    The effect of bFGF on the rate of tooth movement was dose-dependent. Injection of 1000 ng bFGF in rats showed the most efficacy.
    Keywords: Orthodontic Tooth Movement, bFGF, Angiogenesis, Rat
  • Mohammad Reza Bonyadi, Parvin Bastani Pages 238-243
    Objective
    Toxoplasma gondii infection, an intracellular parasite, is often asymptomatic or is caused by different clinical diseases without being detected. Evaluation of IgG, IgA, and IgM in order to diagnose the pending Toxoplasmosis may confront some problems. Several researches has showned that Toxo IgG avidity can be useful in the recent active Toxoplasmosis. In current study, modification and importance of improved Toxoplasma Avidity IgG testing has been evlauated for differentiating Toxoplasma gondii infection in early stage of pregnancy.
    Materials And Methods
    This experimental study included 300 pregnant women with risk of Toxoplasmosis in their initial months of pregnancy. We randomly divided 300 serum samples into A group (n=60) with high avidity and B group (n=40) with borderline avidity. The samples with Toxo IgG levels were classified to four subgroups. IgG avidity was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.
    Results
    The mean absorbance of 100 samples in two groups was calculated, and then, two dilutaion curves with plotted absorbance against dilution were drawn for each serum sample. The results of this study showed that in groups with different concentrations of toxo IgG, appropriate dilution of serum is suitable for testing of Avidity. Our findings revealed the subgroups of 1, 2, 3, and 4 with serum dilutios of 1/3, 1/6, 1/9, and 1/18 respectively, had real and good avidity.
    Conclusion
    One of the issues affectig the results of avidity is high concenteration of Toxo IgG in serum sample. As shown in this study, the best points of dilution for well avidity in both high and borderline avidities are marked with arrows in figures 1-8. This study confirmed that improved methods of measuring Toxo Avidity IgG are very important.
    Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, Pregnancy, ELISA, IgG
  • Zohreh Ahangari, Samiye Alborzi, Zahra Yadegari, Fatemeh Dehghani, Leila Ahangari, Mandana Naseri Pages 244-249
    Objective
    Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival for different time points.
    Materials And Methods
    In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and two control groups that consisted each experimental group with 10 and each control group with 5 teeth. The storage times were one and three hours for each media. The controls corresponded to 0-minute (positive) and 12-hour (negative) dry time. Rinsing in the experimental media, the teeth were treated with dispase and collagenase for one hour. Cell viability was determined by using trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Tukey’s HSD post-hoc.
    Results
    Within one hour, there was no significant difference between the two propolis groups, however these two groups had significantly more viable PDL cells compared to the other experimental media (p<0.05). The results of the three-hour group showed that propolis 10% was significantly better than egg white, whereas both propolis 10% and 50% were significantly better than milk (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Based on PDL cell viability, propolis could be recommended as a suitable biological storage media for avulsed teeth.
    Keywords: Avulsed Tooth, Periodontium, Propolis, Transport Media
  • Maryam Shahali, Maryam Kabir-Salmani, Karim Nayernia, Hamid Reza Soleimanpour-Lichaei, Mohammad Vasei, Seyed Javad Mowla, Ehsan Ranaie, Mehdi Shakibaie, Mohammad Hossein Modaresi Pages 250-257
    Objective
    Piwil2, a member of Ago/Piwi gene family containing Piwi and PAZ domains, has been shown to be ectopically expressed in different cancer cells, especially its remarkable expression in cancer stem cells (CSCs), and is also known to be essential for germ line stem cell self-renewal in various organisms. The hypothesis that CSC may hold the key to the central problem of clinical oncology and tumor relapse leads to more anticancer treatment studies. Due to emerging controversies and extreme difficulties in studying of CSC, like the cells using in vivo models, more attempts have expended to establish different in vitro models. However, the progress was slow owing to the problems associated with establishing proper CSC cultures in vitro. To overcome these difficulties, we prompted to establish a novel stable cell line over-expressing Piwil2 to develop a potential proper in vitro CSC model.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated and electroporated with a construct containing Piwil2 cDNA under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV). Stable transfectants were selected, and the established MEF-Piwil2 cell line was characterized and designated as CSC-like cells using molecular markers. Functional assays, including proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed using characterized CSC like cells in serum-free medium. Additionally, MEF-Piwil2 cell density and viability were measured by direct and indirect methods in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
    Results
    The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed an overexpression for Piwil2 in the transfected Piwil2 cells both in the RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, analysis of the kinetic and stoichiometric parameters demonstrated that the specific growth rate and the yield of lactate per glucose were significantly higher in the MEF-Piwil2 group compared to the MEF cells (ANOVA, p<0.05). Also, analysis of functional assays including migration and invasion assays demonstrated a significantly higher number of migrated and invaded cells in the MEF-Piwil2 compared to that of the MEF cells (ANOVA, p<0.05). The MEF-Piwil2 cells tolerated hypoxia mimetic conditions (CoCl2) with more than 95% viability.
