فهرست مطالب

  • سال دوازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 43، بهار 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/02/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi, Ahmad Alipor, Narges Chimeh, Tayebeh Mohtashami* Page 1
    Objective
    The study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of parent-based Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) on improvement of children with autism.
    Methods
    Twenty children with their parents were recruited through available sampling and randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. Research design was pretestpost- test design with control group and follow-up. The experimental group was trained in PRT during three months. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) were used as instruments for measuring improvement of children’s autistic features.
    Results
    Results showed that PRT was significantly effective in decreasing symptoms of autism. Also, in speech/language, communication and sociability subtests significant result was observed (P<0.05) whereas in sensory/cognitive awareness and Health/Physical/Behavior subtests there were not any statistically significant results.
    Conclusion
    According to benefits of parental intervention in treatment and importance of increasing therapy sessions for children with autism, it is recommended that this therapy method in conjunction with conventional methods is offered to parents of children with autism specially mothers.
    Keywords: Pivotal response treatment, Parentbased intervention, Autism
  • Esmaeil Zarei Zavaraki *, Hamid Alizadeh, Fatemeh Jafarkhani Page 13
    Objective
    This research aims to study the effect of multimedia in learning and retention of English for low vision students at third grade middle school.
    Method
    The research was an experimental design with pretest-posttest and control group. The population of this research was 25 low vision students from the 20 districts of Tehran of which 20 were randomly assigned in control and experimental group. Due to dispersion of sample population and commutation problems the research process was conducted equally with single subject. The two groups were equally homogenized with a view to visual acuity, entrance knowledge and area dispersion. The method of using multimedia was conducted for experimental group and the traditional learning method for control group.
    Results
    The analysis of results using independent t test showed that the two groups have meaningful difference. The difference in retention was more significant.
    Conclusion
    Accordingly, we can suggest that multimedia can be helpful in learning and retention of English for students with low vision.
    Keywords: low vision, multimedia Education, learning, retention
  • Mohammad Narimani, Abbas Abolghasemi, Souran Rajab, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Adel Zahed Page 21
    Objective
    This study Biography EEG effect is to treat dyslexia. Sample study of 31 dyslexic boys center in the city of Ardabil, especially learning disabilities that were available for sampling were selected. Methods Experimental design and pretest posttest control group used. Tools used in this study includes Neurofeedback (NFT), ADHD Vanderbilt Assessment Scale (parent form), impairment tests in reading and Wechsler Intelligence Scale Revised children. Two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements for a significant improvement on scales measuring (reading errors) during the two-month follow-up training sessions and Neurofeedback, showed. Significant interaction between time and group as well as for reading errors that were fundamental improvement in Neurofeedback. But results for the scale measuring comprehension, showed no significant improvement in group denote the Neurofeedback. The result, a significant improvement for measured brain waves (delta and theta frequency range) in Neurofeedback training sessions and follow-up after two months, showed. The other hand, a significant interaction between time and group for both the delta and theta range showed significant improvement in group denote the Neurofeedback training. The results of this study suggest that efficiency and sustainability of Neurofeedback as a method of therapy in treating attention problems and modify brain waves to students with dyslexia is compared with Placebo.
    Keywords: Biography EEG, dyslexia, Delta Theta Biography
  • Seyyed Mostafa Nachvak, Sheida Ahani Kamangar Page 35
    Objective
    Lead is a highly used metal, with persistent neurotoxic effects. Lead pollution is one of the major health problems in the large industrial cities, particularly in developing countries. In children, absorption and retention of lead in the body are more than the adults and therefore the damage caused by lead contamination in children is more than adults. Effects of lead on the incidence of behavioral disorders and learning disabilities are subject that is studied in this paper.
    Methods
    Explaining some of the characteristics of lead and ways to lead pollution and the damage mechanisms in the central nervous system effects of lead and explain some ways to prevent lead pollution are the issues considered in this paper.
