فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 42، زمستان 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
|
  • Hadi Zarafshan*, Hamid Alizadeh, Farangis Kazemi, Mehrnaz Saadat, Ali Mohammad Goodarzi Page 309
    Objective
    This study examined the impact of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training on communication problems in children with autism.
    Method
    Utilizing a multiple-baseline design, three children with autism (two boys ageing 9.6 and 8.9, and one girl ageing 8) were recruited through an intact method. The participants were trained for four 15-20 minute sessions per week. The sessions were captured, and scored.
    Results
    The findings revealed. One of the participants could master on fourth stage and the other two participants mastered on first stage. Three of them could achieve on generalization. No vocabulary increase was significantly observed.
    Conclusion
    Accordingly, this study concludes that PECS may be used in order to enhance communication problems in children with autism.
    Keywords: Autism, PECS, Augmentative, Alternative Communication System, Communication Disorders
  • Somaye Jamali Paghale*, Ahmad Abedi, Elham Aghaie Page 321
    Objective
    This study aims to integrate the results of different psychological treatments studies for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to determine the effect size.
    Method
    Seventeen studies with appropriate methodology were selected and meta-analysis was done on it. The research tool was meta-analysis checklist.
    Results
    Data analysis showed that rate of effect size of psychological intervention on reducing ADHD symptoms were 0/54.(P≤0/001).
    Conclusion
    This rate of effective size according to Cohen table was higher than average.
    Keywords: Meta, analysis, Attention, Deficit, Hyperactivity disorder, Psychological intervention
  • Guita Movallali, Gholam Ali Afrooz, Saeed Hassanzadeh, Bahram Malakooti, Mahdi Abdollahzadeh Rafi* Page 335
    Objective
    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Cued Speech (CS) on speech perception abilities of elementary school students with hearing impairment in Tehran.
    Method
    In this experimental design study, with pretest, post-test and control group, participants were 16 students having profoundly hearing impairment ageing 9-12, whom were selected from Tehran special schools for hearing impaired students. Eight children were taught Cued Speech for five months in an everyday 45-60 minutes sessions program. They were matched with 8 hearing impaired children as the control group. Both control and experimental groups were presented with Auditory Perception test (APT-HI) as pretest, post-test and follow-up. Mixed Repeated Measurement was used to analyze the data.
    Results
    CS substantially improved performance of the experimental group (p<0.05) but there was no significantly important difference between pre-test, post-test and following scores of the control group (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    This study supports the use of Persian CS for improving auditory perception abilities in the hearing-impaired children.
    Keywords: Hearing impairment, Cued Speech, speech perception
  • Ahmad Alipour*, Tayebeh Karimi Torkadah, Bahman Zandi, Mahnaz Yazdanfar Page 343
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to detect effect of phonological awareness training on the learning skills in boys with dyslexia.
    Method
    In this semiexperimental research, the students suspected for having dyslexia in the second grade of elementary school of Shahr-e-Rey were chosen, and assigned randomly into two experimental and control groups (each group consisted 15 students). The research instruments were Phonological Awareness Test, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children Disorder (WISC-R), Word Reading Test, and Unmeaningful Word Reading Test that were used before and after training, and experimental group learned the phonological awareness during 3 months. The data were analyzed by ANCOVA Test.
    Results
    The results revealed that the phonological training could enhance the phonological awareness skills, correct spelling, the speed of reading and unmeaningful word reading skills in dyslexic students (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that training phonological awareness could improve reading abilities and speed of reading in Dyslexic students.
    Keywords: Phonological Awareness, Dyslexic, Reading Ability
  • Vahid Nejati*, Abbas Zabihzadeh, Gheysar Maleki Page 353
    Objective
    The purpose of present study is comparing quality of life in severely mental retardeds lived in home and residential center.
    Method
    In this cross sectional study 225 severely mental retardeds in Tehran providence selected as random- clustered sampleling method. One of parents or care giver answers to Cumines quality of life questionnaire in both groups.
    Results
    Non parametric Mann Whitney U test showed that quality of life of severely mental retarded in home significantly is better than residential centers.
    Conclusion
    Based on our findings caring mentally retarded in family caused promotion of their quality of life.
    Keywords: mental retard handicap, quality of life, home care, residential center
  • Akbar Rezaei, Alireza Hafezi Page 363
    Objective
    The purpose of present study was to examine social skills in students with intellectual disabilities, autism, learning disabilities and normal students.
    Methods
    Method of this study was survey research. In this research 225 elementary students including 67 students with learning disabilities, 62 students with intellectual disabilities, 30 students with autism and 65 normal students were randomly selected the sample. Social skills were measured into 5 components: appropriate social skills, inappropriate behaviors, aggressiveeness and impulsive behaviors, overconfident and relativity to peers. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to analyze the data.
    Results
    The result showed that: (1) students with retardation and autism had a significant difference with normal students on the component of appropriate social skills, (2) on the component of inappropriate behavior, aggressiveness and impulsive behaviors only students with learning disabilities had a significant difference with normal students, (3) on the component of overconfident and also peers, only students with autism had a significant difference with normal students.
    Conclusion
    Accordingly, we can conclude that student with intellectual disabilities, autism, learning disabilities and normal students had significant difference in different social skill components.
    Keywords: Social skills, Intellectual disabilities, Autism, Learning disabilities
  • Farzaneh Michaeli Manee* Page 375
    Objective
    The purpose of this research was to survey the phonological awareness skills level among the bilingual students with educable intellectual disabilities and their peers with chronological and mental age groups.
    Method
    The sample was selected from the bilingual (Azari- Farsi) students with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Tabriz and Urmia. The final sample included 25 people from every group (n: 75). Four tasks were administered to evaluate phonological awareness skills: initial phoneme, phoneme dissecting, and phoneme synthesis and rhyme recognition tests.
    Results
    The results revealed that concerning all phonological awareness skills, there were meaningful statistical differences among the intellectually disabled students and their matched chronological group, and that, the participants in the second group had done better. The comparison between the functions of intellectually disabled, with their mental age matched group, indicated that; except for the initial phoneme recognition indicator, concerning the three other skills, the normal students had done better.
    Conclusion
    The total results suggest that the intellectually disabled students, in comparison with matched chronological and mental age groups had done their phonological awareness skills weaker, that the reason for this difference can be probably related, form one way, to the natural difference in recognition function, and from the other way, can be related to the lameness and postponed growth in this group.
    Keywords: Phonological Awareness, Intellectual Disabilities, Bilingual Students