    Conclusion
    According to the molecular and functional studies, it has been realized that Piwil2 plays a key role(s) in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Therefore, Piwil2 can be used not only as a common biomarker for tumor, but also as a target for the development of new anticancer drug. Finally, the main outcome of our study was the establishment of a novel CSC-like in vitro model which is expected to be utilized in understanding the complex roles played by CSC in tumor maintenance, metastasis, therapy resistance or cancer relapse.
    Keywords: Cancer, Stem cells, Piwil2, Self, Renewal, Ectopic
  • Saeedeh Ghazaey, Farzaneh Mirzaei, Mitra Ahadian, Fatemeh Keifi, Semiramis Tootian, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan Pages 258-262
    Objective
    Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques.
    Materials And Methods
    In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities.
    Results
    The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS) was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome.
    Conclusion
    According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service.
    Keywords: Chromosomal Aberrations, Cytogenetic Analysis, North East Iran
  • Hussain Habibi, Saeid Abroun, Abbas Hajifathali, Masoud Soleimani, Saeid Kaviani, Nasim Kalantari, Susan Eslahchi Pages 266-271
    Objective
    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy where plasma cells are increased in the bone marrow (BM) and usually do not enter peripheral blood, but produce harmful factors creating problems in these patients (e.g. malignant plasma cells over activate osteoclasts and inhibit osteoblasts with factors like RANKL and DKK). These factors are a main cause of bone lesion in MM patients. Recently SOST gene which responsible to encodes the sclerostin protein was identify. This protein specifically inhibits Wnt signaling in osteoblasts (inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and proliferation) and decrease bone formation and can also cause bone lesion in MM patients.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, human myeloma cell lines (U266 b1) were purchased from Pasteur Institute of Iran. Samples consisted of BM aspirates from the iliac crest of MM patients. BM with more than 70% plasma cell were selected for our study (6 patients) and one healthy donor. RNA extraction was done with Qiagen kit. was undertaken on mRNA of samples and cell lines. Also we purchased unrestricted somatic stem cells from Bonyakhte Company to evaluate the effect of soluble factors from myeloma cell lines on osteogenic differentiation medium.
    Results
    Our results showed that SOST is expressed significantly in primary myeloma cells derived from MM patients and myeloma cell lines. In other words, patients with more bone problems, express SOST in their plasma cells at a higher level. In addition, myeloma cells inhibit osteoblast differentiation in progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood stem cell (UCSC) in osteogenic inducing medium.
    Conclusion
    There are many osteoblast maturation inhibitory factors such as DKK, Sfrp and Sclerostin that inhibit maturation of osteoblast in bone. Among osteoblast inhibitory agents (DKK, Sfrp, Sclerostin) sclerostin has the highest specificity and therefore will have less side effect versus non-specific inhibitory agents. Our results also show that based on SOST expression in MM, there is a potential to inhibit sclerostin with antibody or alternative methods and prevent bone lesion in MM patients with the least side effect.
    Keywords: Multiple Myeloma, Osteoblast, Sclerostin, SOST, Cord Blood Stem Cells
  • Azar Baradaran, Hamid Nasri, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei Pages 272-273