    Conclusion
    Contamination with low levels of lead can lead to creation irreversible harms in brain of children. Behavioral disorders and learning disabilities are common side effects of lead contamination in children. Lead poisoning is a preventable poisoning and exposure to lead is the main way to prevent.
    Keywords: Lead, Incidence, Learning disabilities, Behavioral disorders
  • Aliasghar Kakojoybari, Azam Sharifi* Page 43
    Objective
    The objective of this study was to compare levels of reading comprehension between integrated hearing impaired students with normal students in ordinary schools.
    Method
    This research was a cross-sectional and comparative study. there were fourteen normal students and fourteen hearing impaired students which named integrated hearing impaired students in 4th year of primary ordinary schools in Shahre-rey and Shahryar. Using standard booklet of progress in international reading literacy study (2006) for comparison of levels of reading comprehension (1-to focus on and retrieve explicitly information 2- to make straight forward information 3- to interpret and integrate ideas and information 4- to examine and evaluate content) between integrated hearing impaired students with normal hearing students.
    Results
    Analysis showed that there was not a meaningful difference in the first level (to focus and retrieve explicitly information) of reading comprehension between integrated hearing impaired students with normal students (p=0/860), but in level 2 (to make straightforward information) with p=0/002, level 3(to interpret and integrate ideas and information) with p=0/001 and level 4(to examine and evaluate content) with p=0/016 difference was significantly weaker in integrated hearing impaired students.
    Conclusion
    Despite hearing impairment, integrated hearing impaired students have not a meaningful difference in the first level (to focus and retrieve explicitly information) of reading comprehension with normal hearing students but act significantly weaker in profound levels of reading comprehension.
    Keywords: Reading comprehension, student, normal hearing, hearing impaired, integrated
  • Mohammad Ali Besharat*, Akram Ghorbali, Gholamreza Sarrami Froushani Page 55
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal broader autism phenotype and children’s theory of mind (TOM).
    Method
    189 children from ages 4-5 (102 boys, 87 girls) along with their mothers participated in this study. The measurement instruments used in this study comprised the Farsi version of the Autistic Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Nejatisafa, Kazemi, & Alagheban Rad, 2003) and 3 samples of common false belief tasks (Sally-Anne task, crayon box-sticker, and potato chips- rocks).
    Results
    The results indicated that there were negative significant relationship between total score of the broader autism phenotype and false belief tasks. Regression analysis also indicated that among the components of broader autism phenotype, attention switching, attention to details and imagination were significantly related to children's ability of theory of mind.
    Conclusions
    Based on heritability of autism phenotype, it can be concluded that children of mothers who acquire higher score in AQ scale show more characteristic features of autism phenotype than other children. So, it can be expected that children of mothers who acquire higher score in AQ scale as one of the cognitive component of the autism phenotype, have more problems than others in theory of mind.
    Keywords: theory of mind, autism, broader autism phenotype
  • Ramin Nozhouri Pahrabad *, Somayyeh Rasouli Page 65
    Objective
    This study investigates the current place of values in exceptional students Religious Education (RE) textbooks.
    Method
    In this survey study, first, the relevant literature and conceptual framework for values education along with objectives of, pre-professional level of exceptional Education in Iran was studied categorized in five values including: ritual, social, ideological, economic and ethical values. In the second stage, using content analysis all RE textbooks being taught at pre-professional level were examined and the data were analyzed via fitting statistical methods.
    Results
    It is indicated that the contents of Religious books of pre-professional levels consist (32.86%) with ideological values, (27.65%) with ritual values, (25.76%) with ethical values, (11.82%) with social values and (1.89%) with economical values. Statistical analysis yielded differences between the RE textbooks in terms of attention given to each category.
    Conclusion
    Values education is currently far from the comprehensiveness. Accordingly, considering the importance of the students’ religious education, it is essential that the content be revised to balance in designing the syllabus.
    Keywords: Religious values, Religious education, Religious textbooks, Pre, professional level, Content analysis